Bugyō

nihongo|Bugyō|奉行|, often translated as "commissioner" or "magistrate" or "governor," was a title assigned to government officers in pre-modern Japan; other terms would be added to the title to describe more specifically a given commissioner's tasks or jurisdiction.

Pre-Edo period

In the Heian period (794-1185), the post or title of "bugyō" would be applied only to a set task; once that task was complete, the officer would cease to be called "bugyō". However, in the Kamakura period (1185-1333) and later, continuing through the end of the Edo period (1603-1868), posts and title came to be created on a more permanent basis.Kinihara, Misako. [http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006000558/en/ "The Establishment of the Tosen-bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori" (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用),] Tokyo Woman's Christian University. "Essays and S.tudies". Abstract.] Over time, there came to be 36 "bugyō" in the Kamakura bureaucracy. [Brinkley, Frank "et al." (1915). [http://books.google.com/books?id=JlUCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA634&lpg=PA634&dq=Jisha-bugy%C5%8D&source=web&ots=uYEPB6Il2r&sig=Q8HNDTsyd9r2Dc2O1auSG8wEK7M&hl=en#PPA436,M1 "A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era," p. 436.] ]

In 1434, Ashikaga Yoshinori established the "Tosen-bugyō" to regulate foreign affairs.

In 1587, a Japanese invading army occupied Seoul; and one of Hideyoshi's first acts was to create a "bugyō" for the city, replicating a familiar pattern in an unfamiliar setting. [Cullin, Louis. (2003). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ycY_85OInSoC&pg=PA27&vq=bugyo&dq=++uraga+bugyo&source=gbs_search_r&cad=0_2&sig=Lz-lqppSwmB5wSYUxXfVmEMCrBw "A History of Japan, 1582-1941," p. 27.] ]

Edo period

During the Edo period, the numbers of "bugyō" reached its largest extent. The bureaucracy of the Togukawa shogunate expanded on an "ad hoc" basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances.

List

:dynamic list

* Edo "machi-bugyō" (江戸町奉行) - Magistrates or municipal administrators of Edo. [Screech, Timon. (2006). [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=BLzQA7cpr7wC&dq=screech+secret+memoirs+of+the+shoguns&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=tVXKYkZKBq&sig=DO4eFiPhewDiAw5l-lXy_Prieds#PRA2-PA243,M1 "Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822," p. 243 n113.] ]
** Kita-machi-bugyō (北町奉行) - North Edo magistrate.Cunningham, Don. (2004). [http://books.google.com/books?id=g5BP7DGuNFsC&pg=PA42&dq=kita+machi-bugyo&sig=rRhP2LDIPisNyEP0q9srK4BsOeo "Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai," p. 42.] ]
** Minami-machi-bugyō (南町奉行) - South Edo magistrate. [see above] ]
* "Fushin-bugyō" (普請奉行) - Superintendents of Public Works.Jansen, Marius. (1995). [http://books.google.com/books?id=cY6GRGa2vPoC&pg=PA186&dq=Sakuji+bugy%C5%8D&client=firefox-a&sig=L8gfM1y6f6fnv2EYmHPE2-VeMZU#PPA186,M1 "Warrior Rule in Japan," p. 186,] citing John Whitney Hall. (1955). "Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan." Cambridge: Harvard University Press.]
* "Gaikoku-bugyō" (外国奉行) - Commissioners in charge of trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries after 1858.Beasley, William. (1955). "Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868," p. 322.]
* "Gunkan-bugyō" (軍鑑奉行) - Commissioners in charge of naval matters (post-1859). [see above] ]
*"Gusoku-bugyō" (具足奉行) - Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies.
** "Bugu-bugyō" (武具奉行) - Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies (post-1863), replaced "Gusoku-bugyō".
*"Hakodate bugyō" (箱館奉行) - Overseers of the port of Hakodate and neighboring territory of Ezo. [see above] ]
* Haneda "bugyō" (羽田奉行) - Overseers of the port of Haneda; commissioners of coastal defenses near Edo (post-1853). [ Cullen, [http://books.google.com/books?id=ycY_85OInSoC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=haneda+bugyo&source=web&ots=2MINVx-y35&sig=kK2FIVq4FL_jWdnQJRWnXgqrAog p. 170.] ]
* Hyōgo "bugyō" (兵庫奉行) - Overseers of the port of Hyōgo (post-1864).Beasley, p. 323.]
* "Jisha-bugyō" (寺社奉行) - Ministers or administrators for religious affairs; overseers of the country's temples and shrines. [Screech, [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=BLzQA7cpr7wC&dq=screech+secret+memoirs+of+the+shoguns&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=tVXKYkZKBq&sig=DO4eFiPhewDiAw5l-lXy_Prieds#PRA2-PA245,M1 p. 245 n35;] Beasley, p. 323.]
* "Jiwari-bugyō" (地割奉行)- Commissioners of surveys and surveying. [Naito, Akira " et al." (2003). [http://books.google.com/books?id=3N5d4xKg7yQC&pg=PA26&dq=fushin+bugyo&sig=ovfJSHXL5TYzKDDmbGZC_h2JmMg "Edo: the City that Became Tokyo," p. 26.] ]
* Kanagawa "bugyō" (神奈川奉行) - Overseers of the port of Kanagawa (post-1859).Beasley, p. 324.]
* "Kanjō-bugyō" (勘定奉行) - Ministers or administrators for shogunal finance (post-1787). [Screech, p. 19; Beasley, p. 324; Roberts, Luke Shepherd. (1998). [http://books.google.com/books?id=aAeQREc0vz0C&pg=PA207&dq=gusoku+bugyo&sig=Ykj-9ikea2B_OiBiYh4E5lUo2Nc "Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: The Merchant Origins of Economic Nationalism in 18th Century Tosa," p. 207.] ]
** "Gundai" - Deputies. [see above] ]
** "Daikan" (代官)- Assistant deputies. [see above] ]
** "Kane-bugyō" (金奉行) - Superintendents of the Treasury.
** "Kura-bugyō" (倉庫奉行) - Superintendents of Cereal Stores. [see above] ]
** "Kinza" (金座) - Gold "za" or monopoly office (post-1595).Jensen, p. 186; Schaede, Ulrike. (2000). [http://books.google.com/books?id=nJWsPT_FYkEC&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=tokugawa+silver+monopoly&source=web&ots=HOclxeoWk4&sig=L69ETJIk0GkSHsj2e1gCIFJ6W9U&hl=en#PPA223,M1 "Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan," p. 223.] ]
** "Ginza" (銀座) - Silver "za" or monopoly office (post-1598). [see above] ]
** "Dōza" (銅座) - Copper "za" or monopoly office (post-1636) [see above] ] and (1701-1712, 1738-1746, 1766-1768). [Shimada, Ryuto. (2005). [http://books.google.com/books?id=nVIPPwVo8eAC&pg=PA181&dq=Dozan+copper&sig=fLvGweDDWp5UEUF9xqA-algQ_Eg#PPA51,M1 "The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company," p. 51.] ]
** "Shuza" (首座) - Cinnabar "za" or monopoly office (post-1609). [Takekoshi, Yosaburo. (1930). [http://books.google.com/books?id=mAseAAAAIAAJ&q=shuza+cinnabar&dq=shuza+cinnabar&lr=&pgis=1 "The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan," p. 238.] ]
* "Kanjō-gimmiyaku" - Comptrollers of Finance. [see above] ]
* Kantō "gundai" - Kantō deputies. [see above] ]
* "Kinzan-bugyō" (金山奉行) - Commissioners of mines. [Hall, John Wesley. (1955) [http://books.google.com/books?id=x0WCAAAAIAAJ&q=kinzan+bugyo&dq=kinzan+bugyo&lr=&pgis=1 "Tanuma Okitsugu: Foreruner of Modern Japan," p. 201] ]
* Kyoto "shoshidai" (京都所司代) -- Shogunal representatives at Kyoto.Beasley, p. 325.]
** Kyoto "machi-bugyō" (京都町奉行) - Magistrates or municipal administrators of Kyoto. [Sasama Yoshihiko. (1995). "Edo machi-bugyō jiten," p. 11; Screech, p. 19.]
** Fushimi "bugyō" (伏見奉行) - Magistrates or municipal administrators of Fushimi (post-1620). [Murdoch, James. (1996) [http://books.google.com/books?id=32HnwxdP4pMC&pg=RA1-PA9&dq=sakai+bugyo&sig=8kduK0gPvX1ptCBwZmBDx9NnYR4#PRA1-PA10,M1 "A History of Japan," p. 10;] Jansen, Marius B. (1995). [http://books.google.com/books?id=_DnvUhG8VScC&pg=PA263&dq=fushimi+barriers&lr=&sig=BumZ8Uilu1JpHzTx_ObYwCl9228#PPA226,M1 "Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration," p. 226.] ]
** Nara "bugyō" (奈良奉行) - Governors of Nara. [Murdoch, [http://books.google.com/books?id=32HnwxdP4pMC&pg=RA1-PA9&dq=sakai+bugyo&sig=8kduK0gPvX1ptCBwZmBDx9NnYR4#PRA1-PA10,M1 p. 10;] ]
* "Machi-bugyō" (町奉行) - Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities: Edo, Kyoto, Nagasaki, Nara, Nikkō, and Osaka. [see above] ]
* Nagasaki "bugyō" (長崎奉行) - Governor of Nagasaki. [Screech, [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=BLzQA7cpr7wC&dq=screech+secret+memoirs+of+the+shoguns&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=tVXKYkZKBq&sig=DO4eFiPhewDiAw5l-lXy_Prieds#PRA2-PA12,M1 p. 12;] Beasley, p. 326.]
* Niigata "bugyō" (新潟奉行) - Overseers of the port of Niigata.
* Nikkō "bugyō" (日光奉行) - Overseers of Nikkō. [Screech, [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=BLzQA7cpr7wC&dq=screech+secret+memoirs+of+the+shoguns&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=tVXKYkZKBq&sig=DO4eFiPhewDiAw5l-lXy_Prieds#PRA2-PA241,M1 p. 241 n69.] ]
* Osaka "jōdai" (大阪城代) - Overseers of Osaka Castle.Murdoch, [http://books.google.com/books?id=32HnwxdP4pMC&pg=RA1-PA9&dq=sakai+bugyo&sig=8kduK0gPvX1ptCBwZmBDx9NnYR4 p. 9.] ]
** Osaka "machi-bugyō" (大阪町奉行) - Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities like Osaka.Beasley, p. 325.]
** Sakai "bugyō" (堺奉行) - Overseers of the town of Sakai. [see above] ]
* "Rōya-bugyō" (牢屋奉行) - Commissioners of the shogunal prison. [Sasama, p. 152.]
* Sado "bugyō" (佐渡奉行) - Overseers of the island of Sado. [Cullen, [http://books.google.com/books?id=ycY_85OInSoC&pg=PA27&vq=bugyo&dq=++uraga+bugyo&source=gbs_search_r&cad=0_2&sig=Lz-lqppSwmB5wSYUxXfVmEMCrBw#PPA112,M1 p. 112.] ]
* "Sakuji-bugyō" (作事奉行) - Commissioners of works (post-1632). [Coaldrake, William H. (1996) [http://books.google.com/books?id=DQ9XCihfL98C&pg=PA179&dq=sakai+bugyo&sig=zJ4K7cJvNGpDhLB3ogkiYNthfpg#PPA178,M1 "Architecture and Authority in Japan," p. 178.] ]
* Shimoda "bugyō" (下田奉行) - Overseers of the port of Shimoda.Beasley, p. 329.]
* Sunpu "jōdai" (駿府城代) - Overseers of Sunpu Castle. [see above] ]
* Uraga "bugyō" (浦賀奉行) - Overseers of the port of Uraga. [Cullen, [http://books.google.com/books?id=ycY_85OInSoC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=++uraga+bugyo&source=web&ots=2MINVw1p23&sig=0xsg-GG68xKjb7vcms52eapjXt0 p. 173;] Beasley p. 330.]
* Yamada "bugyō" (山田奉行) -- Representatives of the shogunate at Ise. [Murdoch, [http://books.google.com/books?id=32HnwxdP4pMC&pg=RA1-PA334&dq=Yamada+bugyo&sig=qxLYnvzyk8hb1KQ8faVvJR5QXf4#PRA1-PA334,M1 p. 334.] ]

Meiji period

In the early years of the Meiji Restoration, the offices and conventional practices remained in place during the initial period when nothing else had been contrived to replace the existing Tokugawa system. For example, the commander-in-chief of artillery under the early Meiji government was called the "Hohei-bugyō." [Van de Polder, Léon. (1891). [http://books.google.com/books?id=S4c0AAAAIAAJ&pg=RA2-PA507&dq=bunkyu+meaning&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=0_0#PRA1-PA419,M1 "Abridged History of the Copper Coins of Japan," "Transaction of the Asiatic Society of Japan" p. 419] -500.]

Notes

References

* Beasley, William G. (1951). "Britain and the Opening of Japan, 1834-1858." London: Luzac & Company. [http://books.google.com/books?id=7GFJMGM6pLEC&vq=bugyo&dq=bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 reprinted by] Routledge, London, 1995. 10-ISBN 1-873-41043-3; 13-ISBN 978-1-873-41043-1 (paper)
* ____________. (1955). [http://books.google.com/books?id=jjOCAAAAIAAJ&dq=Niigata+bugyo&pgis=1"Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868."] London: Oxford University Press. [reprinted by RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001. 10-ISBN 0-197-13508-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-197-13508-2 (cloth)]
* Brinkley, Frank. (1915). [http://books.google.com/books?id=NnsEAAAAMAAJ&dq=kane+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era."] London: Encyclopædia Britannica.
* Coaldrake, William H. (1996) [http://books.google.com/books?id=DQ9XCihfL98C&dq=sakai+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Architecture and Authority in Japan."] London: Routledge. 10-ISBN 0-415-10601-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-415-10601-6 (paper)
* Cullen, Louis M. (2003). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ycY_85OInSoC&dq=++uraga+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds."] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-82155-X (cloth) -- 10-ISBN 0-521-52918-2 (paper)
* Cunningham, Don. (2004). [http://books.google.com/books?id=g5BP7DGuNFsC&dq=Bugy%C5%8D&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai."] Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-804-83536-5; 13-ISBN 978-0-804-83536-7 (cloth)
* Frederic, Louis (2002). "Bugyō." [http://books.google.com/books?id=y0zGAAAACAAJ&dq=Japan+Encyclopedia&source=gbs_book_other_versions_r&cad=0_2 "Japan Encyclopedia."] Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-00770-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-00770-3 (cloth) -- 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5 (paper)
*Hall, John Wesley. (1955) [http://books.google.com/books?id=x0WCAAAAIAAJ&q=kinzan+bugyo&dq=kinzan+bugyo&lr=&pgis=1 "Tanuma Okitsugu: Foreruner of Modern Japan."] Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
* Jansen, Marius B. (1995). [http://books.google.com/books?id=_DnvUhG8VScC&dq=fushimi+barriers&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration."] New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-10173-2
* ____________. (1995). [http://books.google.com/books?id=cY6GRGa2vPoC&dq=Sakuji+bugy%C5%8D&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Warrior Rule in Japan."] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-48404-9
* Kinihara, Misako. [http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006000558/en/ "The Establishment of the Tosen bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori" (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用),] Tokyo Woman's Christian University. "Essays and Studies." 44:2, 27-53.
* Murdoch, James. (1926). "A History of Japan." London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. [http://books.google.com/books?id=32HnwxdP4pMC&dq=Yamada+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 reprinted by] Routledge, 1996. 10-ISBN 0-415-15417-0
* Naito, Akira, Kazuo Hozumi, and H. Mack Horto. (2003). [http://books.google.com/books?id=3N5d4xKg7yQC&dq=fushin+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Edo: the City that Became Tokyo."] Tokyo: Kodansha. 10-ISBN 4-770-02757-5
* Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A.R. (1956). "Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794-1869". Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial.
* Roberts, Luke Shepherd. (1998). [http://books.google.com/books?id=aAeQREc0vz0C&dq=gusoku+bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: The Merchant Origins of Economic Nationalism in 18th Century Tosa."] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-89335-6
* Sasama Yoshihiko (1995). "Edo Machi Bugyō Jiten". Tokyo: Kashiwa-shobo.
* Sato, Yasunobu. (2001). [http://books.google.com/books?id=o40ywX_aB5IC&dq=bugyo&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Commercial Dispute Processing and Japan."] Amsterdam: Wolters Kluwer. 10-ISBN 9-041-11668-0; 13-ISBN 978-9-041-11668-0 (cloth)
* Schaede, Ulrike. (2000). [http://books.google.com/books?id=nJWsPT_FYkEC&dq=tokugawa+silver+monopoly&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan."] Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10-ISBN 0-198-29718-1; 13-ISBN 978-0-198-29718-5 (cloth)
* Screech, Timon. (2006). "Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822." London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X
* Shimada, Ryuto. (2005). [http://books.google.com/books?id=nVIPPwVo8eAC&dq=Dozan+copper&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company."] Leiden: Brill. 10-ISBN 9-004-15092-7; 13-ISBN 978-9-004-15092-8 (cloth)
* Takekoshi, Yosaburo. (1930). [http://books.google.com/books?id=mAseAAAAIAAJ&q=shuza+cinnabar&dq=shuza+cinnabar&lr=&pgis=1 "The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan."] New York: MacMillan.




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