Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky ( _ru. Василий Андреевич Жуковский) (OldStyleDate|February 9|1783|January 29 – April 1852) was the foremost
Russian poet of the 1810s.
He is credited with introducing the Romantic Movement to
Russian literature. The main body of his literary output consists of free translations covering an impressively wide range of poets from Ferdowsito Schiller. Quite a few of his translations proved to be more competently-written and enduring works than their originals.
Zhukovsky was born in Mishenskoe, near Tula Oblast, Russia, the illegitimate son of a Russian landowner named Nikolai Bunin and a Turkish slave. He was given his father's surname. [ [http://www.ruvr.ru/main.php?lng=eng&q=3686&cid=137&p=02.10.2006 Voice of Russia ] ] In his youth, he lived and studied at Moscow University's Noblemen's Pension, where he was heavily influenced by
Freemasonry, English Sentimentalism, and the German Sturm und Drang. He also frequented the house of Nikolay Karamzin, the preeminent Russian man of letters and the founding editor of "The European Messenger" (also known in English as "The Herald of Europe").
In 1802, Zhukovsky published a free translation of
Thomas Gray's " [http://www.thomasgray.org/cgi-bin/display.cgi?text=elcc Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard] " in "The Messenger". The translation introduced Russian readers to his trademark sentimental-melancholy style and instantly made him a household name. Today it is conventionally cited as the starting point of Russian Romanticism.
In 1808, Karamzin asked Zhukovsky to take over the editorship of the "Messenger". The young poet used this position to explore Romantic themes, motifs, and genres. He was also among the first Russian writers to cultivate the mystique of the Romantic poet. He dedicated much of his best poetic work to his half-niece Masha Protasova, unrequited love for whom clouded his personal life for years. Fact|date=October 2007 His passionate but futile affair with Masha became an indelible part of his poetic personality. Fact|date=October 2007
As Nabokov put it, Zhukovsky belonged to the class of poets who incidentally verge on greatness but never quite attain to that glory. His main contribution was as a stylistic and formal innovator who borrowed liberally from European literature in order to provide models in Russian that could inspire "original" works. Zhukovsky was particularly admired for his first-rate melodious translations of German and English
Among these, "Ludmila" (1808) and its companion piece,"Svetlana" (1813), are considered landmarks in the Russian poetic tradition. Both were free translations of
Gottfried August Burger's well-known German ballad "Lenore" -- although each interpreted the original in a different way. Zhukovsky characteristically translated "Lenore" yet a third time as part of his efforts to develop a natural-sounding Russian dactylic hexameter. His many translations of Schiller-- including lyrics, ballads, and the drama"Jungfrau von Orleans" (about Joan of Arc) -- became classic works in Russian that many consider to be of equal if not higher quality than their originals. They were remarkable for their psychological depth and greatly impressed and influenced Dostoevsky, among many others. Zhukovsky's life's work as an interpreter of European literature probably constitutes the most important body of literary hermeneuticsin the Russian language.
Napoleoninvaded Russia in 1812, Zhukovsky joined the Russian general staff under Field Marshal Kutuzov. There he wrote much patriotic verse, including the original poem, "A Bard in the Camp of the Russian Warriors", which helped to establish his reputation at the imperial court. He also composed the lyrics for the national anthemof Imperial Russia, "God Save the Tsar!" After the war, he became a courtier in St. Petersburg, where he founded the jocular Arzamas literary society in order to promote Karamzin's European-oriented, anti-classicist aesthetics.
Members of the Arzamas included the teenage
Alexander Pushkin, who was rapidly emerging as Zhukovsky's heir apparent. The two became lifelong friends, and although Pushkin eventually outgrew the older poet's literary influence, he increasingly relied on his protection and patronage.
Later life and works
In later life, Zhukovsky made a second great contribution to Russian culture as an educator and a patron of the arts. In 1826, he was appointed tutor to the
tsarevich, the future Tsar Alexander II. His progressive program of education had such a powerful influence on Alexander that the liberal reforms of the 1860s are sometimes attributed to it. The poet also used his high station at court to take up the cudgels for such free-thinking writers as Mikhail Lermontov, Alexander Herzen, Taras Shevchenko, and the Decembrists.
On Pushkin's death in 1837, Zhukovsky stepped in as his literary executor, not only rescuing his work (including several unpublished masterpieces) from a hostile
censorship, but also diligently collecting and preparing it for publication. Throughout the 1830s and 1840s, he nurtured the genius and promoted the career of Nikolay Gogol, another close personal friend. In this sense, he acted behind-the-scenes as a kind of impresario for the Romantic Movement that he founded.
Following the example of his mentor Karamzin, Zhukovsky travelled extensively in Europe throughout his life, meeting and corresponding with world-class cultural figures like
Goetheor the landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich. One of his early acquaintances was the popular German writer Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, whose prose novella Undine was a European best-seller. In the late 1830s, Zhukovsky published a highly-original verse translation of "Undine" that reestablished his place in the poetic avant-garde. Written in a waltzing hexameter, the work became the basis for a classic Russian ballet.
In 1841, Zhukovsky retired from court and settled in
Germany, where he married Elizabeth Reitern, the 18-year-old daughter of an artist friend. The couple had two children, including Alexandra, who had an affair with Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich. The aged poet devoted much of his remaining life to a hexameter translation of Homer's Odyssey, which he finally published in 1849.
Although the translation was far from accurate, it became a classic in its own right and occupies a notable place in the history of
Russian poetry. Some scholars argue that both his "Odyssey" and "Undina" -- as long narrative works -- made an important, though oblique contribution to the development of the Russian novel.
Zhukovsky died in
Baden-Baden, Germany, in 1852, aged 69, and is buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavracemetery in St. Petersburg.
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