Artuklu Palace General information Type Palace Location Diyarbakır, Turkey Coordinates Construction started early 13th century Design and construction Client Artuqid rulers Owner Turkish state
Artuklu Palace or Artukid Palace or Artuqid Palace (Turkish: Artuklu Sarayı) was the palace of Diyarbakır branch of the Turkish Beylik and dynasty of Artukids who ruled eastern Anatolia and Jazira in the 12th and 13th centuries and situated in the present-day İçkale neighborhood Diyarbakır urban zone within the compound of Diyarbakır City Walls. Built during the reign of the Bey of Artuklu Nasreddin Muhammed (1200–1222) and partially excavated in the 1960s, the main body of the palace is today still buried under a mound.
This palace was also where, as his father before him, the groundbreaking Arab Muslim scholar, inventor, and mechanical engineer Al-Jazari had worked for 30 years and was the place, inspiration and context of many of this inventions and devices. Surrounded by gardens, rich in amenities as well as in decorative and artistic elements (such as statues, with a number of scholars defining a period of less strict observance of ban on human representation in the early centuries of Islam) and also in eccentricities, itself perhaps inspired by a tradition dating back to the Umayyad palace of Khirbat al-Mafjar in Jericho, the palaces of the Artukids provided models for the Mameluks later. There are further Artukid palatial residences in Mardin, Hasankeyf and Palu whose remains stand, but this one in Diyarbakır is usually referred to as the "Palace" of the sons of Artuk. The palace was used as a prison in the beginning of the Ottoman rule (16th century) until it fell into decay and gradually disappeared under the present-day Virantepe mound.
Partial excavations on the palace site were carried out in 1961 under the direction of the art historian and Ottoman archaeologist Oktay Aslanapa. Important ruins found during the excavation, such as part of the palace garden and the clear outlines of the architectural system of Turkish baths were not conserved and disappeared over time. The vestiges were also externally studied of recent date using computer technologies.
The Door and the Door-Knockers
Door knockers, often cast in bronze, had a symbolic significance across eastern Anatolia and were part of a thematic program that was prominent in the region especially during the 12th - 13th centuries. The tradition, although evolved, survives to this day in such centers as Kemaliye. Along with the door in its entirety, they were also a distinctive feature of the palace in Diyarbakır.
The door knockers of Artuklu Palace, which united the figures of a double dragon, a lion and a snake, are known, along with the whole structure of the four meter high door where they were attached, through the descriptions made by the designer al-Jazari in his manuscript and the drawings within, as well as on the basis of similarities that can be established with the door and the double-dragon figured door-knockers of the Great Mosque of Cizre, built 1155-1160 by the Atabegs of Musul, with Kubadabad Palace tiles and with the dragons in relief in Susuz Han caravanserai near Burdur. The embracing dragons of Cizre Mosque door knockers are on display today in İstanbul's Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts (Ibrahim Pasha Palace). Another similar knocker, also with dragons, is exhibited in Berlin's Museum of Islamic Art and was, according to early literature, bought in Tbilisi on behalf of Berlin Museums in 1912. However, later publications claim that it originated from south-east Anatolia/North Mesopotamia and smuggled through Tbilisi. The similar dragon figures with the knotted bodies like those on the door-knockers are also seen on some coins of the Artuqids of Hısn Keyfa (Hasankeyf). An imaginative drawing of Artuklu Palace door was made by Michael Meinecke on the basis of Al-Jazari's sketch and the cited similar works.
Al-Jazari's 1206-dated manuscript of "Al-Jami Bain Al-Ilm Wal-Amal Al-Nafi Fi Sinat'at Al-Hiyal" (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices), also includes such other artifacts conceived specially for the Artuklu Palace as clocks, human and animal shaped toys, automatic jug and pools, water equipment, alarm clock and protractor.
- ^ Interview: "Oktay Aslanapa". Turkish Daily News. http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/archives.php?id=22854 Interview:. Retrieved 2001-04-15.
- ^ Ayhan Ayteş, Istanbul Bilgi University. Citation: "Designing the new memory space for cultural heritage". International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Educators program, Session: Cultural Heritage, Los Angeles, California, 2004, ISBN 1-59593-896-2. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1186107.1186145 Citation:. Retrieved 2001-04-15.
- ^ Al-Jazari praises his door knocker as "a real masterpiece, a real pearl" and the door of the palace in the following words: "... then I made the rings as they embraced each other and their heads were turned to each other for each wings of the door. Their mouth is open as if they want to catch the lion's head and neck. The lion's head and neck is the extension of the iron nail that was nailed to the door. The teeth of the snake are in two holes in the lion's neck and the ring moves on them. Its center is formed by the motifs…in the cage style that is made of the flat rods which have finger-like thickness and thicker than them."
- Dr. Z. Kenan Bilici. Article: "Bronze door-knockers of Cizre Great Mosque: A New Example". Transoxiana:Journal Libre de Estudios Orientales, Boris Ilich Marshak Festschrift. http://www.transoxiana.org/Eran/Articles/bilici.html Article:. Retrieved 2001-04-15.
- MEINECKE, Michael (1989), "Islamische Drachentüren-Zu Einer Neuer werbung des Museums für Islamische Kunst", Museums Journal 3, IV (1989), pp. 54–58.
- (Book cover) Oktay Aslanapa (1991) (in Turkish). Anadolu'da ilk Türk mimarisi: Başlangıcı ve gelişmesi (Early Turkish architecture in Anatolia: Beginnings and development) ISBN 975-16-0264-5. AKM Publications, Ankara.
- Fact sheet: "Citadel, City Walls and Gates of Diyarbakir". ArchNet. http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=7723 Fact sheet:.
- Fact sheet: "Khirbat al Mafjar Umayyad Palace in Jericho". www.islamicarchitecture.org. http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/architecture/palaces/khirbatalmafjar.html Fact sheet:.
Landmarks of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and the Anatolian beyliks Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Ancestor: Kutalmish • Founder: Suleyman I • Capital: İznik, then Konya
Important centers and extension: Konya • Kayseri • Sivas (1175) • Malatya (1178) • Alanya • Antalya
Dynasty: Suleyman I (1077–1086) •• Kilij Arslan I (1092–1107) •• Melikshah (1107–1116) •• Mesud I (1116–1156) •• Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) •• Kaykhusraw I (1192–1196) •• Süleymanshah II (1196–1204) •• Kilij Arslan III (1204–1205) •• Kaykhusraw I (2nd reign) (1205–1211) •• Kaykaus I (1211–1220) •• Kayqubad I (1220–1237) •• Kaykhusraw II (1237–1246) •• Kaykaus II (1246–1260) •• Kilij Arslan IV (1248–1265) •• Kayqubad II (1249–1257) •• Kaykhusraw III (1265–1282) •• Mesud II (1282–1284) •• Kayqubad III (1284) •• Mesud II (2nd reign) (1284–1293) •• Kayqubad III (2nd reign) (1293–1294) •• Mesud II (3rd reign) (1294–1301) •• Kayqubad III (3rd reign) (1301–1303) •• Mesud II (4th reign) (1303–1307) • Mesud III (1307)
1243: Gradually vassalized to the Mongol Empire after the defeat suffered in the Battle of Köse Dag • 1307: Taken over by the Beylik of Karamanids
Palaces and Castles: Seljuk Palace in Konya (1190–1220) •• Kubadabad Palace in Beyşehir (1220–1230) •• Keykubadiye Palace in Kayseri (1220–1230) •• Alanya Kızıl Kule (Red Tower) and Shipyard constructions and widescale extension of Alanya Castle
Külliye (Complexes) and Dar al-Shifa (Medical Centers) and Medrese (Schools) and Mosques: Gevher Nesibe Külliye with Medical Center and Medical School and Mosque in Kayseri (1204–1210) •• Battal Gazi Külliye in Seyitgazi (1208) •• Karatay Medrese in Konya (1225) •• Ince Minaret Medrese in Konya (1258–1279) •• Atabeg Ferruh Darüşşifa in Çankırı (1236) •• Alâeddin Keykubad I Darüşşifa in Konya (1237) •• Torumtay Darüşşifa in Amasya (1266) •• Izzeddin Keykavus I Şifaiye Medrese and Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Sivas (1218) •• Gökmedrese in Sivas (1271) •• Çifte Minaret Medrese in Sivas (1271) •• Alâeddin Mosque in Konya (1220) •• Alâeddin Mosque in Niğde (1220) •• Great Mosque of Malatya in Eskimalatya (Battalgazi) (1224) •• Hüsameddin Temurlu castle, caravanseai and medrese in Kalehisar, Alaca (~1250) •• Havadan Külliye in Develi (~1300)
Caravanserais: Ağzıkara Han caravanserai near Aksaray (1237) •• Ak Han caravanserai near Denizli (1254) •• Alaca Han caravanserai in Alacahan (~1280) •• Alara Han caravanserai near Manavgat •• Alay Han caravanserai near Aksaray (1190) •• Altınapa Han caravanserai between Beyşehir and Konya (1201) •• Angit Han caravanserai between Konya and Akşehir (1201) •• Burma Han caravanserai in Divriği (13th century) •• Çakallı Han caravanserai near Samsun (~1250) •• Çardak Han (Hanabad) caravanserai in Çardak (1230) •• Çay Han caravanserai in Çay (1279) •• Dokuzun Han caravanserai in Konya (1210) •• Eğirdir Han caravanserai in Eğirdir (1238) •• Ertokuş Han caravanserai near Eğirdir (1224) •• Eshab-i Kehf Han caravanserai near Afşin–Elbistan (~1225) •• Evdir Han caravanserai near Antalya (1224) •• Ezinepazar Han caravanserai near Amasya (1246) •• Goncalı Akhan caravanserai between Konya and Aksaray •• Hatun Han caravanserai between Amasya and Tokat •• Hekim Han caravanserai in Hekimhan (1220) •• Horozlu Han caravanserai near Konya (1249) •• Incir Han caravanserai near Bucak (1239) •• Kadın Han caravanserai in Kadınhanı (1223) •• Karatay Han caravanserai near Pınarbaşı (1241) • Kargı Han caravanserai near Antalya (1246) •• Kesikköprü Han caravanserai near Kırşehir (1268) •• Kırkgöz Han caravanserai near Antalya (1246) •• Kızılören Han caravanserai near Konya (1206) •• Kuruçeşme Han caravanserai near Konya (1210) ••Melleç Han caravanserai near Anamur (13th century) •• Mirçinge Han caravanserai near Divriği (13th century) •• Obruk Han caravanserai near Konya (1230) •• Öresin Han caravanserai near Aksaray (~1275) •• Pazar Han caravanserai near Tokat (1239) •• Zazadın Han caravanserai near Konya (1236) •• Şarapsa Han caravanserai near Alanya (1246) •• Sarı Han caravanserai near Ürgüp (1249) •• Sevserek Han caravanserai between Malatya and Pötürge (13th century) •• Sultan Han caravanserai between Konya and Aksaray (1229) • Sultan Han caravanserai near Bünyan between Kayseri and Sivas (1236) • Susuz Han caravanserai near Bucak (1246)
Anatolian beyliks Tzachas (1081 - 1092) Ahlatshahs (1100–1207)
Founder: Sökmen el Kutbi • Capital: Ahlat
Important centers and extension: Silvan • Malazgirt • Erciş • Adilcevaz • Başkale • Eleşkirt • Van • Tatvan • Bitlis • Muş • Hani
Dynasty: Sökmen el Kutbi (1100–1112) • Ibrahim bin Sökmen (? - ?) • Ahmed bin Ibrahim (? - ?) • Sökmen the Second (1128–1185) • Seyfeddin Begtimur (1185–1193) • Aksungur (1193–1197) • Muhammed bin Begtimur (1185–1207)
1207: Submitted to the Ayyoubids
Important works: Ahlat Tombs
Artuqids (1102 - )
Ancestors: Eksük and his son Artuk, commander of Alparslan, from Döğer Oghuz Türkmen clan
Founder: Muinüddin Sökmen Bey • Capitals: Three branches in Hasankeyf, Mardin and Harput
Important centers and extension: Diyarbekir • Hasankeyf • Silvan • Mardin • Midyat • Harput • Palu • Aleppo (temporarily as of 1117)
Hasankeyf Dynasty or Sökmenli Dynasty: Müinüddin Sökmen Bey (1102–1104) • Sökmenli Ibrahim Bey (1104–1131)
Mardin Dynasty or Ilgazi Dynasty: Necmeddin Ilgazi (1106–1122) • Hüsameddin Timurtaş (1122–1154) • Necmeddin Alp (1154–1176)
Harput Dynasty: Belek Bey (1112–1124) • Nureddin Muhammed (? - ?) • Sökmen the Second (? - ?)
Important works: Artuqid Palace in Diyarbakır • Widescale extension of Diyarbakır City Walls • Malabadi Bridge • Hasankeyf Bridge • Sökmenli Nasirüddevle Bîmaristan-ı Farukî Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Silvan (1108) • Emineddin (brother of Ilgazi) Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Mardin (built between 1122) • Great Mosque of Silvan • Great Mosque of Mardin • Older Great Mosque of Midyat (Cami-i Kebir) • Great Mosque of Kızıltepe • Great Mosque of Harput • Artuqid Caravanserai in Mardin • Ibrahim Shah Caravanserai near Keban between Elazığ and Çemişgezek
Founder: Danishmend Gazi • Capitals: Sivas • Niksar
Important centers and extension: Sivas • Niksar • Malatya • Kayseri • Tokat • Amasya • Kastamonu • Ankara
Dynasty: Danishmend Gazi (1071–1105) • Emir Gazi Gümüştekin (1105–1134) • Melik Mehmed (1134–1146) • Yağıbasan (1146–1164) • Melik Ismail (1164–1175)
1175: Capital city of Sivas incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • 1178: Malatya branch incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate
Important works: Great Mosque of Niksar • Great Mosque of Kayseri • Kayseri Kölük Mosque • Danishmend Gazi Tomb (Melik Gazi Tomb) in Niksar • Denishmend Melik Mehmed Gazi Tomb in Kayseri
Founder: Mengücek Bey • Capitals: Erzincan, later also Divriği
Important centers and extension: Erzincan • Divriği • Kemah • Şarkikarahisar
Dynasty: Mengücek Bey (1071–1118) • Mengücekli Ishak Bey (1118–1120) • 1120–1142 Temporarily incorporated into the Beylik of Danishmends
Erzincan and Kemah Branch: Mengücekli Davud Shah (1142- ?) • 1228 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Divriği Branch: Mengücekli Süleyman Shah (1142- ?) • 1277 Beylik destroyed by Abaka
Important works: Divriği Great Mosque and Divriği Turan Melek Sultan Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1229) • Kale Mosque in Divriği
Founder: Saltuk Bey • Capital: Erzurum
Important centers and extension: Erzurum • Tercan
Dynasty: Saltuk Bey (1072–1102) • Ali bin Ebu'l-Kâsım (1102 - ~1124) • Ziyâüddin Gazi (~1124–1132) • Izzeddin Saltuk (1132–1168) • Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168–1191) • Mama Hatun (1191–1200) • Melikshah bin Muhammed (1200–1202)
1202: Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Important works: Great Mosque of Erzurum • Emir Saltuk Tomb in Erzurum • Mama Hatun Caravanserai in Tercan • Mama Hatun Tomb in Tercan • Kale Mosque in Erzurum • Erzurum Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1147)
Founder: Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey • Capitals: Birgi, later Ayasluğ
Important centers and extension: Tire • Izmir • Alaşehir • Aydın • Sakız/Chios (between 1336–1344)
Dynasty: Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey (1307–1334) • Umur Beg (1334–1348) • Aydınoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) • Aydınoğlu Isa Bey ( - 1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by marriage) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Aydınoğlu Musa Bey (1402–1403) • Aydınoğlu Umur Bey the Second (1403–1405) • İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey (1405–1425 with intervals) • 1425: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Isabey Mosque in Selçuk (1375)
Founder: Şemseddin Yaman Candar, commander of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Kastamonu
Important centers and extension: Sinop • Eflani • Çankırı • Kalecik • Tosya • Araç • Samsun (temporarily)
Dynasty: Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha (1309 - ~1340) • Candaroğlu Ibrahim Bey (1340–1345) • Candaroğlu Adil Bey (1340–1361) • Celaleddin Bayezid (1361–1385) • Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha the Second (1384–1392)
1392: Incorporation (by conquest) of Kastamonu branch into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Sinop Dynasty or Isfendiyarid Dynasty: Isfendiyar Bey (1385–1440) • Taceddin Ibrahim Bey (1440–1443) • Kemaleddin Ismail Bey (1443–1461)
1461: Incorporation (by surrender) of Sinop branch into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II
Founder: Hüsamettin Çoban Bey, commander from Kayı Oghuz clan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Kastamonu
Important centers and extension: Kastamonu • Taşköprü
Dynasty: Hüsamettin Çoban Bey (1309 - ?) • Alp Yürek (? - ?) • Muzafferüddin Yavlak Arslan (? - ?) • Çobanoğlu Mahmud Bey (? - 1309) •
1309: Incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids
Dulkadirids (1348- ~1525)
Ancestor: Hasan Dulkadir • Founder: Zeyneddin Karaca Bey • Capital: Elbistan
Important centers and extension: Maraş • Malatya • Harput • Kayseri • Antep
Dynasty: Zeyneddin Karaca Bey (1348–1348) • Dulkadiroğlu Halil Bey (1348–1386) • Sûli Bey (1386–1396) • Nâsıreddin Mehmed Bey (1396–1443) • Dulkadiroğlu Süleyman Bey (1443–1454) • Melik Arslan (?-?) • Shah Budak (?-1492) • Şahsuvar (?-?) • Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey (1492–1507) • Şahsuvaroğlu Ali Bey (1507- ~1525)
1443–1525: Increasingly tributary and gradually incorporated into the Ottoman Empire
Founder: Eretna Bey, brother-in-law of the Ilkhanid governor for Anatolia, Timurtash• Capital: Sivas, later Kayseri
Important centers and extension: Sivas • Kayseri • Niğde • Tokat • Amasya • Erzincan • Şarkikarahisar • Niksar
Dynasty: Eretna Bey (1328–1352) • Gıyasüddin Mehmed Bey (1352–1365) • Alâeddin Ali Bey (1365–1380) • Mehmed Bey the Second (1380–1381)
1326: Beylik replaced by Mehmed Bey's chancellor Kadı Burhaneddin
Founder: Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey, regent to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum •• Capital: Beyşehir
Important centers and extension: Beyşehir •• Akşehir •• Bolvadin
Dynasty: Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1288–1302) •• Eşrefoğlu Mehmed Bey (1302–1320) •• Eşrefoğlu Süleyman Bey the Second (1320–1326)
1326: Beylik destroyed by Demirtaş, the Ilkhanid governor for Anatolia
Important works: Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir (1299)
Ancestor:: Kerimüddin Alişir • Founder: Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First • Capital: Kütahya
Important centers and extension: Kula (District), Manisa • Simav • Yenicekent • Yenicekent (Beylik of Lâdik between 1300–1368)
Dynasty: Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First (1300–1340) • Germiyanlı Mehmed Bey (1340–1361) • Germiyanlı Süleyman Shah (1361–1387)
1390: First period of incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second (1402–1429) • 1414: Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty by Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second under Mehmed I • 1429: Second and last incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Ancestors:: Hamid and his son Ilyas Bey, frontier rulers under Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Founder: Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey • Capital: Isparta
Important centers and extension: Eğirdir • Uluborlu • Gölhisar • Korkuteli and Antalya transferred in 1301 to Dündar Bey's brother Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey
Dynasty: Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey (~1280–1324) • Hamidoğlu Hızır Bey (1324–1330) • Hamidoğlu Necmeddin Ishak Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Muzafferüddin Mustafa Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Hüsameddin Ilyas Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey (? - 1391)
1374: Incorporation (by sale of territories) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I and also partially to Karamanid dynasty.
Ancestor:: Nure Sûfi from Afshar Oghuz clan • Founder: Kerimüddin Karaman Bey • Capitals: successively Ereğli • Ermenek • Larende (Karaman) • Konya • Mut
Important centers and extension:
Dynasty: Kerimeddin Karaman Bey (1256–1261) • Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey (1261–1283) • Güneri Bey (1283–1300) • Bedreddin Mahmud Bey (1300–1308) • Yahşı Han Bey (1308–1312) • Bedreddin Ibrahim Bey (1312–1333) • Alâeddin Halil Mirza Bey (1333–1348) • Bedreddin Ibrahim Bey, 2nd reign (1348–1349) • Fahreddin Ahmed Bey (1349–1350) • Şemdeddin Bey the Second (1350–1351) • Burhaneddin Musa Bey (1351–1356) • Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1356–1357) • Alâeddin Ali Bey (1357–1398) • Nasreddin Mehmed Bey (1398–1399) • Bengi Alâeddin Ali Bey (1418–1424) • Damat Ibrahim Bey (1424–1464) • Sultanzade Ishak Bey (1464) • Sultanzade Pir Ahmed Bey (1464–1469) • Karamanoğlu Kasım Bey (1469–1483) • Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483–1487)
1398–1402: First incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane • 1414–1487: Gradual second incorporation into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed I, Murad II and Mehmed II.
Ancestor:: Melik Danişmend Gazi • Founder: Karesi Bey • Capital: Balıkesir
Important centers and extension: Aydıncık • Bergama • Edremit • Bigadiç • Ezine
Dynasty: Karesi Bey (1307–1328) • Demir Han (1328–1345) • Yahşı Han (1328–1345) • Süleyman Bey (1345–1360)
1374: Incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Beylik under Orhan I and Murad I
Ancestor:: Germiyanlı Ali Bey • Founder: Inanç Bey • Capital: Denizli
Important centers and extension: Denizli
Dynasty: Inanç Bey (~1300 - ~1314) • Murad Arslan (~1314 - ?) • Inançoğlu Ishak Bey (? - ~1360) • Süleyman Bey (1345–1368)
1368: Re-incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Germiyan
Founder: Menteşe Bey • Capitals: Beçin castle and nearby Milas, later also Balat
Important centers and extension: present-day Muğla Province • Muğla • Finike • Kaş • Çameli • Acıpayam • Tavas • Bozdoğan • Çine • temporarily Aydın and Güzelhisar, also Rhodes between 1300–1314
Dynasty: Menteşe Bey (~1261 - ~1282) • Menteşeoğlu Mesud Bey (~1282 - ~1320) • Menteşeoğlu Şücaüddin Orhan Bey (~1320 - ~1340) • Menteşeoğlu Ibrahim Bey (~1340 - ~1360)
1360: Division between the three sons of Menteşeoğlu Ibrahim Bey; Musa, Mehmed, Ahmed • 1390: First period of incorporation into the Ottoman Empire (by submission) under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Menteşeoğlu Ilyas Bey • 1414: Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty under Mehmed I • 1424: Second and last incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Firuz Bey Mosque in Milas • Ilyas Bey Mosque in Balat • Great Mosque of Muğla (1344) • Vakıflar Hamam (Turkish bath) in Muğla (1334)
Ancestor: Mühezzibeddin Ali Kâşî (vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum) • Founder: Süleyman Pervâne • Capital: Sinop
Important centers and extension: Sinop
Dynasty: Süleyman Pervâne (1261–1277) • Pervâneoğlu Mehmed Bey (1277–1296) • Pervâneoğlu Mesud Bey (1296–1300) • Pervâneoğlu Gazi Çelebi (1300–1326)
1516: Incorporation into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids
Important works: Muîneddin Pervâne Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Tokat (1276) • Pervâne Medrese in Sinop • Durağan Han caravanserai in Durağan (1266) • Eğret Han caravanserai near İhsaniye (1278) • Pervâne Bey Medrese in Closed Bazaar in Kayseri • Mosque in Merzifon
Founder: Ramazan Bey from Yüreğir Oghuz clan • Capitals: Adana
Important centers and extension: Adana • Tarsus
Dynasty: Ibrahim Bey (1344-?) • [[|Ahmed Bey (Ramadanids)|Ahmed Bey]] (?-1416) • Ibrahim Bey (1416–1417) • Hamza Bey (1417–1427) • Mehmed Bey (1427-?) • Eyluk Bey (? - ?) • Dündar Bey (? - ?) • Omer Bey (?-1490) • Giyas al-Din Halil Bey (1490–1511) • Hahmud Bey (1511–1516) • Selim Bey (?-?) • Kubad Bey (1517-?)
1516: Icorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Selim I • 1516–1608: Dynasty members as Beys of Ottoman sanjak of Adana until 1608.
Sahib Ataids (1275–1341)
Founder: Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali, vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Afyonkarahisar
Important centers and extension: Akşehir • Beyşehir • Sandıklı • Denizli
Dynasty: Dynasty: Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali (1275–1288) and sons • Nusreddin Ahmed (1288–1341)
1341: Incorporation into the Beylik of Germiyan
Important works: Sâhib Ata Caravanserai in Sultandağı
Founder: Saruhan Bey • Capital: Manisa
Important centers and extension: Demirci • Nif (Kemalpaşa) • Akhisar • Gördes • Menemen
Dynasty: Dynasty: Saruhan Bey (1302–1345) • Fahreddin Ilyas Bey • Muzafferuddin Ishak Bey ( -1388) • Hızır Shah (1388–1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1410: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Saruhanoğlu Orhan Bey (1402–1403) • Hızır Shah (1403–1410) • 1410: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Mehmed I
Ancestors: Hamidoğlu dynasty • Founder: Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey • Capitals: Antalya • Korkuteli
Important centers and extension: Antalya (lost to the Kingdom of Cyprus between 1361–1373) • Teke Peninsula
Dynasty: Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey (1301-?) • Tekeoğlu Mehmud Bey (?-1327) • Tekeoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) • Tekeoğlu Dadı Bey (?-?) • Zincirkıran Mehmed Bey (~1360 - ~1375) • Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (~1375–1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1423: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (1402–1423) • 1423: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Yivli Minare Mosque in Antalya (~1375)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Kubadabad Palace — or Kubad Abad Palace ( tr. Kubadabad Sarayı) refers to a complex of summer residences built for the sultan and his court during the reign of the Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad I (1220 1236). The palace is located on the southwestern shores of Lake… … Wikipedia
Al-Jazari — Abū al Iz Ibn Ismā īl ibn al Razāz al Jazarī (1136 1206) ( ar. أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري) was an important Arab [citation|title=Archimedes Weapons of War and Leonardo|first=D. L.|last=Simms|journal=The British Journal… … Wikipedia
Sultanate of Rûm — Infobox Former Country common name = Sultanate of Rûm native name = Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm continent = Eurasia region = Middle East status = Empire year start = 1077 year end = 1307 event start = Division from the Great Seljuq Empire event end … Wikipedia
Istanbul University — İstanbul Üniversitesi Motto Leadership in Higher Education for Centuries Established 30 May … Wikipedia
Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts — Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Established January 1, 1882 Type State university Rector Prof. Dr. Rahmi Aksungur Admin. staff 500 … Wikipedia