Jamnagar


Jamnagar

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
|native_name = Jamnagar |
type = city |
latd = 22.47 | longd = 70.07
|locator_position = right |
state_name = Gujarat
|district = Jamnagar
|leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Kanaksinh Jadeja
population_as_of = 2001
|population_total = 447,734|
population_density =
|area_magnitude= km²
|area_total =
|area_telephone = 288
|postal_code = 361 xxx
|vehicle_code_range= GJ-10
|sex_ratio =
|unlocode =
|website =
|footnotes =

Jamnagar {જામનગર in Gujarati} is a city and a municipal corporation in Jamnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when the district was known as Nawanagar. The district lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch. Jamnagar has shot to prominence as Reliance Industries, India's largest private company, established the world's largest refinery near Moti Khavdi village.Fact|date=March 2008 It is also home to Essar Oil, another important oil refinery of India.Fact|date=March 2008

History

Jamnagar, historically called Nawanagar or the new city, was one of the most important princely states of saurashtra.Fact|date=March 2008 The Jamnagar district, originally constituted as Halar district, is not only recent in its origin but also in its modern set up. But the region comprised therein is of great antiquity and dates back to ancient periods of Jamnagar. According to Pauranik literature, Lord Krishna established his kingdom at Dwarka, now in Jamnagar district, after his migration from Mathura and it is to this great Yadava race that the Jams of Nawanagar trace their descent.

The founder of the princely state of Jamnagar was the Jam Rawal, who descended on the northern coast of Kathiawar in 1535 A.D. Jam Rawal's father Jam Lakhaji ruled in Terabanu in Kutch.

According to bardic chronicles, Jam Lakhaji had two cousins Tamachi Deda and Hamirji Jadeja, they envied his reputation for valor. Their envy was heightened by the fame of Jam Lakhaji at the siege of Pawagadh. So largely did he contribute to its capture by Bahadurshah, the Emperor of Gujarat, that he was bestowed 12 villages by him. As Jam Lakaji was going to take possession of his new fief, he was treacherously killed by his cousins Tamachi Deda and Hamirji Jadeja. Jam Lakhajis son Jam Rawal escaped and on growing up, took vengeance of his father's murder in the same manner by killing Hamirji Jadeja.

Hamirjis two sons Khengarji and Sahibji fled to Delhi and after twelve months of waiting to meet the moghul Emperor Humayun, they got the chance to join the crowd going along with the Emperor for lion hunting.

During the lion hunt, they got the chance to kill the lion just when it was going to attack the Emperor. As a reward, an army of 1,00,000 was sent with them to regain back their kingdom.

When Jam Rawal heard of the two princes coming back to the Kutch with the imperial army, he started getting ready for the battle. On one night, Goddess Ashapura came in his dream and told him that as he had broken the oath taken on her name about not killing Hamirji, even though, he was the person responsible for the death of his father. She should have punished him, but as he had at all other times honored her. So he should no longer dwell in Kutch but cross the sea and take Kathiawar as a dwelling place.

Upon awakening he called his counselors and discussed the dream, they agreed that he must leave Kutch and found for himself a Kingdom across the Gulf. So Jam Rawal along with his soldiers and many traders marched out. On the way he killed and conquered the territory of King Tamachi the other conspirator in the killing of his father, and he also conquered the town of Dhrol and its dependencies and gave them to his brother Hardholji, who was later killed in battle during that period, and the State of Dhrol was given to his eldest son, Jasoji.

Thus Jam Rawal made himself master of a great territory and the need for a capital arose.

The story goes like this, that once on a hunting trip on the land of present day Jamnagar, a hare was found to be brave enough to turn on the hunting dogs and putting them to flight. Deeply impressed by this, Jam Rawal thought that if this land can breed such hares, if his capital was built on this land, the men born here would be superior than other men.

He counsulted his astrologers and wise men, and the day chosen for laying the foundation stone was the 7th day of the bright half of the month of srawan, VS 1956. (August 1540 AD) on the banks of two rivers Rangmati and Nagmati and named it Nawanagar meaning new town.

Nawanagar eventually came to be known as Jamnagar meaning the town of the Jams.

Geography

Jamnagar is located at coord|22.47|N|70.07|E| It has an average elevation of 20 metres (65 ft). Jamnagar has a lake called Lakhota lake which is very popular in the world.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Jamnagar had a population of 447,734. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Jamnagar has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 63%. In Jamnagar, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Culture

Most residents of Jamnagar are Gujarati and speak Gujarati language. A small percentage speak Kachchi language which is written in the Gujarati script but is not mutually intelligible with Gujarati. Kathiawadi Language (which is a variant of Gujarati)is widely used for day to day communication. Major communities include Dawoodi Bohras Ahirs(Yadav), Patels , Bhanushalis , Rajputs (Darbars), Mers , Jains, Lohanas etc.

Marine National Park, the only marine sanctuary of India is near Jamnagar - on the coral reef island of Pirotan. Jamnagar is well-known for its four marble Jain temples: Vardhman Shah's Temple, Raisi Shah's Temple, Sheth's Temple, and Vasupujya Swami's Temple. All were built between 1574 and 1622. Bala Hanuman temple in Jamnagar is also very famous and is listed in the Guinness book of world records for the continuous chanting of "Ram Dhun" since 1st August 1964.

Religion

Jamnagar contains several ancient and archeologially important temples,Fact|date=February 2008 such as Sidhnath Mahadev Temple in Jamnagar city area, the Navlakha Temple in Ghumli, Kileshwar Temple in Barda Hills, The Ancient Sun Temple at Gop and The Ancient Bhid Bhanjan Temple built by the Jams. Bala Hanuman is highly venerated among the devotees of Rama.Fact|date=February 2008 The Bala Hanuman Temple is noted for the continuous chanting of the mantra "Jai Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram". Started on August 1 1964, the chant continues for 24 hours a day, in shifts, and is still continuing. This has earned the temple a place in the Guinness Book of World Records. Fact|date=February 2008

There are many Shiv Temples within the city, such as Badri kedar Nath and Nilkanth Mahadev Temle around the Town Hall and the Kashi Vishwanath Temple on the K.V. Road.

Economy

Jamnagar is today known as 'Oil City' thanks to the mega refineries of Reliance Industries and Essar Oil Ltd.Fact|date=March 2008 It was earlier known as 'Brass City', the city housing more than 5,000 large scale and 10,000 small scale units manufacturing brass items in and around the industrial estates of Shankar Tekari, Udhyognagar, M P Sha Udhyognagar and Dared.Fact|date=March 2008 Nearly 200 tons of brass goods are produced in this area daily.Fact|date=March 2008

The Jamnagar Refinery is a private sector crude oil refinery owned by Reliance Industries Limited in Jamnagar, India. The refinery was commissioned on 14 July 1999 with an installed capacity of convert|661000|oilbbl/d|m3/d. It is the largest greenfield refinery in the world and third largest refinery in the world.Fact|date=March 2008 The refinery is currently undergoing massive expansion, scheduled for commissioning in 2008, that will double its capacity to convert|1.2|Moilbbl/d|m3/d.Fact|date=March 2008

Entertainment

Jamnagar has a Multiplex cinema, with a further one planned.Fact|date=March 2008

ports

Very famous sports is cricket.Jamnagar gave six test cricketers to India. They all were great cricketers of their time. They are Prince Ranjit Sinh and his nephew Prince Duleep Sinh, Vinu Mankad, Salim Durrani, Indrajit Sinh and Ajay Jadeja.

The prestigious Ranji and Duleep trophy of India are in the memory of princes of Jamnagar. The first Indian to play international cricket was from Jamnagar. Salim Durrani had a great role in the match, which led to first victory of India over West Indies. The first cricketer to win Arjuna award, Durrani is from Jamnagar and still lives there.

External links

* [http://www.jamnagar.org Tourist information about Jamnagar]
* [http://www.jamnagartransportco.com Jamnagar Transport]
* [http://www.halar.org All info of Jamnagar]
* [http://www.harilalupadhyay.org/bookdetails/NavanagarNa_Narbanka.htm NavaNagarNa NarBanka] and [http://www.harilalupadhyay.org/bookdetails/RajSattaNa_Rang.htm RajSattaNa Rang] - Books exploring History of Jamnagar

References


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