- Protein S
Protein S is a
vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoproteinsynthesized in the liver. In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein C4b.
The best characterized function of Protein S is its role in the anti
coagulationpathway, it functions as a cofactor to Protein Cin the inactivation of Factors Va and VIIIa. Only the free form has cofactor activity.
Protein S can bind to negatively charged
phospholipidsvia the carboxylated GLA domain. This property allows Protein S to function in the removal of cells which are undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosisis a form of cell death that is used by the body to remove unwanted or damaged cells from tissues. Cells which are apoptotic (ie. in the process of apoptosis) no longer actively manage the distribution of phospholipids in their outer membrane and hence begin to display negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidyl serine, on the cell surface. In healthy cells, an ATP ( Adenosine triphosphate)-dependent enzyme removes these from the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. These negatively charged phospholipids are recognized by phagocytessuch as macrophages. Protein S can bind to the negatively charged phospholipids and function as a bridging molecule between the apoptotic cell and the phagocyte. The bridging property of Protein S enhances the phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell, allowing it to be removed 'cleanly' without any symptoms of tissue damage such as inflammationoccurring.
Protein S deficiencyis a rare blood disorder which can lead to an increased risk of thrombosis.
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*cite journal | author=Ploos van Amstel HK, Reitsma PH, van der Logt CP, Bertina RM |title=Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS alpha and its pseudogene PS beta: duplication and silencing during primate evolution |journal=Biochemistry |volume=29 |issue= 34 |pages= 7853–61 |year= 1991 |pmid= 2148111 |doi=10.1021/bi00486a011
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