List of cardinal-nephews

This is a list of cardinal-nephews, cardinals elevated by popes who were their uncles, or more generally, their relatives. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries.Bunson, Matthew. 1995. " [http://media.isnet.org/kristen/Ensiklopedia/CardinalNephew.html Cardinal Nephew] ." "The Pope Encyclopedia". Crown Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-517-88256-6.] From the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, "Romanum decet pontificem" (1692), nearly every pope who appointed cardinals appointed at least one relative to the College of Cardinals, [Pope Boniface IX, the second pope of the Western Schism, did not appoint cardinal-nephews but did adopt Cardinal Francesco Carbone Tomacelli. Until Pope Innocent XII, the only other exceptions were popes who did not appoint cardinals (Pope Pius III, Pope Marcellus II, Pope Urban VII, Pope Leo XI) and Pope Adrian VI (who appointed one cardinal).] including every Renaissance pope.

Although the nephew was the most common relation to be elevated to the College, other "creatures" include (legitimate, illegitimate, or adopted) sons and grandsons, brothers, grand-nephews, cousins, and even uncles.Bunson, Matthew. 1995. " [http://media.isnet.org/kristen/Ensiklopedia/CardinalNephew.html Cardinal Nephew] ." "The Pope Encyclopedia". Crown Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-517-88256-6.] Vidmar, John. 2005. "The Catholic Church Through The Ages: A History". Paulist Press. ISBN 0809142341.] Nineteen cardinal-nephews were later elected pope [A twentieth, Vicedomino de Vicedominis, was elected pope but died before the announcement of his election and is not counted toward papal numbering, having taken the name Gregory XI.] (John XIX, Benedict IX, Anastasius IV, Innocent III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV, Adrian V, Benedict XII, Gregory XI, Boniface IX, Eugene IV, Paul II, Alexander VI, Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, Benedict XIII, and Pius VII) and three were canonized (Charles Borromeo, Guarino Foscari and Anselm of Lucca).

Occupants of the curial office of the are denoted with †. Similar "creatures" include cardinal-nephews of anti-popes and nephews of popes made cardinals by other popes.

11th century

;Of Benedict VIII (1012-1024)
*Lotario (or Loctarius), seniore, elevated circa 1015 (cousin)
*Giovanni (brother, future Pope John XIX)
*Teofilatto (future Pope Benedict IX, nephew to both Benedict VIII and John XIX)Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xi.htm General list of Cardinals: XI Century (999-1099)] ."] ;Of Alexander II (1061-1073)
*St. Anselm of Lucca (brother or nephew);Of Urban II (1088-1099)
*Odon, elevated 1088

12th century

;Of Callixtus II (1119-1124)
*Etienne de Bar, elevated 1120;Of Honorius II (1124-1130)
*Corrado de Suburra, elevated 1127 (future Pope Anastasius IV);Of Innocent II (1130-1143)
*Gregorio Papareschi, elevated 1134
*Pietro Papareschi, elevated 1142 (brother);Of Lucius II (1144-1145)
*Ubaldo Caccianemici, elevated June 1144 (cousin)
*Guarino Foscari, elevated December 1144 (relative) [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1144-iv.htm] ] ;Of Anastasius IV (1153-1154)
*Gregorio de Suburra, elevated December 1153;Of Adrian IV (1154-1159)
*Boso, elevated December 1155ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia"] ;Of Lucius III (1181-1185)
*Uberto Allucingoli, elevated 1182 (?) [Some sources doubt his promotion to the cardinalate indicating that he's confused with Cardinal Uberto Crivelli, future Pope Urban III ( [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/titles-3.htm#Damaso Title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (note 6)] ]
*Gerardo Allucingoli (or Gheraro), elevated 1182 (relative);Of Clement III (1187-1191)
*Lotario de' Conti, elevated September 1190 (future Pope Innocent III) [ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia"]
*Niccolo, elevated September 1190 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1190.htm Consistory of 1190] ] ;Of Celestine III (1191-1198)
*Niccolò Boboni, elevated 1191 (?) [Some sources indicate that he was created by Clement III in 1190 (K. Eubel, "Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevii", 1913, vol. I, p. 3 note 1 no. 24). He may have been the same person that Niccolo, nephew of Clement III, since they both are referred as deacons of S. Maria in Cosmedin from 1191 until 1200]
*Bobone di San Teodoro (Orsini), elevated February 20, 1193 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1193.htm#Bobone Consistory of 1193] ] ;Of Innocent III (1198-1216)
*Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, elevated December 1198 (cousin, future Pope Gregory IX)
*Giovanni dei Conti di Segni, elevated 1200 (cousin)
*Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni, elevated 1205 (cousin)
*Stefano Normandis (Conti), elevated 1216 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1216.htm#Normandis Stefano Normandis] ]

13th century

;Of Gregory IX (1227-1241)
*Rinaldo Conti, elevated September 18, 1227 (future Pope Alexander IV)Williams, George L. 2004. "Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes". McFarland & Company. ISBN 0786420715. p. 32.]
*Niccolo Conti di Segni, elevated December 1228 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1228.htm#Conti Consistory of December 1228] ] (distant relative)
*Riccardo Annibaldeschi di Molaria, elevated 1237 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1237.htm#Annibaldi S. Miranda: Consistory of 1237] ] ;Of Innocent IV (1243-1254)
*Guglielmo Fieschi, elevated May 28, 1244
*Ottobono Fieschi, elevated December 1251 (future Pope Adrian V);Of Urban IV (1261-1264)
*Anchero Pantaleone, elevated May 22, 1262;Of Gregory X (1271-1276)
*Vicedomino de Vicedominis, elevated June 3, 1273 (future pope elect, died before proclamation) [Levillain, 2002, p. 657.]
*Giovanni Visconti, possibly elevated in 1275 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1275.htm#Visconti S. Miranda: Consistory of 1275] . Konrad Eubel, "Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi", Volumen I, p. 9 and 38 denies his promotion to the cardinalate.] ;Of Nicholas III (1277-1280)
*Latino Malabranca Orsini, elevated March 12, 1278
*Giordano Orsini, elevated March 12, 1278 (brother)Williams, 2004, p. 37.] ;Of Honorius IV (1285-1287)
*Giovanni Boccamazza (or Boccamiti), elevated December 22, 1285 (relative);Of Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292)
*Pietro Colonna, elevated May 16, 1288 (relative) [DeCormenin, Louis Marie, and de Lahaye, vicomte de Louis-Marie. 1857. " [http://books.google.com/books/pdf/A_Complete_History_of_the_Popes_of_Rome_.pdf?id=aQMQAAAAIAAJ&output=pdf&sig=ACfU3U3LpPQmtgLfnaDRG3NhhQwx658FCg&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 A Complete History of the Popes of Rome] ". James L. Gihon. p. 25.] ;Of Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
*Benedetto II Caetani, elevated between January 23 and May 13, 1295Williams, 2004, p. 38.]
*Giacomo Tomasi Caetani (Iacopo Tommasi), elevated December 17, 1295
*Francesco Caetani, elevated December 17, 1295
*Leonardo Patrasso, elevated March 2, 1300 (uncle)

14th century

;Of Clement V (1305-1314)
*Berenger Fredoli, elevated December 15, 1305 (nephew, son of Guillaume de Frédol)Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xiv.htm XIV Century (1303-1404)] ."]
*Arnaud Frangier de Chanteloup, elevated December 15, 1305 (close relative, possible nephew)
*Arnaud de Pellegrue, elevated December 15, 1305 (relative, possible nephew)
*Raymond de Got, elevated December 15, 1305 (nephew, son of Arnaud Garcie de Got)
*Guillaume Ruffat des Forges, or Guillaume Arrufat elevated December 15, 1305 (relative, possible nephew)
*Raymond Guillaume des Forges, elevated December 19, 1310 (nephew, son of Marquise de Got)
*Bernard Jarre (or Garve), elevated December 19, 1310 (relative)
*Arnaud d'Aux, elevated December 23, 1312 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1312.htm#Aux Consistory of December 23, 1312 (III)] ".]
*Berenguer Fredol, elevated December 23, 1312 (grand-nephew) ;Of John XXII (1316-1334)
*Jacques de Via, elevated December 17 (or 18), 1316 (nephew, son of Marie Duese)
*Gauscelin Jean d'Euse, elevated December 17 (or 18), 1316 (nephew, son of Marguerite Duese)
*Bertrand du Pouget, elevated December 17 (or 18), 1316 (relative, possible nephew)
*Arnaud de Via, elevated June 20, 1317 (nephew, son of Marie Duese)
*Raymond Le Roux, elevated December 19 (or 20), 1320 (close relative, possible nephew)
*Jacques Fournier, elevated December 18, 1327 (unknown relative, future Pope Benedict XII) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1327.htm Consistory of December 18, 1327 (IV)] ."; and G. Moroni "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni vol V", p. 5]
*Imbert Dupuis, elevated December 18, 1327 (relative, possible nephew);Of Benedict XII (1334-1342)
*Guillaume Court, elevated December 18, 1338 (relative, mother's side)
[
Pope Clement VI created more cardinal-nephews than any other pontiff.] ;Of Clement VI (1342-1352)
*Aymeric de Chalus, elevated September 20, 1342 (cousin) [Miranda, Salvador. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1342.htm#Chalus Consistory of September 20, 1342] ]
*Hugues Roger, elevated September 20, 1342 (brother)Williams, 2004, p. 42.]
*Adhémar Robert, elevated September 20, 1342 (cousin or nephew)
*Gérard Lagarde (or Domar), elevated September 20, 1342 (cousin)
*Bernard de la Tour, elevated September 20, 1342 (nephew)
*Guillaume de la Jugée (Guillaume II Roger), elevated September 20, 1342 (nephew, son of Guillaumette Rogier)
*Nicolas de Besse, elevated May 19, 1344 (nephew, son of Dauphine Roger) [Miranda, Salvador [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1344.htm#Besse Consistory of May 19, 1344] ]
*Pierre-Roger de Beaufort, elevated May 28 (or 29), 1348 (nephew, future Pope Gregory XI) [Biraben, Jean-Noël. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Plague." "The Papacy: An Encyclopedia". Routledge. ISBN 0415922283. p. 1222.]
*Raymond de Canillac, elevated December 17, 1350 (nephew)
*Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore, elevated December 17, 1350 (cousin) [Miranda, Salvador. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1350.htm#Aigrefeuille Consistory of December 17, 1350] ]
*Pierre du Cros, elevated December 17, 1350 (nephew or cousin);Of Innocent VI (1352-1362)
*Andouin Aubert, elevated February 15, 1353 (nephew, son of Guy Aubert)
*Pierre de Salvete Monteruc, elevated December 23, 1356 (nephew of mother's side)
*Etienne Aubert, iuniore, elevated September 17, 1361 (grand-nephew);Of Urban V (1362-1370)
*Ange de Grimoard, elevated September 18, 1366 (brother)
*Pierre d'Estaing, elevated June 7, 1370 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1370.htm#Estaing Salvador Miranda: Consistory of June 7, 1370] ] ;Of Gregory XI (1370-1378)
*Jean du Cros, elevated May 30, 1371 (nephew or cousin)
*Jean de La Tour, elevated May 30, 1371 (brother-in-law of niece) [Miranda, Salvador [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1371.htm#Latour Salvador Miranda: Consistory of May 30, 1371] ]
*Pierre de la Jugée (or Jugie), elevated December 20, 1375 (cousin)
*Gui de Maillesec, elevated December 20, 1375 (nephew on mother's side) [Miranda, Salvador. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1375.htm#Malsec Salvador Miranda: Consistory of December 20, 1375] ]
*Gérard du Puy, elevated December 20, 1375 (cousin or nephew);Of Urban VI (1378-1389)
*Francesco Moricotti Prignani, elevated September 18, 1378 (nephew) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1378.htm#Moricotti Consistory of September 18, 1378] "]
*Francesco Renzio, elevated December 21, 1381 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1381.htm#Renzio Consistory of December 21, 1381] "]
*Pietro Tomacelli (future Pope Boniface IX), elevated December 21, 1381 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1381.htm#Tomacelli Consistory of December 21, 1381] "]
*Marino Bulcani, elevated December 17, 1384 (relative, nephew of cardinal Francesco Renzio) [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1384.htm#Bulcani Salvador Miranda: Consistory of December 17, 1384] ] ;Of Boniface IX (1378-1389)
*Francesco Carbone Tomacelli (probably adopted while already a cardinal, having been elevated by Urban VI on December 17, 1384, because he began to use a last name Carbone Tomacelli after Boniface's IX election. It seems that his mother married Pope's brother after the death of cardinal's father.) [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1384.htm#Carbone Salvador Miranda: Consistory of December 17, 1384] ]

15th century

;Of Innocent VII (1404-1406)
*Giovanni Migliorati, elevated June 12, 1405 (nephew)Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xv.htm XV Century (1404-1503)] ."] ;Of Gregory XII (1406-1415)
*Antonio Correr, elevated May 9, 1408 (nephew, son of Filippo Correr)
*Gabriele Condulmer, elevated May 9, 1408 (nephew, son of Beriola Correr; future Pope Eugene IV)
*Angelo Barbarigo, elevated September 19, 1408 (nephew, son of Caterina Correr);Of Martin V (1417-1431)
*Prospero Colonna, elevated May 24, 1426 and published November 8, 1430 (nephew, son of Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna);Of Eugene IV (1431-1447)
*Francesco Condulmer, elevated September 19, 1431 (nephew)Williams, 2004, p. 47.]
*Pietro Barbo, elevated July 1, 1440 (nephew, son of Polissena Condulmer; future Pope Paul II);Of Nicholas V (1447-1455)
*Filippo Calandrini, elevated December 20, 1448 (half-brother);Of Callixtus III (1455-1458)
*Luis Juan del Mila y Borja, elevated February 20, 1456 (published September 17, 1456)
*Rodrigo Borja, elevated February 20, 1456 (published September 17, 1456, future Pope Alexander VI);Of Pius II (1458-1464)
*Francesco Piccolomini, elevated March 5, 1460 (future Pope Pius III)
*Niccolò Fortiguerra, elevated March 5, 1460 (relative on mother's side)
*Giacomo Ammannati-Piccolomini, elevated December 18, 1461 (adopted);Of Paul II (1464-1471)
*Marco Barbo, elevated September 18, 1467
*Giovanni Battista Zeno, elevated November 21, 1468
*Giovanni Michiel, elevated November 21, 1468;Of Sixtus IV (1471-1484)
*Pietro Riario, elevated December 16, 1471
*Giuliano della Rovere, elevated December 16, 1471, (future Pope Julius II)
*Girolamo Basso della Rovere, elevated December 10, 1477
*Raffaele Riario, elevated December 10, 1477
*Cristoforo della Rovere, elevated December 10, 1477
*Domenico della Rovere, elevated February 10, 1478;Of Innocent VIII (1484-1492)
*Lorenzo Cybo de Mari, elevated March 9, 1489
*Giovanni de' Medici, elevated March 9, 1489 (relative, future Pope Leo X) [Williams, 2004, p. 71.] Two further nephews are listed some sources as being elevated March 9, 1489, reserved "in pectore", and never publishedThomson, 1980, pp. 62-64.]
*Pantaleone Cybo
*Niccolo Cybo;Of Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)
*Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor, elevated August 31, 1492 (son of cousin)
*Cesare Borgia, elevated September 20, 1493, resigned August 18, 1498 (son)Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia. 2005. "The World of Catholic Renewal, 1540-1770". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521841542. p. 102.]
*Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore, elevated September 20, 1493 (brother-in-law of daughter, Gerolama Borgia) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1493.htm#Sangiorgio The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503): Consistory of September 20, 1493 (II)] ."]
*Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el menor, elevated February 19, 1496 (grand-nephew)
*Amanieu d'Albret, elevated March 20, 1500 (brother-in-law of Cesare Borgia) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1500.htm#Hurtado The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503): Consistory of March 20, 1500 (VIII)] ."]
*Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, elevated March 20, 1500 (grand-nephew)
*Francisco de Borja, elevated September 28, 1500 (disputed relationship)Miranda, Salvador. 1998 " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1500-ii.htm#Serra The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503): Consistory of September 28, 1500 (IX)] ."]
*Juan de Vera, elevated September 28, 1500 (relative)
*Juan Castellar y de Borja, elevated May 31, 1503 (cousin of Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor) [Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1503.htm Consistory of May 31, 1503 (IX)] ."]
*Francisco Lloris y de Borja, elevated May 31, 1503 (grand-nephew) [Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1503.htm Consistory of May 31, 1503 (IX)] ."]

16th century

;Of Julius II (1503-1513)
*Clemente Grosso della Rovere, November 29, 1503Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xvi.html XVI Century (1503-1605)] ."]
*Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere, November 29, 1503
*Marco Vigerio della Rovere, December 1, 1505 (distant relative)
*Leonardo Grosso della Rovere, December 1, 1505 (cousin)
*Sisto Gara della Rovere, September 11, 1507;Of Pope Leo X (1513-1521)
*Giulio de' Medici, elevated September 23, 1513 (cousin, future Pope Clement VII)
*Innocenzo Cybo, elevated September 23, 1513
*Luigi de' Rossi, elevated July 1, 1517 (cousin)
*Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici, elevated July 1, 1517 (adopted as son)
*Franciotto Orsini, elevated July 1, 1517 (son of Orso Orsini di Monteredondo)
*Giovanni Salviati, elevated July 1, 1517 (son of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici)
*Niccolò Ridolfi, elevated July 1, 1517 (son of Contessina de' Medici)Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1517-ii.htm Consistory of July 1, 1517 (V)] ".] ;Of Clement VII (1523-1534)
*Niccolò Gaddi, elevated May 3, 1527 (related to Clement VII through Catherine de' Medici) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1527.htm#Gaddi Consistory of May 3, 1527 (I)] ".]
*Ippolito de' Medici, elevated January 10, 1529 (illegitimate son of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1529-ii.htm Consistory of January 10, 1529 (VI)] ."] ;Of Paul III (1534-1549)
*Alessandro Farnese, elevated December 18, 1534 (grandson)
*Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, elevated December 18, 1534 (grandson)
*Niccolò Caetani, elevated December 22, 1536 (son of cousin, published March 13, 1538)
*Tiberio Crispo, elevated December 19, 1544 (brother, on his mother's side, of pope's daughter Constanza Farnese; possibly natural son of Paul III) [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1544.htm#Crispo Salvador Miranda: Consistory of December 19, 1544] ]
*Ranuccio Farnese, elevated December 16, 1545 (grandson)
*Giulio Feltre della Rovere, elevated July 27, 1547 (relative) [Trollope, Thomas Adolphus. 1876. The Papal Conclaves, as They Were and as They are. Chapman and Hall. p. 51.] ;Of Julius III (1550-1555)
*Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, elevated May 30, 1550 (adopted)
*Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte, elevated November 20, 1551 (cousin)
*Fulvio della Corgna, elevated November 20, 1551 (nephew on his mother's side) [S. Miranda: [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1551-ii.htm#Corgna Con sistory of 1551] ]
*Roberto de Nobili, elevated December 22, 1553 (grand-nephew)
*Girolamo Simoncelli, elevated December 22, 1553 (grand-nephew);Of Paul IV (1555-1559)
*Carlo Carafa, elevated June 7, 1555 [Williams, 2004, p. 83.]
*Diomede Carafa, elevated December 20, 1555 (relative)
*Alfonso Carafa, elevated March 15, 1557 (grand-nephew) [Williams, 2004, p. 86.] ;Of Pius IV (1559-1565)
*Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, elevated January 31, 1560 (cousin of Charles Borromeo) [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1560.htm#Serbelloni Salvador Miranda: Consistory of January 31, 1560] ]
*St. Charles Borromeo, elevated January 31, 1560 (nephew) [ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia"]
*Mark Sittich von Hohenems (or Marco Sittico d'Altemps [ws|"" in the 1913 "Catholic Encyclopedia"] ), elevated February 26, 1561 (nephew)
*Alfonso Gesualdo, elevated February 26, 1561 (brother-in-law of Charles Borromeo)Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1561.htm#Seripando The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Pope Pius IV (1559-1565): Consistory of February 26, 1561 (II)] ."]
*Gianfrancesco Gàmbara, elevated February 26, 1561 (stepbrother of Charles Borromeo)
*Francesco Alciati, elevated March 12, 1565 (relative)
*Guido Luca Ferrero, elevated March 12, 1565 (cousin of Charles Borromeo)Miranda, Salvator. 1998. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1565.htm#Ferrero Consistory of March 12, 1565] ."]
*Gianfrancesco Commendone, elevated March 12, 1565 (relative);Of Pius V (1566-1572)
*Michele Bonelli†, elevated March 6, 1566 (grand-nephew) [Lemaitre, Nicole. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Pius V." "The Papacy: An Encyclopedia". Routledge. ISBN 0415922283. p. 1178.]
*Girolamo Rusticucci, elevated May 17, 1570 (relative) [S. Miranda. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1570.htm#Rusticucci Girolamo Rusticucci] ] ;Of Gregory XIII (1572-1585)
*Filippo Boncompagni†, elevated June 2, 1572Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 142.]
*Filippo Guastavillani, elevated July 5, 1574
*Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora, elevated December 12, 1583 (relative through his sister Costanza, wife of pope's son) [S. Miranda. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1583.htm#Sforza Consistory of 1583. Cardinal Francesco Sforza] ] ;Of Sixtus V (1585-1590)
*Alessandro Peretti di Montalto†, elevated March 13, 1585 [Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 92.] ;Of Gregory XIV (1590-1591)
*Paolo Emilio Sfondrato†, elevated December 19, 1590 [Tizon-Germe, Anne-Cécile. Ed. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. "Gregory XIV." "The Papacy: An Encyclopedia". Routledge. ISBN 0415922283. p. 666.]
*Flaminio Piatti, elevated March 6, 1591 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1591.htm#Piatti The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591): Consistory of March 6, 1591 (II)] ."] ;Of Innocent IX (1591)
*Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce†, elevated December 18, 1591 (grand-nephew);Of Clement VIII (1592-1605)
*Pietro Aldobrandini†, elevated September 17, 1593 [Levillain, 1981, p. 1129.] [Trollope, 1876, p. 52.]
*Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini†, elevated September 17, 1593 [Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 81.]
*Silvestro Aldobrandini, elevated September 17, 1603 (grand-nephew)
*Giovanni Battista Deti, elevated March 3, 1599 (relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1599.htm#Deti Consistory of March 3, 1599] "]
*Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini, elevated March 3, 1599 (adopted while already a cardinal on April 3, 1601) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1599.htm#Bevilacqua Consistory of March 3, 1599] "]

17th century

;Of Paul V (1605-1621)
*Scipione Borghese Caffarelli†, elevated July 18, 1605 (adopted)
*Giambattista Leni, elevated November 24, 1608 (distant relative) [Miranda, Salvador. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1608.htm#Leni Consistory of November 24, 1608] ]
*Tiberio Muti, elevated December 2, 1615 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1615.htm#Muti S. Miranda: consistory of December 2, 1615 - cardinal Tiberio Muti] ] ;Of Gregory XV (1621-1623)
*Ludovico Ludovisi†, elevated February 15, 1621Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xvii.htm XVII Century (1605-1700)] ."]
*Francesco Boncompagni, elevated April 19, 1621
*Marcantonio Gozzadini, elevated July 21, 1621 (cousin);Of Urban VIII (1623-1644)
*Francesco Barberini†, elevated October 2, 1623
*Lorenzo Magalotti, elevated October 7, 1624 (brother in law)
*Antonio Barberini, seniore, elevated October 7, 1624 (brother)
*Antonio Barberini, iuniore, elevated August 30, 1627
*Francesco Maria Macchiavelli, elevated December 16, 1641 (relative) [S. Miranda: [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1641.htm#Macchiavelli Consistory of 1641] ] ;Of Innocent X (1644-1655)
*Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj†, elevated November 14, 1644, resigned January 21, 1647 (son of Innocent X's sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini)
*Francesco Maidalchini†, elevated October 7, 1647 (nephew of Olimpia Maidalchini)
*Camillo Astalli† elevated September 19, 1650 (cousin of Olimpia Maidalchini; deprived of the title of "nipote" in 1653) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1650.htm#Astalli Consistory of September 19, 1650] ]
*Carlo Gualterio, elevated March 2, 1654 (relative);Of Alexander VII (1655-1667)
*Flavio Chigi, seniore†, elevated April 9, 1657
*Antonio Bichi, elevated April 9, 1657 [Levillain, 2002, p. 467.] ;Of Clement IX (1667-1669)
*Giacomo Rospigliosi†, elevated December 12, 1667;Of Clement X (1670-1676)
*Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni† (adopted while already a cardinal, having been elevated by Alexander VII on January 24, 1664) [Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta, 2002, p. 153.] [Williams, 2004, p. 119.] Levillain, 2002, p. 468.]
*Vincenzo Maria Orsini, elevated February 22, 1672 (relative, future Pope Benedict XIII) [S. Miranda: [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1672.htm#Orsini Cardinal V.M. Orsini (Benedict XIII)] ] ;Of Innocent XI (1676-1689)
*Carlo Stefano Anastasio Ciceri, elevated September 2, 1686 (distant relative) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998 [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1686.htm#Ciceri Consistory of September 2, 1686] ] ;Of Alexander VIII (1689-1691)
*Pietro Ottoboni† (grandnephew), elevated November 7, 1689Standen, Edith A. 1981. "Tapestries for a Cardinal-Nephew: A Roman Set Illustrating Tasso's "Gerusalemme Liberata." "Metropolitan Museum Journal". 16: 147-164.]
* Giambattista Rubini, elevated February 13, 1690

18th century

;Of Clement XI (1700-1721)
*Annibale Albani, elevated December 23, 1711 [Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1711.htm Consistory of December 23, 1711 (VI)] ."]
*Fabio Olivieri, elevated May 6, 1715 [Miranda, Salvador [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1715.htm#Olivieri Consistory of May 6, 1715] (cousin)] ;Of Innocent XIII (1721-1724)
*Bernardo Maria Conti, elevated June 16, 1721 (brother) [Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1721.htm Consistory of June 16, 1721 (I)] ."] ;Of Clement XII (1730-1740)
*Neri Maria Corsini, elevated August 14, 1730Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xviii.htm XVIII Century (1700-1799)] ."]
*Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, elevated September 24, 1731 [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1731.htm#Guadagni Salvador Miranda: Consistory of September 24, 1731] ] ;Of Clement XIII (1758-1769)
*Carlo Rezzonico, elevated September 11, 1758 [Levillain, 1981, p. 1179.] ;Of Pius VI (1775-1799)
*Giovanni Carlo Bandi, elevated May 29, 1775 (uncle)
*Barnaba Chiaramonti, elevated February 14, 1785 (relative on his mother's side, future Pope Pius VII [Kazimierz Dopierała, "Księga papieży", Pallotinum, Poznań 1996, p. 373-374; [http://www.damian-hungs.de/Papst%20Pius%20VII..html Damian Hungs: Papst Pius VII] ]
*Romualdo Braschi-Onesti, elevated December 18, 1786 [Levillain, 1981, p. 1184.]

19th century

;Of Leo XIII (1878-1903)
* Giuseppe Pecci, elevated May 12, 1879 (brother) [Miranda, Salvador. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1879.htm#Pecci Consistory of May 12, 1879] "]

imilar "creatures"

Pseudo-cardinal-nephews

Nephews of other popes

Notes

References

*Thomson, John A.F. 1980. "Popes and Princes, 1417-1517: Politics and Polity in the Late Medieval Church". Boston: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN: 0-04-901027-1.
*Williams, George L. 2004. "Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes". McFarland. ISBN:0786420715.


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