A-10 Thunderbolt II


A-10 Thunderbolt II

Infobox Aircraft
name = A-10 Thunderbolt II
type = Close air support attack aircraft
manufacturer = Fairchild-Republic




caption =
designer =
first flight =10 May 1972
introduction =March 1977
retired =
number built =715 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/a-10-history.htm A-10 history] , GlobalSecurity.org]
status = In service
primary user =United States Air Force
more users =
unit cost =US$11.7 million (average) [ [http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gao/nsiad97134/app_04.htm Operation Desert Storm: Evaluation of the Air Campaign] , GAO/NSIAD-97-134 Appendix IV, U.S. General Accounting Office, 12 June 1997.]
variants with their own articles =

The A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American single-seat, twin-engine, straight-wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. It is the first U.S. Air Force aircraft designed exclusively for close air support.

The A-10's official name comes from the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt of World War II, a fighter that was particularly effective at close air support. However, the A-10 is more commonly known by its nickname "Warthog" or simply "Hog". As a secondary mission, it provides airborne forward air control, guiding other aircraft against ground targets. A-10s used primarily in this role are designated OA-10.Jenkins 1998.]

Development

Criticism that the U.S. Air Force did not take close air support seriously prompted a few service members to seek a specialized attack aircraft.Coram 2004] In the Vietnam War, large numbers of ground-attack aircraft were shot down by small arms, surface-to-air missiles, and low-level anti-aircraft gunfire, prompting the development of an aircraft better able to survive such weapons. In addition, the UH-1 Huey and AH-1 Cobra helicopters of the day, which USAF commanders had said should handle close air support, were ill-suited for use against armor, carrying only anti-personnel machine guns and unguided rockets meant for soft targets. The F-4 Phantom was pressed into close air support, but usually in emergencies, as its high cruising speed and fuel consumption hindered its ability to loiter, and the lack of a gun on most F-4 variants coupled with the relative ineffectiveness of the standard 20mm Vulcan round against hard targets made strafing runs either ineffective or impossible.

On 6 March 1967, the U.S. Air Force released a request for information to 21 companies. Their objective was to create a design study for a low-cost attack aircraft designated A-X, or "Attack Experimental". The officer in charge of the project was Col. Avery Kay. In 1969, the Secretary of the Air Force asked Pierre Sprey to write the detailed specifications for the proposed A-X project. However, his initial involvement was kept secret due to Sprey's earlier controversial involvement in the F-X project. Sprey's discussions with A-1 Skyraider pilots operating in Vietnam and analysis of the effectiveness of current aircraft used in the role indicated the ideal aircraft should have long loiter time, low-speed maneuverability, massive cannon firepower, and extreme survivability; an aircraft that had the best elements of the Ilyushin Il-2, Henschel Hs 129 and A-1 Skyraider. The specifications also demanded that the aircraft cost less than $3 million. In May 1970, the USAF issued a modified, and much more detailed request for proposals, as the threat of Soviet armored forces and all-weather attack operations became more serious. Six companies submitted proposals to the USAF, with Northrop and Fairchild Republic selected to build prototypes: the YA-9A and YA-10A, respectively.

The YA-10A first flew on 10 May 1972. After trials and a fly-off against the YA-9A, the Air Force selected Fairchild-Republic's YA-10A on 10 January 1973 for production. (There was an additional fly-off against the A-7D Corsair II, the Air Force attack aircraft at the time, to prove the need to purchase a new aircraft) The first production A-10 flew in October 1975, and deliveries to the Air Force commenced in March 1976, to units at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. The first squadron to use the A-10 went operational in October 1977. In total, 715 airplanes were produced, the last in 1984. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/a-10-history.htm A-10/OA-10 Thunderbolt II History] ]

One experimental two-seat A-10 Night Adverse Weather (N/AW) version was built by converting an A-10A. [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3206 Republic Night/Adverse Weather A-10] , USAF National Museum] The Night Adverse Weather (N/AW) aircraft was developed by Fairchild from the first Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (DT&E) A-10 for consideration by the USAF. It included a second seat for a weapons officer responsible for ECM, navigation, and target acquisition. The variant was canceled and the only two-seat A-10 built now sits at Edwards Air Force Base awaiting a spot in the Flight Test Historical Foundation museum. [ [http://www.aircraftresourcecenter.com/AWA1/301-400/walk369_NAW-A-10/walk369.htm Photos an information on N/AW A-10B] ] The proposed two-seat A-10 trainer aircraft did not go into production, as it was felt that the A-10 was simple enough to fly that a trainer version would not be required.

The decision to make the 30 mm GAU-8 gun the main anti-tank weapon of the A-10 was influenced by Vietnam A-1 pilots and by Hans-Ulrich Rudel and his book, "Stuka Pilot". In World War II, Rudel flew the Ju 87G Stuka and destroyed many tanks using its two underwing 37 mm guns. His book was required reading for members on the A-X project. The JU-87G was an outmoded airframe with ersatz anti-tank weapons attached, yet still inflicted impressive casualties on Soviet tank forces.

A-10s were initially an unwelcome addition to the arsenal in the eyes of Air Force brass. The Air Force prized the high-flying, high-performance F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon air-superiority jets, and were determined to leave the dirty work of close air support to Army helicopters (the development of the AGM-114 Hellfire anti-armor missile and AH-64 Apache attack helicopter having since provided the Army with a viable anti-tank aircraft). Attempts to transfer the A-10 to the Army and the Marines were at first prevented by the 1948 Key West Agreement, and then by the A-10's impressive combat record during the Gulf War in 1991. Shortly after the war, the Air Force gave up on the idea of replacing the A-10 with a close air support version of the F-16. [http://www.f-16.net/f-16_versions_article18.html A-16 Close Air Support] ]

Upgrades

The A-10 has received many upgrades over the years. Aircraft were upgraded with inertial navigation and a Pave Penny laser sensor (marked target seeker) pod that allowed the pilot to detect laser energy for PID (Positive Identification) of an illuminated target. The Pave Penny is a passive seeker and cannot self-designate a target for a Laser Guided Bomb (LGB). Later, the Low-Altitude Safety and Targeting Enhancement (LASTE) upgrade provided computerized weapon-aiming equipment, an autopilot, and ground-collision warning system. The A-10 is now compatible with night-vision goggles for low-light operation. In 1999, aircraft began to receive Global Positioning System navigation systems.

The A-10 is scheduled to stay in service with the USAF until 2028. [http://www.afa.org/magazine/march2007/0307force.asp Making the Best of the Fighter Force] , Air Force magazine, March 2007.] In 2005, the entire A-10 fleet began receiving upgrades to the "C" model that will include improved fire control system (FCS), electronic countermeasures (ECM), and the ability to carry smart bombs. The A-10 will be part of a service life extension program (SLEP) with many receiving new wings. A contract to build 242 new A-10 wing sets was awarded to Boeing on 29 June 2007. [ [http://boeing.com/ids/news/2007/q2/070629b_nr.html Boeing Awarded $2 Billion A-10 Wing Contract] , Boeing, 29 June 2007.] Modifications to provide precision weapons capability are well underway. Hill AFB has completed work on its 100th A-10 precision engagement upgrade in January 2008. [ [http://www.af.mil/news/story_print.asp?id=123082873 "Maintenance unit completes upgrade of 100th A-10"] , Air Force print news, 18 January 2008.] The C model upgrades are to be completed in 2011.Schanz, Marc V. [http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2008/June%202008/0608fade.aspx "Not Fade Away"] , Air Force Magazine, June 2008.]

Design

The A-10 has superior maneuverability at low speeds and altitude, thanks to straight, wide wings with downturned "droop" wing tips. These also allow short takeoffs and landings, permitting operations from rugged, forward airfields near front lines. The aircraft can loiter for extended periods of time and operate under 1,000 feet (300 m) ceilings with 1.5-mile (2.4 km) visibility. It typically flies at a relatively slow speed of 300 knots (345 mph or 555 km/h), which makes it a much better candidate for the ground-attack role than fast fighter-bombers, which often have difficulty targeting small and slow-moving targets.

Engine exhaust passes over the aircraft's horizontal stabilizer and between the twin tails, decreasing the A-10's infrared signature and lowering the likelihood that the aircraft can be targeted by heat-seeking missiles. The placement of the engines behind the wings partially shields them from anti-aircraft fire. Honeycomb panels of this type on the A-10 include the flap shrouds, the elevators, the rudders and other sections of the fins. The leading edge of the mainplane is honeycomb to provide strength with minimal weight compromise.

The A-10 has integrally machined skin panels. Because the stringers are integral with the skin there are no join or seal problems. These panels, fabricated using computer controlled machining, reduce the time and hence the cost of manufacture. Combat experience has shown that this type of panel is more resistant. The skin is not load-bearing, so damaged skin sections can be easily replaced in the field, with makeshift materials if necessary. [ Drendel 1981, p. 12.]

The ailerons are at the far ends of the wings to gain greater rolling moment as with most aircraft but there are two distinguishing features. First, the ailerons are larger than is typical, almost 50% of the chord, providing improved control even at slow speeds. The aileron is also split, making it a deceleron.

The Thunderbolt II can be serviced and operated from bases with limited facilities near battle areas. An unusual feature is that many of the aircraft's parts are interchangeable between the left and right sides, including the engines, main landing gear, and vertical stabilizers. The sturdy landing gear, low-pressure tires and large, straight wings allow operation from short rough strips even with a heavy ordnance load, allowing the aircraft to operate from damaged airbases. The aircraft is designed to be refueled, rearmed and serviced with minimal equipment. Operating from a forward area is both useful for close air support and necessary due to the A-10's relatively low cruise and top speeds.

Because of the close proximity of the front landing gear and the A-10's main cannon, the landing gear is offset to the aircraft's right and cannon slightly to the left (see schematic below). The offset front landing gear causes the A-10 to have dissimilar turning radii. Turning to the right on the ground takes less space than turning left. [Explanation: With the inner wheel on a turn stopped, the minimum radius of the turn is dictated by the distance between the inner wheel and the nose wheel. Since the distance is less between the right main wheel and the nose gear than the same measurement on the left, the aircraft can turn more tightly to the right. Differing radii is simple geometry.]

Durability

The A-10 is exceptionally hardy. Its strong airframe can survive direct hits from armor-piercing and high-explosive projectiles up to 23 mm. The aircraft has triple redundancy in its flight systems, with mechanical systems to back up double-redundant hydraulic systems. This permits pilots to fly and land when hydraulic power or part of a wing is lost. Flight without hydraulic power uses the manual reversion flight control system; this engages automatically for pitch and yaw control, and under pilot control (manual reversion switch) for roll control. In manual reversion mode, the A-10 is sufficiently controllable under favorable conditions to return to base and land, though control forces are much higher than normal. The aircraft is designed to fly with one engine, one tail, one elevator and half a wing torn off. [Henderson, Breck W. "A-10 'Warthogs' damaged heavily in Gulf War bug survived to fly again." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", 5 August 1991.] Self-sealing fuel tanks are protected by fire-retardant foam. Additionally, the main landing gear is designed so that the wheels semi-protrude from their nacelles when the gear is retracted so as to make gear-up landings (belly landing) easier to control and less damaging to the aircraft's underside. They also are all hinged toward the rear of the aircraft, so if hydraulic power is lost the pilot can simply drop the gear and a combination of gravity and wind resistance will open and lock the gear in place.

The cockpit and parts of the flight-control system are protected by lb to kg|900 of titanium armor, referred to as a titanium "bathtub".Jenkins 1998, pp. 47, 49.] The tub has been tested to withstand strikes from 23 mm cannon fire and some strikes from 57 mm rounds. It is made up of titanium plates with thicknesses from ½ inch to 1½ inches determined by a study of likely trajectories and deflection angles. This protection comes at a cost, though; the armor itself weighs almost 6% of the entire aircraft’s empty weight. To protect the pilot from the fragmentation likely to be created from impact of a shell any interior surface of the tub that is directly exposed to the pilot is covered by a multi-layer Kevlar spall shield. The canopy consists of a bullet-proof diffusion-bonded stretched-acrylic to withstand small arms fire and is resistant to spalling. The front windscreen offers shielding resistant to 20 mm cannon fire.

Recent proof of the durability of the A-10 was shown when then-Captain Kim Campbell, USAF, flying a ground support mission over Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, suffered extensive flak damage to her A-10. Enemy fire damaged one of the A-10's engines and crippled its hydraulic system, forcing the back-up mechanical system to operate the aircraft's stabilizer and flight controls. Despite this, Campbell managed to fly it for an hour and landed it safely at the air base in manual reversion mode.

Powerplant

There are several reasons for the unusual location of the A-10's General Electric TF34-GE-100 turbofan engines. First, the A-10 was expected to fly from forward air bases, often with semi-prepared substandard runways that presented a high risk of foreign object damage to the engines. The height of the engines lowers the chance that sand or stones will enter the inlet. This also allows engines to remain running, allowing for shorter servicing and rearming turn-around times by ground crew. Servicing and rearming are further helped by having wings closer to the ground than would be possible if the engines were wing-mounted. The position also reduces the IR signature, which starts low anyway due to the engines' 6:1 bypass ratio. Because of their high position, the engines are angled upward nine degrees to bring the combined thrust line closer to the aerodynamic center of the aircraft. This avoids trimming measures to counteract a nose-down pitching moment if the engines were parallel to the fuselage. The heavy engines require strong supports, so their pylons are connected to the airframe by four bolts. [Bell 1986, p. 64.]

All four fuel tanks are near the center of the aircraft, reducing the likelihood that they will be hit or separated from the engines. The tanks are protected by several measures. The tanks are separate from the fuselage; thus, projectiles would need to penetrate the skin before reaching the tank. The refueling system is purged after use so that there is no fuel unprotected anywhere in the aircraft. All pipes self-seal if they are compromised. Most of the fuel system components are inside the tanks so that if a leak were to occur from the component the fuel would not be lost. If a tank does get damaged, check valves ensure that fuel does not flow into the compromised tank. Most importantly, reticulated polyurethane foam lines both the inner and outer sides of the fuel tanks, holding debris and restricting fuel spillage in the event of damage. The other source of possible combustion, the engines, are shielded from the fuel system and the rest of the airframe by firewalls and fire extinguishing equipment.

Weapon systems

Although the A-10 can carry considerable disposable stores, its primary built-in weapon is the 30 mm GAU-8/A Avenger Gatling gun. One of the most powerful aircraft cannons ever flown, it fires large depleted uranium armor-piercing shells. In the original design, the pilot could switch between two rates of fire: 2,100 or 4,200 rounds per minute; [ Stephens 1995, p. 18.] this was changed to a fixed rate of 3,900 rounds per minute. [TCTO 1A-10-1089, Flight manual TO 1A-10A-1 (20 February 2003, Change 8), page vi, 1-150A.] The cannon takes about half a second to come up to speed, so 50 rounds are fired during the first second, 65 or 70 rounds per second thereafter. The gun is consistently accurate; it can place 80% of its shots within a 40-foot (12.4 m) circle from 4,000 feet (1,220 m) while in flight. [Sweetman 1987, p. 46.] The GAU-8 is optimized for a slant range of convert|4000|ft|m|sigfig=3|abbr=off with the A-10 in a 30 degree dive.Jenkins 1998, pp. 64–73.]

The fuselage of the aircraft is built around the gun. [ [http://www.plane-crazy.net/links/a10.htm The A-10] , Plane-Crazy.net] For example, the nose wheel is offset to the right so that the gun's firing barrel at the 9 o'clock position is aligned on the aircraft's centerline. The gun's drum holds 1,174 rounds of 30 mm ammunition. The early A-10s carried 1,350 rounds, but were replaced because the helix was susceptible to damage during loading.Fact|date=July 2008 The 1,174-round drums were reinforced. The damage caused by a portion of those rounds firing prematurely due to impact of an explosive shell would be catastrophic. It is for this reason that a great deal of effort has been taken to protect the 5 ft (1.52 m) wide, 9 ft (2.74 m) long drum. There are many plates of differing thicknesses between the skin and the drum. These plates are called trigger plates because when an explosive shell hits a target it first penetrates its armor, then detonates. As the drum has many layers of thin armor, the shell's detonation is triggered before reaching the drum. A final layer of armor around the drum itself protects it from fragmentation damage. The gun is loaded by Syn-Tech's linked tube carrier GFU-7/E 30 mm ammunition loading assembly cart; a vehicle unique to the A-10 and GAU-8.

Another commonly used weapon is the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missile, with different variations for either electro-optical (TV-guided) or infra-red targeting. The Maverick allows targets to be engaged at much greater ranges than the cannon, a safer proposition in the face of modern anti-aircraft systems. During Desert Storm, in the absence of dedicated forward-looking infrared cameras, the Maverick's infra-red camera was used for night missions as a "poor man's FLIR". Other weapons include cluster bombs and Hydra rocket pods. Although the A-10 is equipped to deliver laser-guided bombs, their use is relatively uncommon; at the low altitudes and speeds of typical A-10 operations, standard unguided bombs provide adequate accuracy at far lower cost. In any event, the guided weapons would provide little benefit, as there would be nearly no time for the weapons to steer onto a target. A-10s usually fly with an ALQ-131 ECM pod under one wing and two AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles under the other for self-defense.

Modernization

The A-10 Precision Engagement Modification Program is an estimated US$420 million program that will see 356 A-10s upgraded with a new flight computer, new glass cockpit displays and controls, two new 5.5 inch color displays with moving map function and an integrated digital stores management system. [ [http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-415 GAO-07-415 Tactical Aircraft, DOD Needs a Joint and Integrated Investment Strategy] , US Government Accountability Office, April 2007. [http://www.gao.gov/htext/d07415.html text version] ]

Other funded improvements to the A-10 fleet include a new data link, the ability to employ smart weapons such as the JDAM and Wind Corrected Munitions Dispensor, and the ability to carry an integrated targeting pod such as the Northrop Grumman LITENING targeting pod or the Lockheed Martin Sniper XR Advanced Targeting Pod (ATP). Also included is the ROVER or remotely operated video enhanced receiver to provide sensor data to personnel on the ground.

Structural improvements will feature an all new wing for the 242 A-10s that were originally built with "thin skin" wings. Long lead funding has also been provided for an improved higher thrust engine.

On 2 April 2007 the Government Accounting Office estimated the potential total cost of upgrading, refurbishing, and service life extension plans for the A-10 force at up to $4.4 billion.

Operational history

[
AGM-65 on one of the Eglin AFB weapons ranges.]

The first unit to receive the A-10 Thunderbolt II was the 355th Tactical Training Wing, based at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona in March 1976. The first unit to achieve full combat-readiness was the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina in 1978. Deployments of A-10As followed at bases both at home and abroad, including England AFB, Louisiana, Eielson AFB, Alaska, Osan Air Base, Korea, and RAF Bentwaters/RAF Woodbridge, England. The 81st TFW of RAF Bentwaters/RAF Woodbridge operated rotating detachments of A-10s at four bases in Germany known as Forward Operating Locations (FOLs): Leipheim, Sembach Air Base, Nörvenich, and Ahlhorn.Fact|date=April 2008

The A-10 saw combat for the first time during the Gulf War in 1991, destroying more than 900 Iraqi tanks, 2,000 military vehicles, and 1,200 artillery pieces. A-10s shot down two Iraqi helicopters with the GAU-8 gun. The first of these occurred on February 6, 1991 when Captain Robert Swain shot down an Iraqi helicopter over Kuwait marking the A-10's first air-air victory. [ [http://www.afa.org/magazine/perspectives/desert_storm/0692total.asp "Total Storm"] , Air Force magazine, June 1992.] Seven A-10s were shot down during the war. [ [http://webcom.com/~amraam/aaloss.html Fixed-wing Combat Aircraft attrition in Desert Storm] ] A-10s had a mission capable rate of 95.7%, flew 8,100 sorties, and launched 90% of the AGM-65 Maverick missiles fired in the conflict. [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=70 A-10/OA-10 fact sheet] , USAF]

In the 1990s many A-10s were shifted to the forward air control (FAC) role and redesignated OA-10. In the FAC role the A-10 is typically equipped with up to six pods of 2.75 inch (70 mm) Hydra rockets, usually with smoke or white phosphorus warheads used for target marking. OA-10s remain fully combat capable despite the redesignation.

A-10s again saw service in the 1999 Kosovo War, in the later stages of the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, in Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan in March 2002 and in the 2003 Iraq war. In Afghanistan the A-10 is based at Bagram.

On 30 April 2003, USCENTAF issued "Operation Iraqi Freedom: By the Numbers", a declassified report about the aerial campaign in the conflict. Sixty A-10s were deployed in Iraq; one was shot down near Baghdad International Airport by Iraqi fire late in the campaign. Of the A-10s deployed, 47 were Air National Guard aircraft, and 12 were from the Air Force Reserve. The A-10 had a mission capable rate of 85% in the war, and fired 311,597 rounds of 30 mm ammunition. The A-10 also flew 32 missions in which the aircraft dropped propaganda leaflets over Iraq. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military//library/report/2003/uscentaf_oif_report_30apr2003.pdf Iraq] , GlobalSecurity.org]

The A-10C first deployed to Iraq in the third quarter of 2007 with the 104th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron. The jets include the Precision Engagement Upgrade. [ [http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123074946 "Upgraded A-10s prove worth in Iraq"] , U.S. Air Force, 7 November 2007.] The A-10C's digital avionics and communications systems have greatly reduced the time to acquire a close air support target and attack it. [Doscher, Staff Sgt. Thomas J. [http://www.acc.af.mil/news/story_print.asp?id=123087237 "A-10C revolutionizes close air support"] , US Air Force, 21 February 2008.]

The A-10 is scheduled to stay in service with the USAF until 2028 and possibly later, [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/08/29/216249/us-air-force-may-extend-fairchild-a-10-beyond-2028.html "US Air Force may extend Fairchild A-10 life beyond 2028"] , Flight International, 29 August 2007.] when it may be replaced by the F-35 Lightning II. The entire A-10 fleet is currently undergoing upgrades. The A-10 could stay in service longer due to its low cost and its unique capabilities — such as its cannon, ruggedness, and flight endurance capabilities.

Variants

;YA-10A : The first two prototypes.;A-10A : Single-seat close air support, ground-attack version.;OA-10A : Single-seat forward air control version.;YA-10B Night/Adverse Weather: Two-seat experimental prototype, for work at night and in bad weather. Later redesignated YA-10B. Only one example was built, which is now on static display.;A-10C : A-10As updated under the incremental Precision Engagement (PE) program featuring a new glass cockpit (including digital moving map displays), advanced datalink, and all-weather multi-mission precision weapons and laser targeting capability. [http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2007/06/a-highertech-hog-the-a10c-pe-program/index.php A Higher-Tech Hog: The A-10C PE Program] , Defense Industry Daily, 30 June 2008.]

Operators

The A-10 has been flown exclusively by the United States Air Force and its Air Reserve Components, the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and the Air National Guard (ANG). As of March 2008, 20 squadrons operate the A-10 or its OA-10 variant (nine USAF, six ANG, and five AFRC).

;United States Air Force
*23d Wing - Moody Air Force Base, Georgia
**74th Fighter Squadron
**75th Fighter Squadron
*51st Fighter Wing - Osan AB, South Korea
**25th Fighter Squadron
*52d Fighter Wing - Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany
**81st Fighter Squadron
*53d Wing - Eglin AFB, Florida
**422d Test and Evaluation Squadron (Nellis AFB, Nevada)
*57th Wing - Nellis AFB, Nevada
**66th Weapons Squadron
*354th Fighter Wing - Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska
**355th Fighter Squadron (inactivated 2007)
*355th Wing - Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona
**354th Fighter Squadron
**357th Fighter Squadron
**358th Fighter Squadron

;Air National Guard
*103d Airlift Wing - Bradley ANGB, Connecticut (BRAC 2005 removed A-10 aircraft, given C-21 in 2007)
**118th Fighter Squadron
*104th Fighter Wing - Barnes ANGB, Massachusetts (BRAC 2005 saw unit transition from A-10 to F-15C in 2007)
**131st Fighter Squadron
*110th Fighter Wing - Battle Creek ANGB, Michigan(BRAC 2005 moves aircraft to 107th Fighter Squadron at Selfridge ANGB, Michigan)
**172d Fighter Squadron
*111th Fighter Wing - Willow Grove ARS, Pennsylvania (BRAC 2005 sees unit losing aircraft in 2012)
**103d Fighter Squadron
*124th Wing - Boise Air Terminal, Idaho
**190th Fighter Squadron
*175th Wing - Warfield ANGB, Martin State Airport, Maryland
**104th Fighter Squadron
*188th Fighter Wing - Fort Smith, Arkansas (Transitioned from F-16s to A-10s due to BRAC 2005)

;Air Force Reserve Command
*442d Fighter Wing - Whiteman AFB, Missouri
**76th Fighter Squadron (Moody AFB, GA)
**303d Fighter Squadron
*917th Wing - Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana
**45th Fighter Squadron (Davis-Monthan AFB, AZ)
**47th Fighter Squadron
*926th Fighter Wing - NAS JRB New Orleans, Louisiana
**706th Fighter Squadron (deactivated 2007 due to BRAC 2005)

A-10s on display

* [http://www.aero-web.org/locator/manufact/fairrepu/a-10.htm AeroWeb's A-10 List on Display]

pecifications (A-10A)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet

ref=The Great Book of Modern Warplanes [Spick 2000, p. 21.]
crew=1
span main=57 ft 6 in
span alt=17.53 m
length main=53 ft 4 in
length alt=16.26 m
height main=14 ft 8 in
height alt=4.47 m
area main=506 ft²
area alt=47.0 m²
airfoil=NACA 6716 root, NACA 6713 tip
empty weight main=24,959 lb
empty weight alt=11,321 kg
loaded weight main=
** Standard: 30,384 lb
loaded weight alt=13,782 kg)
** On CAS mission: 47,094 lb (21,361 kg)
** On anti-armor mission: 42,071 lb (19,083 kg
max takeoff weight main=50,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt=23,000 kg
engine (jet)=General Electric TF34-GE-100A
type of jet=turbofans
number of jets=2
thrust main=9,065 lbf
thrust alt=40.32 kN
max speed main=450 knots
max speed alt=518 mph, 833 km/h
max speed more=at 5,000 ft (1,500 m) with 18 Mk 82 bombs [Flight manual TO 1A-10A-1 (20 February 2003, Change 8), pp. 5–24.]
never exceed speed main=450 knots
never exceed speed alt=518 mph, 833 km/h
cruise speed main=300 knots
cruise speed alt=340 mph, 560 km/h
stall speed main=120 knots
stall speed alt=220 km/h
stall speed more= [ [http://www.simhq.com/_air/air_052a.html History of the Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, Part Two] ]
climb rate main=6,000 ft/min
climb rate alt=30 m/s
ceiling main=45,000 ft
ceiling alt=13,700 m
combat radius main=
** On CAS mission: 250 nmi
combat radius alt=288 mi, 460 km) at 1.88 hour single-engine loiter at 5,000 ft (1,500 m), 10 min combat
** On anti-armor mission: 252 nmi (290 mi, 467 km), 40 nm (45 mi, 75 km
combat radius more=sea-level penetration and exit, 30 min combat
ferry range main=2,240 nmi
ferry range alt=2,580 mi, 4,150 km
ferry range more=with 50 knot (55 mph, 90 km/h) headwinds, 20 minutes reserve
loading main=99 lb/ft²
loading alt=482 kg/m²
thrust/weight=0.36
armament=
* Guns: 1× 30 mm (1.18 in) GAU-8/A Avenger gatling gun with 1174 rounds
* Hardpoints: 8× under-wing and 3× under-fuselage pylon stations holding up to 16,000 lb (7,200 kg) and accommodating:
** Mark 82, Mark 83, and Mark 84 general-purpose bombs "or"
** Mk 77 incendiary bombs "or"
** BLU-1, BLU-27/B Rockeye II, Mk20, BL-755 [Flight manual TO 1A-10A-1 (20 February 2003, Change 8), pp. 5–30.] and CBU-52/58/71/87/89/97 cluster bombs "or"
** Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (A-10C) "or"
** GBU-10 Paveway II, GBU-12 Paveway II, GBU-16 Paveway II and GBU-24 Paveway III laser-guided bombs "or"
** Joint Direct Attack Munition (A-10C) [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/a-10-specs.htm A-10 Specs - Global Security] ] "or"
** AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles and AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles "or"
** LAU-68 Hydra 70 mm (2.76 in) and 127 mm (5.0 in) rocket pods "or"
** Illumination flares, ECM and chaff pods "or"
** ALQ-131/ALQ-184 ECM pod "or"
** LITENING AT/Sniper XR targeting pods (A-10C)

Nicknames

The A-10 Thunderbolt II received its popular nickname "Warthog" from the pilots and crews of the USAF attack squadrons who flew and maintained it. The A-10 is the last of Republic's jet attack aircraft to serve with the USAF. The Republic F-84 Thunderjet was nicknamed the "Hog", F-84F Thunderstreak nicknamed "Superhog", and the Republic F-105 Thunderchief tagged "Ultra Hog".Jenkins 1998, p. 4, backcover.] A less common nickname is the "Tankbuster". [ [http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/a-10/ A-10 Thunderbolt (Warthog) Ground Attack Aircraft] , Airforce-Technology.com]

ee also

aircontent
|related=
similar aircraft=
* Northrop YA-9
* Sukhoi Su-25
lists=
* List of attack aircraft
* List of active United States military aircraft
* List of friendly fire incidents
see also=
* Craig D. Button

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Bell, Dana. "A-10 Warthog in Detail & Scale". Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania: TAB Books, 1986. ISBN 0-8168-5030-5.
* Coram, Robert. "Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War". Los Angeles: Back Bay Books, 2004. ISBN 0-31679-688-3.
* Drendel, Lou. "A-10 Warthog in action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1981. ISBN 0-89747-122-9.
* Fitzsimmons, Bernard, ed. "A-10 Thunderbolt II" (Modern Fighting Aircraft Series). New York: Arco Publishing, Inc., 1984. ISBN 0-668-06070-0.
* Jenkins, Dennis R. "Fairchild-Republic A/OA-10 Warthog". North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-013-2.
* Mehuron, Tamar A., Assoc. Editor. [http://www.afa.org/magazine/may2007/ "2007 USAF Almanac- Equipment"] . "Air Force Magazine" Journal of the Air Force Association, volume 90, issue 5, May 2007. ISSN 0730-6784.
* Neubeck, Ken. "A-10 Warthog, Mini in-action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-89747-335-3.
* Neubeck, Ken. "A-10 Warthog Walk Around". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-89747-400-7.
* Spick, Mike. "The Great Book of Modern Warplanes". London: Salamander Books, 2000. ISBN 1-84065-156-3.
* Stephens, Rick. "A-10 Thunderbolt II." "World Air Power Journal", 1995. ISBN 1-874023-54-9.
* Sweetman, Bill. "The Great Book of Modern Warplanes". New York: Portland House, 1987. ISBN 0-517-63367-1.
* Winchester, Jim, ed. "Fairchild A-10 Thunderbolt II." Military Aircraft of the Cold War (The Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: The Grange plc., 2006. ISBN 1-84013-929-7.

External links

* [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=70 USAF A-10 fact sheet page]
* [http://www.a-10.org/ A-10.org web site]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/a-10.htm A-10 web page on GlobalSecurity.org]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/a-10.htm A-10 web page on fas.org]
* [http://www.warthogpen.com/ The Warthog Pen web site]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sALiuWg_I1k&feature=related Video of an A-10 weapon test]


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