Polish Army in France (1939-1940)

The Polish Army in France formed in France under the command of General Władysław Sikorski (and hence sometimes known as Sikorski's Army) in late 1939, after the fall of Poland resulting from the Polish Defensive War. About 85,000 troops were in the process of being organized into fighting formations (four infantry divisions, two independent brigades and air support) when the battle of France started. The army was partially destroyed in the hostilities, but over 20,000 soldiers were evacuated and formed a new Polish army in the United Kingdom.

The creation of Polish formations in France marked the beginnings of the Polish Armed Forces in the West.


Polish Armed Forces in France
Growth of the personnel.pl icon [http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=pb05 Wojsko Polskie we Francji] . Świat Polonii. Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.]

Creation

The army begun to be organized soon after the fall of Poland in 1939. France was a Polish ally and had declared war on Germany on September 3, and although it had not undertaken any major operations against the Germans (see Phony War) it had welcomed Polish refugees (as well as the Polish government in exile) and started to organize them into several military formations.pl icon [http://portalwiedzy.onet.pl/13573,,,,polskie_sily_zbrojne_na_zachodzie,haslo.html Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Zachodzie - Polskie Siły Zbrojne we Francji] , WIEM Encyklopedia. Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.]

The main camps for Polish formations were in Coëtquidan and Parthenay.pl icon [http://encyklopedia.interia.pl/haslo?hid=112900 WOJSKO POLSKIE WE FRANCJI W II WOJNIE ŚWIATOWEJ] , Interia Encyklopedia. Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.] The new army was recruited from Polish army personnel who escaped from Poland and émigrés volunteers; by May 1940 the army of about 80,000 personnel was composed of about 45,000 escapees, the rest from the Polish minority in France. [http://www.polandinexile.com/france.html The Polish Army In France 1939 - 1940] . Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.]

Due to inefficient French logistics and policies, formation of Polish units was delayed by missing equipment and supplies. By May 1940 only two infantry divisions, two independent brigades and one air squadron were operational, with another two infantry divisions being formed, although Polish high command had plans for two full corps, an armoured division and over fifteen air squadrons. Also, rear units were being formed - a Polish military academy and a cartographic institute. The Polish command also issued a document "Most important conclusions and experiences from the September Campaign" ("Najważniejsze wnioski i doświadczenia z kampanii wrześniowej"), in which it analysed German blitzkrieg strategy and proposed some countermeasures; the document was however mostly ignored by the French command. [http://www.apacouncil.org/ww2/5df.html Defence of France] . American-Polish Advisory Council. Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.]

Organization

Army

Four Polish divisions (First Grenadier Division, Second Infantry Fusiliers Division, 3rd and 4th Infantry Division), a Polish motorized brigade (10th Brigade of Armored Cavalry, "10éme Brigade de cavalerie blindée") and infantry brigade (Polish Independent Highland Brigade) were organized in mainland France. A Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade was formed in French-mandated Syria, to which about 4,000 Polish troops had escaped, mostly through Romania and would later fight in the Middle East.

Air force

The Polish Air Force in France comprised 86 aircraft in four squadrons, one and a half of the squadrons being fully operational while the rest were in various stages of training.

Navy

Polish Navy ships which left the Baltic during Operation Peking where attached to the Royal Navy of United Kingdom, not the French command, and as such are not counted as the part of the Polish Army in France.

Operations

With the German invasion of France, at first only Polish armoured units were pressed in formation, but after the Germans broke through the French front, all Polish formations were moved to the front-line, although the units still had not received all of their equipment and supplies from the French logistics services. None of the units were completely equipped by the time they entered combat and particularly the 3rd and 4th divisions were still in the middle of organization. Polish units fought in the southern section of the front [http://www.ww2.pl/Campaign,in,France,137.html Campaign in France - The Poles on the frontlines of WWII.] Last retrieved on 31 July 2007.] and all continued to fight despite Philippe Pétain’s call for an armistice and demobilization on 16 June. The Polish commander-in-chief, general Władysław Sikorski, on June 19, announced in a radio bulletin that Poland would continue to fight as an ally of the United Kingdom. Polish units were ordered to reach the French ports in the north, west and south in preparation for naval evacuation to Great Britain, or if that would prove impossible, to cross the Swiss frontier.

First Grenadier Division (16,165 soldiers) under Bolesław Bronisław Duch was based in Lorraine, manning part of the Maginot Line from June 9 as part of the French 4th Army. It fought from 14 June. After two days, having withstood German assaults on its positions near Lagarde, it was forced to fall back, covering the retreat of the disintegrating French 52nd Division. On 21 June, with the collapse of the nearby French defences, general Duch ordered the unit to disband; many of the soldiers, including the general, were able to evacuate to United Kingdom.

The Second Infantry Fusiliers Division (15,830 soldiers) under Bronisław Prugar-Ketling was based between late December 1939 and May 1940 at Parthenay in Eastern France. Commanded by Brigadier-General Prugar-Kietling the division was charged with the defences around Belfort, Alsace. Engaged in heavy fighting from June 17 to 19 near Doubs and Saône rivers, it stopped the German attack on the Clos-du-Doubs hills, but due to the retreat of the nearby French forces it was surrounded by the Germans; nonetheless it managed to break through to Switzerland on 20 - 21 June 1940, where its soldiers (including general Prugar-Ketling) were interned.

The 3rd and 4th Infantry Divisions were still being formed when France capitulated and took relatively little part in the hostilities.

The 10th Brigade of Armored Cavalry (1,079 soldiers) under general Stanisław Maczek fought in the Champagne and Bourgogne regions. It protected the flank of the 4th and 6th French Armies near Champaubert, northwest of Dijon, and on June 16 routed Germans near Montbard, but by then the brigade was fighting alone, with the French units on both flanks either routed or in retreat. By 18 June the unit was mostly surrounded and without fuel and ammunition. General Maczek ordered the destruction of the unit equipment and withdrawal; the unit would be later recreated under his command in United Kingdom as the Polish elite 1st Armoured Division; gen. Maczek would be considered one of the best Polish - and armoured - commanders of the war.

The Polish Independent Highland Brigade (5,000 soldiers) under general Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko took part in the Battles of Narvik, Norway, in 1940 (28 May - 4 June). Returning to France, together with some formations quickly formed from the Polish recruits in the nearby training camps, it took part in the defence Brittany. Disbanded, some of its soldiers (including general Bohusz-Szyszko) were evacuated to Britain and Egypt, while others joined the French resistance.

Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade (4,000 soldiers) under general Stanisław Kopański in Syria refused to follow the Vichy government and joined British troops in nearby Palestine.

The Polish Air Force fought in the Battle of France as one fighter squadron GC 1/145 "Warsaw", several small units detached to French squadrons, and numerous flights of industry defence. Approximately 130-135 Polish pilots participated in the fighting in France, achieving some 50-55 victories at a loss of 15-25 men (sources vary slightly).

Aftermath

About 55,000 of the 85,000 Polish soldiers in France were in formations organized enough to fight the Germans. 1,400 Polish soldiers died fighting in the defence of France, 4,000 were wounded, 16,000 were taken prisoner, and about 13,000 Polish personnel were interned in Switzerland. General Władysław Sikorski, Polish commander-in-chief and prime minister, was able to evacuate many Polish troops to the United Kingdom (estimates range from about 20,000 to 35,000Mark Ostrowski. "To Return To Poland Or Not To Return" - The Dilemma Facing The Polish Armed Forces At The End Of The Second World War." [http://www.angelfire.com/ok2/polisharmy/chapter1.html Chapter 1] Retrieved on 31 July 2007.] ), where a new Polish army was formed. Many soldiers with ties to France opted to remain in occupied France and join the French resistance.

ee also

*Polish Legions (Napoleonic period)
*Blue Army (Polish Army in France in WWI)

References

External links

* [http://www.polandinexile.com/france.html The Polish Army In France 1939 - 1940]
* [http://www.ww2.pl/Campaign,in,France,137.html Campaign in France - The Poles on the frontlines of WWII]
*pl icon [http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=pb05 Wojsko Polskie we Francji] . Świat Polonii.
*pl icon [http://portalwiedzy.onet.pl/13573,,,,polskie_sily_zbrojne_na_zachodzie,haslo.html Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Zachodzie - Polskie Siły Zbrojne we Francji] , WIEM Encyklopedia
*pl icon [http://encyklopedia.interia.pl/haslo?hid=112900 WOJSKO POLSKIE WE FRANCJI W II WOJNIE ŚWIATOWEJ] , Interia Encyklopedia

Further reading

*Józef Smoliński, "Wojsko Polskie we Francji", Warszawa 1995


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