Wildlife of Libya

The Wildlife of Libya includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.Libya has 87 species of mammals and 338 species of birds.

Fauna

ubclass: Theria

Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Macroscelidea (elephant-shrews)

----

Often called sengisi, the elephant shrews or jumping shrews are native to southern Africa. Their common English name derives from their elongated flexible snout and their resemblance to the true shrews.

*Family: Macroscelididae (elephant-shrews)
***Genus: Elephantulus
**** North African Sengi "Elephantulus rozeti" LC

Order: Hyracoidea (hyraxes)

----The hyraxes are any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. About the size of a domestic cat they are well-furred, with rounded bodies and a stmpy tail. They are native to Africa and the Middle East.

*Family: Procaviidae (hylaxes)
***Genus: Procavia
**** Cape Hyrax "Procavia capensis" LC

Order: Primates

----The order Primates contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. It is divided informally into three main groupings: prosimians, monkeys of the New World, and monkeys and apes of the Old World.

*Suborder: Haplorrhini
**Infraorder: Simiiformes
***Parvorder: Catarrhini
****Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
*****Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)
*******Genus: Papio
******** Olive Baboon "Papio anubis" LR/lc

Order: Rodentia (rodents)

----Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

*Suborder: Hystricognathi
**Family: Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)
****Genus: Hystrix
***** Crested Porcupine "Hystrix cristata" LC
*Suborder: Sciurognathi
**Family: Gliridae (dormice)
***Subfamily: Leithiinae
****Genus: Eliomys
***** Asian Garden Dormouse "Eliomys melanurus" LC
**Family: Dipodidae (jerboas)
***Subfamily: Allactaginae
****Genus: Allactaga
***** Four-toed jerboa "Allactaga tetradactyla" DD
***Subfamily: Dipodinae
****Genus: Jaculus
***** Lesser Egyptian Jerboa "Jaculus jaculus" LC
***** Greater Egyptian Jerboa "Jaculus orientalis" LC
**Family: Spalacidae
***Subfamily: Spalacinae
****Genus: Nannospalax
***** Palestine Mole Rat "Nannospalax ehrenbergi" LC
**Family: Cricetidae
***Subfamily: Arvicolinae
****Genus: Microtus
***** nopage "Microtus mustersi" LC
**Family: Muridae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
***Subfamily: Deomyinae
****Genus: Acomys
***** Cairo Spiny Mouse "Acomys cahirinus" LC
***Subfamily: Gerbillinae
****Genus: Dipodillus
***** North African Gerbil "Dipodillus campestris" LC
****Genus: Gerbillus
***** Pleasant Gerbil "Gerbillus amoenus" DD
***** Anderson's Gerbil "Gerbillus andersoni" LR/lc
***** "Gerbillus gerbillus" LC
***** "Gerbillus grobbeni" DD
***** Pygmy Gerbil "Gerbillus henleyi" LC
***** "Gerbillus latastei" DD
***** "Gerbillus nanus" LC
***** "Gerbillus simoni" LC
***** Sand Gerbil "Gerbillus syrticus" DD
***** Tarabul's Gerbil "Gerbillus tarabuli" LC
****Genus: Meriones
***** Sundevall's Jird "Meriones crassus" LC
***** Libyan Jird "Meriones libycus" LC
***** Shaw's Jird "Meriones shawi" LC
****Genus: Pachyuromys
***** Fat-tailed Gerbil "Pachyuromys duprasi" LC
****Genus: Psammomys
***** Sand Rat "Psammomys obesus" LC
***** Thin Sand Rat "Psammomys vexillaris" DD
***Subfamily: Murinae
****Genus: Mus
***** Algerian Mouse "Mus spretus" LC
**Family: Ctenodactylidae
***Genus: Ctenodactylus
**** Gundi "Ctenodactylus gundi" LC
**** Val's Gundi "Ctenodactylus vali" DD
***Genus: Massoutiera
**** Mzab Gundi "Massoutiera mzabi" LC

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)

----The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early twentieth century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

*Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares)
**Genus: Lepus
*** Cape Hare "Lepus capensis" LR/lc
*** African Savanna Hare "Lepus microtis" LR/lc

Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)

----The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

*Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs)
**Subfamily: Erinaceinae
***Genus: Atelerix
**** North African Hedgehog "Atelerix algirus" LR/lc
***Genus: Hemiechinus
**** Desert Hedgehog "Hemiechinus aethiopicus" LR/lc
**** Long-eared Hedgehog "Hemiechinus auritus" LR/lc

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and soledons)

----

The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mmmals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

*Family: Soricidae (shrews)
**Subfamily: Crocidurinae
***Genus: Crocidura
**** Alexandrian Shrew "Crocidura aleksandrisi" LC
***Genus: Suncus
**** Etruscan Shrew "Suncus etruscus" LC

Order: Chiroptera (bats)

----The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

*Family: Pteropodidae (flying foxes, Old World fruit bats)
**Subfamily: Pteropodinae
***Genus: Rousettus
**** Egyptian fruit bat "Rousettus aegyptiacus" LC
*Family: Vespertilionidae
**Subfamily: Myotinae
***Genus: Myotis
**** Felten's Myotis "Myotis punicus" DD
**Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
***Genus: Eptesicus
**** Serotine bat "Eptesicus serotinus" LR/lc
***Genus: Nyctalus
**** Greater Noctule bat "Nyctalus lasiopterus" LR/nt
**** Lesser Noctule "Nyctalus leisleri" LR/nt
***Genus: Otonycteris
**** Desert Long-eared Bat "Otonycteris hemprichii" LR/lc
***Genus: Pipistrellus
**** Egyptian Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus deserti" LC
**** Kuhl's Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus kuhlii" LC
**** Common Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus pipistrellus" LC
**** RÜppel's Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus rueppelli" LC
***Genus: Plecotus
**** nopage "Plecotus christiei" DD
**** Canary Big-eared Bat "Plecotus teneriffae" DD
**Subfamily: Miniopterinae
***Genus: Miniopterus
**** Schreiber's Long-fingered Bat "Miniopterus schreibersii" LC
*Family: Rhinopomatidae
**Genus: Rhinopoma
*** Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat "Rhinopoma hardwickei" LC
*** Greater Mouse-tailed Bat "Rhinopoma microphyllum" LC
*Family: Nycteridae
**Genus: Nycteris
*** Egyptian Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris thebaica" LC
*Family: Rhinolophidae
**Subfamily: Rhinolophinae
***Genus: Rhinolophus
**** Geoffroy's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus clivosus" LC
**** Mehely's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus mehelyi" VU
**Subfamily: Hipposiderinae
***Genus: Asellia
**** Trident Leaf-nosed Bat "Asellia tridens" LC

Order: Cetacea (whales)

----The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

*Suborder: Odontoceti
**Superfamily: Platanistoidea
***Family: Delphinidae (marine dolphins)
****Genus: Steno
***** Rough-toothed Dolphin "Steno bredanensis" DD
****Genus: Tursiops
***** Bottlenose Dolphin "Tursiops truncatus" DD
****Genus: Delphinus
***** Common dolphin "Delphinus delphis" LR/lc
****Genus: Globicephala
***** Pilot whale "Globicephala melas" LR/lc

Order: Carnivora (carnivores)

----The carnivores include over 260 species, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. Carnivores have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

*Suborder: Feliformia
**Family: Felidae (cats)
***Subfamily: Felinae
****Genus: Acinonyx
***** Cheetah "Acinonyx jubatus" VU
****Genus: Caracal
***** Caracal "Caracal caracal" LC
****Genus: Felis
***** Sand Cat "Felis margarita" NT
***** Wildcat "Felis silvestris" LC
***Subfamily: Pantherinae
****Genus: Panthera
***** Lion "Panthera leo" VU
***** Leopard "Panthera pardus" LC
**Family: Viverridae (civets, mongooses, etc.)
***Subfamily: Viverrinae
****Genus: Genetta
***** Common Genet "Genetta genetta" LR/lc
**Family: Herpestidae (mongooses)
***Genus: Herpestes
**** Egyptian Mongoose "Herpestes ichneumon" LR/lc
**Family: Hyaenidae (hyaenas)
***Genus: Hyaena
**** Striped Hyena "Hyaena hyaena" LR/nt
*Suborder: Caniformia
**Family: Canidae (dogs, foxes)
***Genus: Vulpes
**** Pale Fox "Vulpes pallida" DD
**** Rueppell's Fox "Vulpes rueppelli" DD
**** Red Fox "Vulpes vulpes" LC
**** Fennec "Vulpes zerda" DD
***Genus: Canis
**** Golden Jackal "Canis aureus" LC
**** Gray Wolf "Canis lupus" LC
**Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)
***Genus: Ictonyx
**** Saharan Striped Polecat "Ictonyx libyca" LR/lc
**Family: Phocidae (earless seals)
***Genus: Monachus
**** Mediterranean Monk Seal "Monachus monachus" CR

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)

----The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

*Family: Suidae (pigs)
**Subfamily: Suinae
***Genus: Sus
**** Boar "Sus scrofa" LR/lc
*Family: Bovidae (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
**Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
***Genus: Alcelaphus
**** Hartebeest "Alcelaphus buselaphus" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Antilopinae
***Genus: Gazella
**** Dama Gazelle "Gazella dama" CR
**** Dorcas Gazelle "Gazella dorcas" VU
**** Rhim Gazelle "Gazella leptoceros" EN
**Subfamily: Caprinae
***Genus: Ammotragus
**** Barbary Sheep "Ammotragus lervia" VU
**Subfamily: Hippotraginae
***Genus: Addax
**** Addax "Addax nasomaculatus" CR
***Genus: Oryx
**** Scimitar Oryx "Oryx dammah" EW

Birds

Ostriches

Order: StruthioniformesFamily: Struthionidae

The Ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.

*Ostrich "Struthio camelus" (Ex)

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Libya.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"
*Great Crested Grebe "Podiceps cristatus"
*Horned Grebe "Podiceps auritus"
*Eared Grebe "Podiceps nigricollis"

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Libya.

*Cory's Shearwater "Calonectris diomedea"
*Manx Shearwater "Puffinus puffinus"
*Balearic Shearwater "Puffinus mauretanicus"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*European Storm-Petrel "Hydrobates pelagicus"

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Great White Pelican "Pelecanus onocrotalus"

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Northern Gannet "Morus bassanus"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*European Shag "Phalacrocorax aristotelis"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Libya.

*Gray Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Squacco Heron "Ardeola ralloides"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*Eurasian Spoonbill "Platalea leucorodia"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Greater Flamingo "Phoenicopterus roseus"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 27 species which occur in Libya.

*Mute Swan "Cygnus olor"
*Tundra Swan "Cygnus columbianus"
*Greater White-fronted Goose "Anser albifrons"
*Greylag Goose "Anser anser"
*Brant "Branta bernicla"
*Ruddy Shelduck "Tadorna ferruginea"
*Common Shelduck "Tadorna tadorna"
*Eurasian Wigeon "Anas penelope"
*Gadwall "Anas strepera"
*Eurasian Teal "Anas crecca"
*Cape Teal "Anas capensis"
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Marbled Teal "Marmaronetta angustirostris"
*Red-crested Pochard "Netta rufina"
*Common Pochard "Aythya ferina"
*Ferruginous Pochard "Aythya nyroca"
*Tufted Duck "Aythya fuligula"
*Greater Scaup "Aythya marila"
*Black Scoter "Melanitta nigra"
*Common Goldeneye "Bucephala clangula"
*Smew "Mergellus albellus"
*Red-breasted Merganser "Mergus serrator" (A)
*Common Merganser "Mergus merganser"
*White-headed Duck "Oxyura leucocephala"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Libya.

*European Honey-buzzard "Pernis apivorus"
*Red Kite "Milvus milvus"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*Egyptian Vulture "Neophron percnopterus"
*Eurasian Griffon "Gyps fulvus"
*Cinereous Vulture "Aegypius monachus"
*Lappet-faced Vulture "Torgos tracheliotus"
*Short-toed Eagle "Circaetus gallicus"
*Western Marsh-Harrier "Circus aeruginosus"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Pallid Harrier "Circus macrourus"
*Montagu's Harrier "Circus pygargus"
*Eurasian Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Northern Goshawk "Accipiter gentilis"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Long-legged Buzzard "Buteo rufinus"
*Rough-legged Hawk "Buteo lagopus"
*Lesser Spotted Eagle "Aquila pomarina"
*Greater Spotted Eagle "Aquila clanga"
*Imperial Eagle "Aquila heliaca"
*Golden Eagle "Aquila chrysaetos"
*Bonelli's Eagle "Aquila fasciatus"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Libya.

*Lesser Kestrel "Falco naumanni"
*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Red-footed Falcon "Falco vespertinus"
*Eleonora's Falcon "Falco eleonorae"
*Sooty Falcon "Falco concolor"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo" (Ex)
*Lanner Falcon "Falco biarmicus"
*Saker Falcon "Falco cherrug" (A)
*Barbary Falcon "Falco pelegrinoides"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Barbary Partridge "Alectoris barbara"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails.The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Common Crane "Grus grus"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Libya.

*Water Rail "Rallus aquaticus"
*Corn Crake "Crex crex"
*Little Crake "Porzana parva"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Spotted Crake "Porzana porzana"
*Striped Crake "Aenigmatolimnas marginalis" (A)
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Eurasian Coot "Fulica atra"

Bustards

Order: GruiformesFamily: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Houbara Bustard "Chlamydotis undulata"
*Little Bustard "Tetrax tetrax"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Eurasian Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta"

Thick-knees

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Eurasian Thick-knee "Burhinus oedicnemus"

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Libya.

*Egyptian Plover "Pluvianus aegyptius" (A)
*Cream-colored Courser "Cursorius cursor"
*Collared Pratincole "Glareola pratincola"
*Black-winged Pratincole "Glareola nordmanni"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Libya.

*Northern Lapwing "Vanellus vanellus"
*White-tailed Lapwing "Vanellus leucurus"
*European Golden-Plover "Pluvialis apricaria"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Greater Sandplover "Charadrius leschenaultii"
*Eurasian Dotterel "Charadrius morinellus"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Libya.

*Eurasian Woodcock "Scolopax rusticola"
*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus"
*Great Snipe "Gallinago media"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Slender-billed Curlew "Numenius tenuirostris"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper "Calidris melanotos"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Purple Sandpiper "Calidris maritima"
*Broad-billed Sandpiper "Limicola falcinellus"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius"

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Libya.

*Great Skua "Stercorarius skua"
*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus" (A)
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Libya.

*Mew Gull "Larus canus"
*Audouin's Gull "Larus audouinii"
*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus"
*Caspian Gull "Larus cachinnans"
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus"
*Slender-billed Gull "Larus genei"
*Mediterranean Gull "Larus melanocephalus"
*Little Gull "Larus minutus"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Libya.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Lesser Crested Tern "Sterna bengalensis"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger"

andgrouse

Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Libya.

*Pin-tailed Sandgrouse "Pterocles alchata"
*Spotted Sandgrouse "Pterocles senegallus"
*Black-bellied Sandgrouse "Pterocles orientalis"
*Crowned Sandgrouse "Pterocles coronatus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Libya.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia"
*Stock Pigeon "Columba oenas"
*Common Wood-Pigeon "Columba palumbus" (A)
*Eurasian Turtle-Dove "Streptopelia turtur"
*Laughing Dove "Streptopelia senegalensis"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Great Spotted Cuckoo "Clamator glandarius"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Libya.

*European Scops-Owl "Otus scops"
*Pharaoh Eagle-Owl "Bubo ascalaphus"
*Little Owl "Athene noctua"
*Long-eared Owl "Asio otus"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Libya.

*Red-necked Nightjar "Caprimulgus ruficollis" (A)
*Eurasian Nightjar "Caprimulgus europaeus"
*Egyptian Nightjar "Caprimulgus aegyptius"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Libya.

*Alpine Swift "Tachymarptis melba"
*Common Swift "Apus apus"
*Pallid Swift "Apus pallidus"
*Little Swift "Apus affinis"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Common Kingfisher "Alcedo atthis"

Bee-eaters

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Libya.

*Green Bee-eater "Merops orientalis"
*Blue-cheeked Bee-eater "Merops persicus"
*European Bee-eater "Merops apiaster"

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*European Roller "Coracias garrulus"
*Abyssinian Roller "Coracias abyssinica" (A)

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Libya.

*Bar-tailed Lark "Ammomanes cincturus"
*Desert Lark "Ammomanes deserti"
*Greater Hoopoe-Lark "Alaemon alaudipes"
*Thick-billed Lark "Ramphocoris clotbey"
*Calandra Lark "Melanocorypha calandra"
*Greater Short-toed Lark "Calandrella brachydactyla"
*Lesser Short-toed Lark "Calandrella rufescens"
*Dupont's Lark "Chersophilus duponti"
*Crested Lark "Galerida cristata"
*Thekla Lark "Galerida theklae"
*Wood Lark "Lullula arborea"
*Eurasian Skylark "Alauda arvensis"
*Temminck's Lark "Eremophila bilopha"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Libya.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Eurasian Crag-Martin "Ptyonoprogne rupestris"
*Rock Martin "Ptyonoprogne fuligula"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Red-rumped Swallow "Cecropis daurica"
*Common House-Martin "Delichon urbica"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Libya.

*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Gray Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Tawny Pipit "Anthus campestris"
*Tree Pipit "Anthus trivialis"
*Meadow Pipit "Anthus pratensis"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"
*Water Pipit "Anthus spinoletta"

Kinglets

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae

The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Goldcrest "Regulus regulus"
*Firecrest "Regulus ignicapillus"

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*White-throated Dipper "Cinclus cinclus" (A)

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Winter Wren "Troglodytes troglodytes"

Accentors

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Dunnock "Prunella modularis"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Libya.

*Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush "Monticola saxatilis"
*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Ring Ouzel "Turdus torquatus"
*Eurasian Blackbird "Turdus merula"
*Fieldfare "Turdus pilaris"
*Redwing "Turdus iliacus"
*Song Thrush "Turdus philomelos"
*Mistle Thrush "Turdus viscivorus"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Streaked Scrub-Warbler "Scotocerca inquieta"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Libya.

*Grasshopper Warbler "Locustella naevia"
*Savi's Warbler "Locustella luscinioides"
*Moustached Warbler "Acrocephalus melanopogon"
*Sedge Warbler "Acrocephalus schoenobaenus"
*Eurasian Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus scirpaceus"
*Great Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus arundinaceus"
*Eastern Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais pallida"
*Western Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais opaca"
*Melodious Warbler "Hippolais polyglotta"
*Icterine Warbler "Hippolais icterina"
*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Common Chiffchaff "Phylloscopus collybita"
*Western Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus bonelli"
*Eastern Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus orientalis" (A)
*Wood Warbler "Phylloscopus sibilatrix"
*Yellow-browed Warbler "Phylloscopus inornatus"
*Blackcap "Sylvia atricapilla"
*Garden Warbler "Sylvia borin"
*Greater Whitethroat "Sylvia communis"
*Lesser Whitethroat "Sylvia curruca"
*African Desert Warbler "Sylvia deserti"
*Western Orphean Warbler "Sylvia hortensis"
*Eastern Orphean Warbler "Sylvia crassirostris"
*Rueppell's Warbler "Sylvia rueppelli"
*Subalpine Warbler "Sylvia cantillans"
*Sardinian Warbler "Sylvia melanocephala"
*Spectacled Warbler "Sylvia conspicillata"
*Tristram's Warbler "Sylvia deserticola"
*Dartford Warbler "Sylvia undata"
*Marmora's Warbler "Sylvia sarda"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Libya.

*Spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa striata"
*European Pied Flycatcher "Ficedula hypoleuca"
*Collared Flycatcher "Ficedula albicollis"
*Red-breasted Flycatcher "Ficedula parva"
*European Robin "Erithacus rubecula"
*Thrush Nightingale "Luscinia luscinia" (A)
*Common Nightingale "Luscinia megarhynchos"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica"
*Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas galactotes"
*Black Redstart "Phoenicurus ochruros"
*Common Redstart "Phoenicurus phoenicurus"
*Moussier's Redstart "Phoenicurus moussieri"
*Whinchat "Saxicola rubetra"
*European Stonechat "Saxicola rubicola"
*White-tailed Wheatear "Oenanthe leucopyga"
*Black Wheatear "Oenanthe leucura"
*Northern Wheatear "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Mourning Wheatear "Oenanthe lugens"
*Finsch's Wheatear "Oenanthe finschii" (A)
*Red-rumped Wheatear "Oenanthe moesta"
*Pied Wheatear "Oenanthe pleschanka"
*Black-eared Wheatear "Oenanthe hispanica"
*Red-tailed Wheatear "Oenanthe xanthoprymna" (A)
*Desert Wheatear "Oenanthe deserti"
*Isabelline Wheatear "Oenanthe isabellina"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Fulvous Chatterer "Turdoides fulvus"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 2 species which occur in Libya.

*Blue Tit "Cyanistes caeruleus"
*African Blue Tit "Cyanistes teneriffae"

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Eurasian Golden Oriole "Oriolus oriolus"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Libya.

*Red-backed Shrike "Lanius collurio"
*Southern Gray Shrike "Lanius meridionalis"
*Lesser Gray Shrike "Lanius minor"
*Masked Shrike "Lanius nubicus"
*Woodchat Shrike "Lanius senator"

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Libya.

*Black-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra senegala"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Libya.

*Carrion Crow "Corvus corone"
*Pied Crow "Corvus albus" (A)
*Brown-necked Raven "Corvus ruficollis"
*Common Raven "Corvus corax"
*Hooded Crow "Corvus cornix" (A)

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Libya.

*Rosy Starling "Pastor roseus"
*European Starling "Sturnus vulgaris"
*Spotless Starling "Sturnus unicolor"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 7 species which occur in Libya.

*Rock Bunting "Emberiza cia"
*Ortolan Bunting "Emberiza hortulana"
*Cretzschmar's Bunting "Emberiza caesia"
*House Bunting "Emberiza striolata"
*Black-headed Bunting "Emberiza melanocephala"
*Reed Bunting "Emberiza schoeniclus"
*Corn Bunting "Emberiza calandra"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Libya.

*Chaffinch "Fringilla coelebs"
*Brambling "Fringilla montifringilla"
*Red Crossbill "Loxia curvirostra"
*European Greenfinch "Carduelis chloris"
*Eurasian Siskin "Carduelis spinus"
*European Goldfinch "Carduelis carduelis"
*Eurasian Linnet "Carduelis cannabina"
*European Serin "Serinus serinus"
*Hawfinch "Coccothraustes coccothraustes"
*Trumpeter Finch "Bucanetes githaginea"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Libya.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus"
*Spanish Sparrow "Passer hispaniolensis"
*Desert Sparrow "Passer simplex"
*Rock Petronia "Petronia petronia"

Flora

Notes

References

*cite web
url=http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/search.php?kingname=ANIMALIA&phyname=CHORDATA&claname=MAMMALIA&freetext=&modifier=phrase&criteria=wholedb&taxa_species=1&redlistCategory%5B0%5D=all&redlistAssessyear%5B0%5D=all&country%5B0%5D=LY&aquatic%5B0%5D=all&regions%5B0%5D=all&habitats%5B0%5D=all&threats%5B0%5D=all&Submit_x=34&Submit_y=9&extendedResults=0&terrestrial=0&marine=0&freshwater=0&offset=0&sortorder%5B0%5D=spcscientificname&sortorder%5B1%5D=genname&sortorder%5B2%5D=spcname&sortorder%5B3%5D=spcauthor&sortorder%5B4%5D=spcinfrarank&sortorder%5B5%5D=spcinfraepithet&sortorder%5B6%5D=spcinfrarankauthor&sortorder%5B7%5D=spcstockname&sortorder%5B8%5D=comname_comp&sortorder%5B9%5D=rlcabb&sortorder%5B10%5D=rlscriteria&sortorder%5B11%5D=poptrend_code&sortorder%5B12%5D=rlcatcrit2001&sortorder%5B13%5D=spcrecid&sortorder%5B14%5D=kingname&debug=0&taxa_subspc=0&taxa_stock=0&newsort=Genus
title=The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Libya
publisher=IUCN
year=2001
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/
title=Mammal Species of the World
publisher=Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
year=2005
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
title=Animal Diversity Web
publisher=University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
date=1995-2006
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=ly&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Libya
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 26 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
year = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880

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