Jat Kingdoms in Medieval India

The Jat people of India had numerous kingdoms during medieval to modern times.

The Jat Uprising of 1669

The Jat uprising of 1669 under Gokula in region around Mathura occurred at a time when the Mughal government was by no means weak or imbecile. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15] In fact this period of Aurangzeb’s reign witnessed the climax of the Mughal Empire. [J.N.Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XI-XIII] , [F.X. Wendel, Memoires des Jats, 10] during the early medieval period frequent breakdown of law and order often induced the Jats to adopt a refractory course. [J.N. Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XXVIII f.] But, with the establishment of the Mughal rule, law and order was effectively established and we do not come across any major Jat revolt during the century and a half proceeding the reign of Aurangzeb. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15]

Historians have generally ascribed the said Jat rebellion to Aurangzab’s religious discrimination and the oppression of local officers. [K.R. Qanungo, History of Jats (Calcutta: 1925), p. 34] , [U.N.Sharma, Itihas, p.88] . [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p. 629] These, however seem to have been the contributory causes but neither the sole nor the dominant factors which precipitated the revolt. The real cause of the Jat rebellion of 1669 lay deeper than have been assigned to it so far. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15]

The Jat rebellion of 1669 was essentially the result of the political provocation aggravated by the economic discontent and set ablaze by the religious persecution. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 25]

Once their combined efforts proved fruitful under later leaders and bright future prospects appeared ahead. Their circumstantial union assumed a little fixed character. Consideration of common benefit might also have been instrumental in leading the tribal and democratic Jats to prefer, accept and finally adopt the institution of kingship. To such circumstances may be traced the genesis of the Jat state of Bharatpur and the eventual emergence of the principalities of Patiala, Nabha and Jind which were the Jat republicans until India's independence. [Bingley, Sikhs, p. 12]

The rise of Jat power

The rise of Jat power has always taken place against tyranny, injustice, economic and social exploitations and was never overawed by claims of racial or tribal superiority. They have always stood in ancient as well as medieval times like rock in the face of invaders seeking to ravage the motherland. Whenever the occasion arose they beat their ploughshares into swords and taking advantage of decrepit political structure, they laid the foundations of political power under several tribal chiefs. [Preface by Ram Niwas Mirdha in G.C. Dwivedi’s, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003]

They have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed the same obstinate and steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat. [Qanungo, Jats,30] , [G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12]

In 1669 this race of warrior-agriculturists, the Jats, rose against the narrow and over-centralised despotic regime of Aurangzeb. The Jat power under the leadership of Churaman took a big leap forward during the rule of the imbecile successors of Aurangzeb. [G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.55-56]

Gohad

According to the "Rajputana Gazetteer", the Jagir of village Bamrauli near Agra, was transferred to the Chauhan and Kachwaha Rajputs of Bairath (near Alwar), during the rule of the Tomar Rajputs in Delhi in the 11th century. During Firuz Shah Tughluq's regime, his satrap in Agra, Muneer Mohammad, forced the Jats of Bamrauli to leave the village in 1367. The Bamraulia Jats moved to the region of Gwalior beyond the Chambal river. According to Cunningham and William Cook, the Bamraulia Jats founded the city of Gohad near Gwalior in 1505. Later it developed into an important Jat State that continued till Indian Independence. The Jat rulers of Gohad were awarded the title of Rana. Singhan Deo was the first Jat ruler of the state of Gohad. The chronology of Jat rulers of Gohad has 17 names: Singhan Deo I, Singhan Deo II, Devi Singh, Udyaut Singh, Rana Anup Singh, Sambhu Singh, Abhay Chander, Ratan Singh, Uday Singh, Bagh Raj, Gaj Singh, Jaswant, Bhim Singh, Girdhar Pratap Singh, Chhatar Singh, Kirat Singh. In 1708 the Bhadauria forces under Umara-i-Uzzam Maharajadhiraj Sriman Maharaja Mahendra Gopal Singh of Bhadawar invaded and annexed large parts of the state after defeating Rana Bhim Singh,including the fort of Gohad. Gohad remained a part of Bhadawar state till 1738.

The British Government concluded a treaty with Jats and with their help defeated Marathas and won back Gwalior and Gohad from them. The British kept Gwalior with them and handed over Gohad to Jats in 1804. [Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi), p.63]

Gohad was handed over to Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between Marathas and Britishers. Under this treaty Gohad ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda in exchange with Gohad. Rana Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805. [Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi), p.71] Sindhias could take over Gohad on 27 February 1806 with the help of Britishers. Thus the Rana Jat rulers of Bamraulia gotra ruled Gohad for 300 years from 1505-1805. [Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi)]

Dholpur

The present town of Dholpur, which dates from the 16th century, stands somewhat to the north of the site of the older town built in the 11th century by Raja Dholan (or Dhawal) Deo, a Tomara Rajput chieftain; it was named as Dholdera or Dhawalpuri after him.Modern research says in 10 th century Jats took over the control of Dhaulpur.Before jats The Yadav were rooler in buddha time.After that Tomer of Gwaliar Win Dhaulpur but Jats remain there Emperor.

In 1450, Dholpur had a Raja of its own. However, the fort was taken by Sikander Lodi in 1501 and transferred to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, after strenuous resistance, the fort fell to Babur and came under the sway of the Mughals along with the surrounding country. It was assigned by Emperor Akbar to the province of Agra. A fortified "sarai" built during the reign of Akbar still stands in the town, within which is the fine tomb of Sadik Mohammed Khan, one of his generals.

During the dissensions which followed the death of emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, Raja Mahendra Kalyan Singh Bhadauria of Bhadawar obtained possession of Dholpur. His family retained it until 1761, after which it was taken successively by the Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the "Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon", but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. Finally, in 1806, the territories of Dholpur, Ban and Rajakhera were handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad, in exchange for his own state of Gohad, which was ceded to the Scindias.

From this point begins the history of the princely state of Dholpur, a vassal of the British during the Raj. After Independence, it was incorporated into the newly-formed state of Rajasthan.

Bharatpur

In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (16951721). The Jat power under the leadership of Churaman took a big leap forward during the rule of the imbecile successor of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb left behind a host of serious problems for his weak successors to deal with people highly agitated like Jats. [G.C.Dwivedi: The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.55] Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (17221756), established a kingdom centered at Deeg, from which he extended his rule over Agra and Mathura.

Badan Singh's eldest son and successor was Maharaja Suraj Mal (17071763) . Suraj Mal, described as the "Jat Plato" and the "Jat Ulysses", extended his kingdom to include Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etawah, Meerut, Rohtak, Farrukhnagar, Mewat, Rewari and Gurgaon. He was described as the greatest warrior and the ablest statesman that the Jats had ever produced. The author of Siyar says, Suraj Mal had in his stable twelve thousand horses, mounted by so many picked man, amongst whom on horseback and then wheeling round in order to load under shelter, and these men had by continual and daily practice become so expeditious and so dangerous marksmen, and withal so expert in their evolutions, that there were no troops in India and could pretend to face them in the field. Nor was it thought possible to wage war against such a prince with any prospect of advantage. [Siyar IV, p. 28] , [K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 97]

Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deeg to Bharatpur after 1733. Rustam, a Jat king of the Sogariya clan, had laid the foundation of the modern city of Bharatpur. After him, control passed to his son, Khemkaran and then to Suraj Mal. Khemkaran was a warrior. He was awarded with the title "Faujdar", which is still used by all Sogariyas. The beautiful palace and gardens at Deeg and the Bharatpur fort, both built by Suraj Mal, symbolised the coming of age of the Jat state. Suraj Mal died on 25 December, 1763.

The chronology of Sinsinwar Jat clan rulers of Bharatpur is as under:

Gokula (? - 1670] ,
Raja Ram (1670 - 1688),
Churaman (1695 - 1721),
Badan Singh (1722 - 1756),
Maharaja Suraj Mal (1756 - 1767),
Maharaja Jawahar Singh (1767 - 1768),
Maharaja Ratan Singh (1768 - 1769),
Maharaja Kehri Singh (1769 - 1771),
Maharaja Nawal Singh (1771 - 1776),
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1776 - 1805),
Maharaja Randhir Singh (1805 - 1823),
Maharaja Baldeo Singh (1823 - 1825),
Maharaja Balwant Singh (1825 - 1853),
Maharaja Jashwant Singh (1853 - 1893),
Maharaja Ram Singh (1893 - 1900) (Exiled),
Maharani Girraj Kaur (1900-1918) (regent),
Maharaja Kishan Singh (1900 - 1929),
Maharaja Brijendra Singh (1929-1947) (Joined the Indian Union)

During the Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 sq.km. Its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the dominion of India in 1947. It was merged with three nearby princely states to form the 'Matsya Union', which in turn was merged with other adjoining territories to create the present-day state of Rajasthan.

Kuchesar

In the mid-eighteenth century the Dalal Jats of Mandoti, Haryana, built the mud fort of Kuchesar in Uttar Pradesh.Mud fort of kuchesar famous for tourism now a days.

Ballabhgarh

The founders of the princely state of Ballabhgarh were Tewatia Jats, who had come from village Janauli, which is more than 2000 years old. The Tevatia Jat Sardar Gopal Singh left Janauli in 1705 (in Palwal) and got settled at Sihi, a village of Tewatia Jats in Ballabgarh at a distance of about 5 km from Ballabhgarh. Charan Das's son, Balram Singh, rose to a powerful king in this dynasty. Princely state of Ballabgarh is after his name. He was brother in law of Maharaja Suraj Mal and mama of Jawahar Singh. Raja Nahar Singh (18231858) was a notable King of this princely state. The forefathers of Jat Raja Nahar Singh had built a fort here around 1739 AD. The small kingdom of Ballabhgarh is only 20 miles from Delhi. The name of the Jat Raja Nahar Singh will always be highly regarded among those who martyred themselves in the 1857 war of independence.

Patiala

Patiala was a state of Siddhu Jats ancestry in Punjab. [History of the Jatt Clans - Dr H.S Duleh.] [ [http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=824 A Gateway to Sikhism | Historical Sikh Events: Phulkian Misl - A Gateway to Sikhism ] ] Its area was 5932 sq. mile and annual income Rs 1,63,00,000/-. The rulers of the erstwhile states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to Jat sardar Phul of Siddhu ancestry. [Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 ] Apparently the appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of sons of Phul, Ram Singh had son Ala Singh, who assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. Ala Singh carved out an independent principality from a petty Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances.

Nabha

Nabha was a state of Siddhu Jats. [History of the Jatt Clans - Dr H.S Duleh.] [ [http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=824 A Gateway to Sikhism | Historical Sikh Events: Phulkian Misl - A Gateway to Sikhism ] ] founded by grandson of Chaudhary Phul Singh. Chaudhary Phul Singh had six sons namely, 1.Tiloka 2.Ram Singh 3.Rudh 4.Chunu 5. Jhandu and 6.Takhtmal. Annual income of Nabha state was Rs 1,50,000/-. [Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 ] Phul, was Chaudhri (Governor) of a country located at the south east of Dihli. Phul’s descendants founded 3 States: Patiala, Jind and Nabha. Nabha was founded by the great-grandson of Phul in 1755. [ [http://www.uq.net.au/%7Ezzhsoszy/ips/n/nabha.html Genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Nabha] ] According to another version they the founder of this Sikh dynasty descent from Jaisal, clan of Bhatis the founder of the State of Jaisalmer in 1156.

Jind

Jind state in Haryana was founded by descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu ancestry. [History of the Jatt Clans - Dr H.S Duleh.] [ [http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=824 A Gateway to Sikhism | Historical Sikh Events: Phulkian Misl - A Gateway to Sikhism ] ] Jind was a state of Siddhu Jats founded by grandson of Chaudhary Phul Singh. Chaudhary Phul Singh had six sons namely, 1.Tiloka 2.Ram Singh 3.Rudh 4.Chunu 5. Jhandu and 6.Takhtmal. Tiloka had two sons namely, 1. Gurudutta 2. Sukh Chain. Sukh Chain's descendants ruled Jind state and Gurudatta's descendants ruled Nabha state.Area of the state was 1259 sq mile and annual income of Jind state was Rs 30,00,000/-. [Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 ] According to another version stating descent from Jaisal, founder of the State of Jaisalmer in 1156, the founder of this Sikh dynasty, Phul, was Chaudhri (Governor) of a country located at the south east of Dihli. Phul’s descendants founded 3 States: Patiala, Jind and Nabha.

By the nineteenth century, Jats ruled the states of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Gohad, Kuchesar, Ballabhgarh, Patiala, Nabha and Jind. The Jats established a reputation of being determined and sturdy.

Mursan

Mursan state of Thenua Jats was located in the Hathras (Mahamaya Nagar) district in Uttar Pradesh. The most well-known ruler of this estate was the Jat nobleman, Raja Mahendra Pratap (1886-1979), who was popularly known as Aryan Peshwa. The third son of Raja Ghansyam Singh, he was adopted by Raja Harnarayan Singh of Hathras.

Mahendra Pratap married a lady from a Jat Sikh family based in the princely state of Jind in Haryana.

Punjab Pakistan (Maharaja Ranjit Singh)

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) was from Sandhawalia [History of the Jatt Clans - H.S Duleh "(Translation from original Punjabi work "Jattan da Itihas" by Gurjant Singh)."] Jat clan of Punjab and became the Sikh emperor of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the commander of the Sukerchakia misl and controlled a territory in west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala.

Ranjit Singh succeeded his father at the young age of 12. After several campaigns, his rivals accepted him as their leader, and he united the Sikh factions into one state. He conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of his kingdom. From the capture of Lahore in 1799, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab and became undisputed ruler of northern India and the land of the five rivers. And even then, to secure his empire, he invaded Afghanistan, and severely defeated the Pathan militias and tribes. Ranjit Singh took the title of Maharaja on April 12 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day). Lahore served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the holy city of Amritsar. In the year 1802, Ranjit Singh successfully invaded Kashmir.

Other states

There are so many other Jat states. If we included Jats state of Punjab, these are more than Rajput states. Some of the states to mention are:

*Vrindavan (Mathura) [mr Dileep chaudhry of Vrindavan have a Haveli related with jats state prove it]
*Saidpur (Bulandshahar) [British sources of 1857 Revolt]
*Peshawa (now in Aligarh) [Now a Days Royal family live in this fort,famous in world for exporting hourse]
*Nanda Devi in Garhwal Nandraj Jat built temple of Nanda Devi. Jat of Garhwal called as Nanda jats
*Dungarpur of Rajasthan - it was jat state in ancient times
*Firojbad, UP - in 1739, Jats of Mahavan attacked on Firojabad and killed the faujdar of Firojabad then rooled over it more than 30 years.
*Alwar - In the age of Maharaja Surajmal, Jawahar singh (son of Maharaja) won the fort of Alwar for a brief period.
*Gwalior - Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. During this period they constructed historical monuments in the Gwalior Fort

*Agra- Many years Jats ruled Agra. After a seize of one month Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. [Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197-200] After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. There is a haveli in the name Maharaja Nawal Singh in Agra Fort and also a Chhatri of Maharaja Jawahar Singh built in right side of Khasmahal near the Chhatri of Rosanara-Jahanara. [Agra Gazeteer 1884, page 620] , [Jatbandhu Agra, 25 January 2005]

References


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