Pipestone National Monument

Infobox_protected_area | name = Pipestone National Monument
iucn_category = III

caption =
locator_x = 146
locator_y = 48
location = Pipestone County, Minnesota, USA
nearest_city = Pipestone, Minnesota
lat_degrees = 44
lat_minutes = 0
lat_seconds = 48
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 96
long_minutes = 19
long_seconds = 31
long_direction = W
area = 281.78 (1.14 km²)
established = August 25, 1937
visitation_num = 69,820
visitation_year = 2005
governing_body = National Park Service

Pipestone National Monument preserves traditional catlinite quarries just north of Pipestone, Minnesota. The catlinite, or "pipestone", was and is used to make peace pipes, vitally important to traditional Plains Indian culture. The quarries are sacred to the Dakota Sioux (Lakota) Native Americans, and were neutral territory where all tribes could quarry stone for ceremonial pipes.cite web| url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/Red%20Books/66000112.red.pdf| title=National Register Redbook: Pipestone National Monument| author=National Park Service| accessmonthday=May 17 | accessyear=2006| ] The Sioux tribes may have taken control of the quarries around 1700, but the Minnesota pipestone has been found inside North American burial mounds dating from long before that, and ancient Indian trails leading to the area suggest pipestone may have been quarried there for many centuries. [ [http://www.pipestoneminnesota.com/museum/history2.htm Pipestone County Museum - History ] ]

The land was acquired by the federal government in 1893. The National Monument was established by an act of Congress on August 25, 1937, and the establishing legislation restored quarrying rights to the Indians. Today only people of Native American ancestry are allowed to quarry the pipestone. A boundary change occurred on June 18, 1956. ["The National Parks: Index 2001–2003". Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior.] As an historic area under the National Park Service it was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places under the heading "Cannomok'e—Pipestone National Monument". The Red Pipestone Quarries within the monument comprise a Minnesota State Historic Site. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Minnesota Statute § 138.57, subd. 4
work =
publisher = Minnesota Revisor of Statutes
date =
url = http://ros.leg.mn/bin/getpub.php?pubtype=STAT_CHAP_SEC&year=current&section=138.57&image.x=39&image.y=11
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-02-26

During the summer months, there are cultural demonstrations at the monument. Visitors can also walk along a three-quarter mile (1.2 km) trail to view the pipestone quarries and a waterfall.


External links

* Official NPS website: [http://www.nps.gov/pipe/ Pipestone National Monument]
* [http://kare11.exploreminnesota.com/national_monument_holds_ancient_pipestone_quarries.html National Monument Holds Ancient Pipestone Quarries] (travel article)

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