Impro-Visor


Impro-Visor

Infobox Software
name = Impro-Visor
developer = Bob Keller and students at Harvey Mudd College
released = 2006
latest release version = 3.39
latest release date = June 2008
operating system = Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux
license = GPL
website = [http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/]
use = Scorewriter

Impro-Visor is an educational tool for creating and playing a lead sheet, with a particular orientation toward representing jazz solos.

Improvisation Advisor

The philosophy of Impro-Visor is to provide a tool to help musicians construct jazz solos over chord progressions. It includes a database capability for creating, saving, and recalling licks, as well as a lick generation capability based on a user-modifiable grammar. More recent versions of Impro-Visor include auto-generated playback accompaniment in various styles, and a style extraction (from MIDI) capability.Most musical knowledge, including lick generation, database, lead sheets, styles, and other information, is represented as text files, permitting the tool to be customized.

Leadsheet Notation

Impro-Visor saves lead sheets in a textual notation, and lead sheets maybe created from that notation as well as by point-and-click. The notation was designed to be friendly to the jazz musician, by resembling directly what appears on the lead sheet staff. For example, the lead sheet fragment to the right, similar to that in article "lead sheet", can be created by the following text:

C C7 | F |

c+2 bb2 bb8 a8 f2.

The reading of this text is: Chords C and C7 equally spaced in the first bar, and F in the second bar. A melody of c (the + means an octave above middle C, the 2 means a half-note), bb2, meaning a B-flat half-note, bb8, meaning a B-flat eighth-note, f2., meaning an F dotted half-note. Other meta-data can be supplied, such as for style specification, but is not required.

Note Categorization

Impro-Visor categorizes tones that can be played over any chord into one of four categories. This serves two purposes: (i) as visual feedback to the user, where each category is rendered as a different color, and (ii) as a basis for lick generation. The categories are:
* Chord tones: tones that are in the chord, and which are thus the most consonant with it (shown as black on the right)
* Color tones: tones that are not in the chord, but which are also consonant with it (shown as green on the right)
* Approach tones: tones that are neither of the above, but which approach one of the above chromatically (shown as blue on the right)
* Other tones: none of the above (shown as red on the right)The idea is that, aided by visual clues, the musician can learn to appreciate the degree to which a melody will be sonorous over a chord progression prior to hearing it.

Grammatical Lick Generation

Categories of notes discussed above are one of the key ingredients in automating the generation of melodies, which can be used by the musician in constructing solos. The other key ingredient is a context-free grammar having terminal symbols for each of the four categories, along with a few other terminal symbols for convenience. The grammar defines ways in which the melody space can be filled probabilistically by tones of various durations. By associating a probability with each grammar rule, the distribution of generated melodies can be controlled, for example to create melodies that are simple or complex, relatively consonant or dissonant, etc. The user indicates the chord progression, and the grammar drives the melody generation over that progression. The figure at the right demonstrates an example generated lick. This particular grammar is constructed so as not to produce any discordant notes (notes in the "other" category above), thus no red notes appear in the figure.

Auto-Accompaniment

Impro-Visor automatically creates accompaniment, such as piano, bass, and drums, from the chord sequence on a leadsheet (a capability similar to, but currently not as full-featured as that of Band-in-a-Box). The style of accompaniment is derived from a set of pattern specifications using a textual notation similar to that for melodies. For example, a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
] common to swing jazz would be notated as

x4 x8 x8 x4 x8 x8

with x4 signifying a quarter-note hit and x8 an eighth-note hit.The swung note aspect, wherein eighth-notes on the beat get approximately twice the value off the beat, is rendered automatically by a numeric swing parameter, such as .67, which indicates that the beat is divided as .67 + .33 = 1. A similar pattern notation is used for chord comping and bassline patterns. In the latter type of pattern, a note category coding scheme similar to that for the grammatical notation is used to provide probabilistic creation of basslines.

See also

* "Chord chart"
* "Chord progression"
* "Lead sheet"
* "Lick (music)"
* "Musical improvisation", discussion of improvisation in music
* "Scorewriter", also contains the list of most Notation programs
* "Stochastic context-free grammar", a type of grammar used by Impro-Visor to generate phrases

References

# [http://smc07.uoa.gr/SMC07%20Proceedings/SMC07%20Paper%2055.pdf A Grammatical Approach to Automatic Improvisation] , Proceedings 4th International Sound and Music Conference (SMC '07) [http://smc07.uoa.gr/] .
# [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B75H1-4R1NBCB-5-1&_cdi=13109&_user=945391&_orig=browse&_coverDate=11%2F01%2F2007&_sk=998069999&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkWA&md5=092f12e12865e78fb674d81047db8580&ie=/sdarticle.pdf Design Abstractions for a Jazz Improvisation Assistant] , ENTCS (Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science), 193 (2007) 47-60.
# [http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/jazzCreativity.pdf A Computational Framework Enhancing Jazz Creativity] , Third Workshop on Computational Creativity, European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2006 (ECAI '06)
# [http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/LeadsheetNotation.pdf Leadsheet Notation: Textual notation for creating, communicating, and playing leadsheets]

External links

* [http://www.playjazzguitar.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=1499 Independent review of Impro-Visor (March, 2007)]
* [http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/Solos/NightHasAThousandEyes.htm Sample solo rendering (leadsheet and MIDI sound)]
* [http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/impro-visor/ Yahoo! Impro-Visor users' group]
* [http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/ Impro-Visor homepage]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Impro-Visor — Développeur Bob Keller d autres à Harvey Mudd College et ailleurs Première version …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Список нотных редакторов — В приведенном ниже списке перечислено большинство когда либо разрабатывавшихся нотных редакторов. Содержание 1 Актуальное свободное ПО 2 Актуальное бесплатное ПО …   Википедия

  • Comparison of scorewriters — This is a comparison of music notation programs. General information Name Developer(s) Latest stable release License Supported formats Cost (USD) WYSIWYG Editor Operating System Support Score support Sound support Print support Crescendo NCH… …   Wikipedia

  • Computer music — is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of computing technology in music composition; particularly that stemming from the Western art music tradition. It includes the theory and …   Wikipedia

  • Scorewriter — A scorewriter, or music notation program, is software used for creating sheet music. A scorewriter is to music notation what a word processor is to text. Contents 1 Comparison with multitrack sequencer software 2 History 3 Functionality …   Wikipedia

  • Algorithmic composition — is the technique of using algorithms to create music.Algorithms (or, at the very least, formal sets of rules) have been used to compose music for centuries; the procedures used to plot voice leading in Western counterpoint, for example, can often …   Wikipedia

  • Denemo — 0.7.5 under Linux Developer(s) Jeremiah Benham, Nils Gey, Richard Shann, Stable release …   Wikipedia

  • Music Write — is a Windows based music notation program created by Voyetra Music Software. It uses a MIDI based system for storing events, and the most recent versions save music in MWK files, similar to Standard MIDI Files with additional text and symbol… …   Wikipedia

  • NoteEdit — Stable release 2.8.1 / 4 September 2006 Written in C++ Operating system Unix like Type Scorewriter …   Wikipedia

  • Lead sheet — A lead sheet is a form of music notation or transcription that specifies the essential elements of a composition in popular music: the melody, lyrics and harmony. As such, it is the form of a song to which copyright is typically applied. The… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.