"Track-via-missile" (or TVM) refers to a
missileguidance technique which combines features of semi-active radar homing(SARH) and radio command guidance.
TVM guidance requires a radar ground station and a missile with a radar receiver. As with semi-active homing missiles, the ground-based
radarilluminates the target with radar energy which is then reflected off the target and detected by the missile. However, unlike an SARH missile, the missile itself does not compute interception with this information. Instead, data from the radar returns is relayed back to the ground station via a data link.
* Unlike an active radar homing missile, the missile does not alert the target to the fact that it is homing in on it by illuminating it with radio waves. Typically, the target will be aware that it is being illuminated by the SAM radar, but it will not know for certain if it has been engaged. Modern phased-array radars, by virtue of their thin beams and low side lobes make detection by the aircraft even more difficult.
* Unlike semi-active radar homing missiles, the electronics needed to calculate and follow an interception path don't need to be built into each missile, reducing their complexity, weight and cost. It is also possible to make the missiles more accurate by using more sophisticated algorithms for calculating interception than would be possible in the limited processor in a missile. In addition, it is possible for operators to adjust the missile's flight path throughout the engagement, even during the terminal homing phase.
* Unlike radio command guided missiles, because the missile's radar receiver is much closer to the target than the ground station, more accurate tracking information can be generated for the system's computer. It is also more difficult to
jamor spoof the tracking signal.
It is also possible for the ground station to receive direct radar reflections from the target (rather than the data downloaded by the missile) and combine the two sources of information to generate the interception course. This adds an extra element of ECM resistance to the system.
TVM also has some disadvantages. For example, the data link could potentially be jammed, which is not possible with an active homing or "fire and forget" missile. Additionally, this technique requires the ground-based radar to be active throughout the engagement potentially aiding aircraft equipped with
anti-radiation missilesas they attempt to detect and engage the SAM radar. Another potential disadvantage compared to active radar homing is that the missile must rely on the ground-based radar for guidance, so if the target is able to put an obstacle between itself and the fixed radar system (e.g. a hill), or if it manages to get outside of the radar's tracking envelope (e.g., fly outside of the tracking "fan" of a PATRIOT radar, or fly outside the effective range of another system) then the missile will not be able to detect reflected radiation from the target and thus will be unable to continue the engagement.
These disadvantages are largely avoided by the latest PAC-3 upgrade to the Patriot system since it uses terminal
active radar homing, but this dramatically increases the cost and complexity of the missiles.
Most very modern long-range SAM systems use the track-via-missile technique. This includes:
U.S. MIM-104 Patriotanti-aircraft and anti- cruise missilesystem (with some limited anti- ballistic missilecapability)
Russian S-300PS/S-300F/S-300-PMU ( NATOdesignation SA-10 "Grumble") anti-aircraft/anti-missile system.
Russian S-300V ( NATOdesignation SA-12 "Gladiator"/"Giant") anti-missile system.
* The Chinese
HQ-9medium- to long-range, semi-active radar homing missile. There are allegations that China illegally acquired Patriot missile technology to develop the HQ-9.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Track-via-Missile — (TVM) bezeichnet eine Methode zur Lenkung von Flugabwehrraketen. Das Verfahren ist eine Mischung aus halbaktiver Radarlenkung (SARH) und Funkfernsteuerung der Rakete. Erläuterung Genau wie beim SARH Verfahren beleuchtet ein bodengebundenes Radar… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Missile guidance — A guided bomb strikes a practice target Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile s target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems… … Wikipedia
Missile Command — North American arcade flyer Developer(s) Atari, Inc. Publisher(s) … Wikipedia
Missile lock-on — For other uses, see Lock On (disambiguation). Missile lock on refers to a scenario where the guidance system for a missile (or its associated launch vehicle) can accurately track a target, and a fire control system can calculate the required… … Wikipedia
S-300 (missile) — Not to be confused with S 300VM. SA 10 redirects here. For the channel interface for the PDP 10 computer, see Systems Concepts. Grumble redirects here. For other uses, see Grumble (disambiguation). For the Project Apollo test mission, see A 105… … Wikipedia
rocket and missile system — ▪ weapons system Introduction any of a variety of weapons systems that deliver explosive warheads to their targets by means of rocket propulsion. Rocket is a general term used broadly to describe a variety of jet propelled missiles… … Universalium
Air-to-air missile — An air to air missile (AAM) is a guided missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. It is typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fuelled but sometimes liquid fuelled. Ramjet engines, as… … Wikipedia
Tor missile system — Infobox Weapon name= 9K330 Tor NATO reporting name: SA 15 Gauntlet caption= 9K330 TLAR origin= flagcountry|Soviet Union type= Tracked SAM system is ranged= is bladed= is explosive= is artillery= is vehicle=yes is missile= is UK=yes service=… … Wikipedia
National missile defense — This article is about systems to shield an entire country. For the ground based US missile defense system, see Ground Based Midcourse Defense. A Payload Launch Vehicle (PLV) carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck… … Wikipedia
Mk 92 Guided Missile Fire Control System — The Mk 92 is part of the combat systems of the Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate. The Mk 92 Fire Control System is a US built medium range anti aircraft missile and gun fire control system. It was developed for the Oliver Hazard Perry class… … Wikipedia