Beta-synuclein

Synuclein, beta, also known as SNCB, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SNCB synuclein, beta| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=6620| accessdate = ]

PBB_Summary
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summary_text = The protein encoded by this gene is highly homologous to alpha-synuclein. These proteins are abundantly expressed in the brain and putatively inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. The encoded protein, which may play a role in neuronal plasticity, is abundant in neurofibrillary lesions of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This protein has been shown to be highly expressed in the substantia nigra of the brain, a region of neuronal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease; however, no direct relation to Parkinson's disease has been established. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SNCB synuclein, beta| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=6620| accessdate = ]

Beta-synuclein is a synuclein protein found primarily in brain tissue and is seen mainly in presynaptic terminals. Beta-synuclein is predominantly expressed in the neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. It is not found in Lewy bodies, but it is associated with hippocampal pathology in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. [George, JM. (2001) The synucleins. "Genome Biology" 3(1):reviews3002.1-3002.6. PMID 11806835]

Beta-synuclein is suggested to be an inhibitor of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which occurs in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, beta-synuclein may protect the central nervous system from the neurotoxic effects of alpha-synuclein and provide a novel treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. [Hashimoto M, Bar-On P, Ho G, Takenouchi T, Rockenstein E, Crews L, Masliah E. (2004) Beta-synuclein regulates Akt activity in neuronal cells. A possible neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. J Biol Chem 279(22):23622-9. PMID 15026413] [Hashimoto M, Rockenstein E, Mante M, Mallory M, Masliah E. (2001) Beta-synuclein inhibits alpha-synuclein aggregation: a possible role as an anti-parkinsonian factor. Neuron 25(2):213-223. PMID 11683992.]

ee also

*Synuclein

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Spillantini MG, Divane A, Goedert M |title=Assignment of human alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and beta-synuclein (SNCB) genes to chromosomes 4q21 and 5q35. |journal=Genomics |volume=27 |issue= 2 |pages= 379–81 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7558013 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1995.1063
*cite journal | author=Jakes R, Spillantini MG, Goedert M |title=Identification of two distinct synucleins from human brain. |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=345 |issue= 1 |pages= 27–32 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8194594 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Jensen PH, Hojrup P, Hager H, "et al." |title=Binding of Abeta to alpha- and beta-synucleins: identification of segments in alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor that bind Abeta and NAC. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=323 ( Pt 2) |issue= |pages= 539–46 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9163350 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lavedan C, Leroy E, Torres R, "et al." |title=Genomic organization and expression of the human beta-synuclein gene (SNCB). |journal=Genomics |volume=54 |issue= 1 |pages= 173–5 |year= 1999 |pmid= 9806846 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1998.5556
*cite journal | author=Pronin AN, Morris AJ, Surguchov A, Benovic JL |title=Synucleins are a novel class of substrates for G protein-coupled receptor kinases. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=275 |issue= 34 |pages= 26515–22 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10852916 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M003542200
*cite journal | author=Rockenstein E, Hansen LA, Mallory M, "et al." |title=Altered expression of the synuclein family mRNA in Lewy body and Alzheimer's disease. |journal=Brain Res. |volume=914 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 48–56 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11578596 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Tanji K, Mori F, Nakajo S, "et al." |title=Expression of beta-synuclein in normal human astrocytes. |journal=Neuroreport |volume=12 |issue= 13 |pages= 2845–8 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11588588 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hashimoto M, Rockenstein E, Mante M, "et al." |title=beta-Synuclein inhibits alpha-synuclein aggregation: a possible role as an anti-parkinsonian factor. |journal=Neuron |volume=32 |issue= 2 |pages= 213–23 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11683992 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Uversky VN, Li J, Souillac P, "et al." |title=Biophysical properties of the synucleins and their propensities to fibrillate: inhibition of alpha-synuclein assembly by beta- and gamma-synucleins. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 14 |pages= 11970–8 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11812782 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M109541200
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Ihara M, Tomimoto H, Kitayama H, "et al." |title=Association of the cytoskeletal GTP-binding protein Sept4/H5 with cytoplasmic inclusions found in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 26 |pages= 24095–102 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12695511 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M301352200
*cite journal | author=Fung KM, Rorke LB, Giasson B, "et al." |title=Expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in glial tumors and medulloblastomas. |journal=Acta Neuropathol. |volume=106 |issue= 2 |pages= 167–75 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12783249 |doi= 10.1007/s00401-003-0718-x
*cite journal | author=da Costa CA, Masliah E, Checler F |title=Beta-synuclein displays an antiapoptotic p53-dependent phenotype and protects neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced caspase 3 activation: cross-talk with alpha-synuclein and implication for Parkinson's disease. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 39 |pages= 37330–5 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12867415 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M306083200
*cite journal | author=Ohtake H, Limprasert P, Fan Y, "et al." |title=Beta-synuclein gene alterations in dementia with Lewy bodies. |journal=Neurology |volume=63 |issue= 5 |pages= 805–11 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15365127 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, "et al." |title=The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). |journal=Genome Res. |volume=14 |issue= 10B |pages= 2121–7 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15489334 |doi= 10.1101/gr.2596504
*cite journal | author=Snyder H, Mensah K, Hsu C, "et al." |title=beta-Synuclein reduces proteasomal inhibition by alpha-synuclein but not gamma-synuclein. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=280 |issue= 9 |pages= 7562–9 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15591046 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M412887200
*cite journal | author=Sung YH, Eliezer D |title=Secondary structure and dynamics of micelle bound beta- and gamma-synuclein. |journal=Protein Sci. |volume=15 |issue= 5 |pages= 1162–74 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16597821 |doi= 10.1110/ps.051803606
*cite journal | author=Fan Y, Limprasert P, Murray IV, "et al." |title=Beta-synuclein modulates alpha-synuclein neurotoxicity by reducing alpha-synuclein protein expression. |journal=Hum. Mol. Genet. |volume=15 |issue= 20 |pages= 3002–11 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16959793 |doi= 10.1093/hmg/ddl242
*cite journal | author=Myslinski E, Gérard MA, Krol A, Carbon P |title=A genome scale location analysis of human Staf/ZNF143-binding sites suggests a widespread role for human Staf/ZNF143 in mammalian promoters. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=281 |issue= 52 |pages= 39953–62 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17092945 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M608507200
*cite journal | author=Sung YH, Eliezer D |title=Residual structure, backbone dynamics, and interactions within the synuclein family. |journal=J. Mol. Biol. |volume=372 |issue= 3 |pages= 689–707 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17681534 |doi= 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.07.008

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