Jhelum

Coordinates: 32°55′43″N 73°43′53″E / 32.92861°N 73.73139°E / 32.92861; 73.73139

Jhelum
جہلم
—  City  —
Clockwise from top: Major Akram Shaheed Memorial, Tareekh-e-Jhelum book cover, Cantonment Square, CMH Mosque and Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium
Nickname(s): City of Soldiers
Land of Martyrs and Warriors
Map of Jhelum City
Jhelum جہلم is located in Pakistan
Jhelum
جہلم
Location within Pakistan
Coordinates: 32°56′00″N 73°44′00″E / 32.9333333°N 73.7333333°E / 32.9333333; 73.7333333[1]
Country Pakistan
Territory Punjab
Union Council 7 UC
Government
 – Type District Government
 – Administrator District Co-ordination Officer Jhelum
Area
 – Total 22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Elevation 250 m (825 ft)
Population (1998)
 – Total 145,847
 – Estimate (2010) 174,679
 – Density 6,482.1/km2 (16,788.5/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Postal code 49600
Dialling code 0544
Website [2]

Jhelum (play /ˈləm/) (Urdu, Punjabi: جہلم) (Greek: Alexandria Bucephalous) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan. Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British[3] and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as city of soldiers or land of martyrs and warriors.[4][5] Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander the Great and Raja Porus. A city called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of Alexander's horse, Bucephalus. Other notable sites nearby include the 16th century Rohtas Fort, the Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples, and the 16th-century Grand Trunk Road which passes through the city. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the population of Jhelum was 145,647[6] and in 2010 its population is 174,679.[6] The name of the city is derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow), as the river that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas.[7] There are a number of industries in and around Jhelum city, including a tobacco factory, wood, marble, glass and flour mills.[8]

Contents

Etymology

Jhelum's earliest name was Vitasta.[9][10] Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as[11]:

Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is that in ancient days Jhelum was known as Jalham. The word Jhelum is reportedly derived from the words Jal(pure water) and Ham (snow). The name thus refers to the waters of a river (flowing besides the city) which have their origins in the snow-capped Himalayas.[12]

However some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of the Flag". With the passage of time it became Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam".

Tareekh-e-Jhelum book cover

According to tradition, Hazrat Saeed Bin Abi Waqas, brother of Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas, was sent to China to preach Islam, during his journey he arrived at the city of Jhelum, he saw the reflection of a city in the river and said "هذا جهيلم" (this is Jheelum), which means "City besides the river, in full moonlight"

Ahmed Shah Abdali also used "Jheelum" in place of Jhelum and "Harian" for Kharian in his diary.

Shahbaz, Anjum Sultan (September 2003). Tareekh-e-Jhelum. history of Jhelum (2nd ed.). Book Corner, Main Bazar, Jhelum. p. 92. http://openlibrary.org/b/OL23138105M/Tareekh-e-Jhelum. 

History

The Janjuas, Rajputs, Jats and Ahirs[9][13] ,[14] who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants of Jhelum.[15] The history of Jhelum dates back to the semi-mythical period of the Mahabharata. Hindu tradition represents the nearby Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava brothers during the period of their exile. The next major point in the history of the district was the Battle of the Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and the local ruler, Porus.Abisares (or Abhisara;[16] in Greek Αβισαρης), called Embisarus (Eμβισαρoς) by Diodorus,[17] was an Indian king of abhira[18] descent beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander the Great both before and after the conquest of Porus in 326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and on his death appointed his son as his successor.

A Sikh-era fort in Jhelum City

The Gakhars appear to represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, and who still inhabit a large tract in the east of the district; while the Awans, who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently later invaders, the Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they long continued to retain their independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring district of Rawalpindi.[15]

During the flourishing period of the Mughal dynasty, the Gakhar chieftains were among the most prosperous and loyal vassals of the house of Babar, but after the collapse of the Mughal empire, Jhelum came under the rule of the Sikhs.[15]

An old photo of Jhelum city

In 1765 Gujar Singh defeated the last independent Gakhar chief, Muqarrrab Khan, and subjugated the wild mountaineers of the Salt Range and the Murree Hills. His son succeeded to his dominions until 1810, when it fell to Ranjit Singh. Under the rule of Ranjit Singh, the dominant classes of Jhelum suffered much from fiscal actions; and the Janjua, Gakhars, and Awan families gradually lost their landed estates to their Jat dependents.[15]

In 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories to the British. Ranjit Singh, however, had so thoroughly subjugated the wild mountain tribes of the district that little difficulty was experienced in reducing it to working order. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and made a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to disarm them, but decamped on the night following the action, with the main body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmiri authorities, into whose territory they had escaped.

During British rule Jhelum was a district of Rawalpindi Division, and was larger than the current district of Jhelum. On April 1, 1914, the tehsil of Talagang was detached from the district and incorporated with the new district of Attock. The old Jhelum district (minus Talagang) covered an area of 7,285 km2 (2,813 sq mi) and included Chakwal tehsil - it was bounded by Shahpur and Attock to the west, and by Rawalpindi to the north - the Jhelum River separated it from Kashmir to the north-east and from Gujrat and Shahpur to the south-east and south.[15]

During British rule Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413 from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951.[15]

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

"The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the head-quarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his head-quarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and it is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded 1867. During the ten years ending 1902-3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs.34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital."[15]
Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance. A lectern inside St. John's Church Jhelum the church shows the names of those 35 soldiers. St. John's Church is located in Jhelum Cantonment beside the river Jhelum. It was built in 1860 and is a landmark of the city. It is a Protestant church and was in use during the British period. For forty years it remained closed. Now it has been renovated and opened and almost in good condition.

Abisares King

Hazara (country), the Abisares of the Greeks; it forms the north-western district of the Peshawar division. It was conquered by Arjuna.[19] But Dr. Stein identifies the kingdom of Abhisara with the tract of the lower and middle hills between the Vitasta (Jhelum) and Chadrabhaga (Chenab) including the state of Rajapuri (Rajauri) in Kasmira.[9][20][14]

Administration

The River Jhelum below the bridge beside Jhelum City

As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into 7 Union Councils,[21] namely Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II, Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI, Jhelum-VII, while Jhelum Tehsil is subdivided into Union Councils Badlot, Boken, Chak Khasa, Chotala, Darapur, Dhanyala, Dina-I, Dina-II, Garh Mahal,, Kala Gujran, Khukha, Kotla Faqir, Madu Kalas, Monan, Mughalabad, Nakka Khurd, Nara, Pandori, Sanghoi and Sohan.

Demography

Jhelum is one of the oldest districts of Punjab. It was established on 23 March 1849.[23] Jhelum District has a diverse population of 1,103,000 (2006)[24] which mainly consists of Punjabis. The population of the Jhelum city (proper) is about 174,679(2010)[6] and it is the 35th largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. Population Density is 261/km. Population Growth Rate is 1.51[25] which is very low as compared to other urban areas of Pakistan. The majority of the population i.e. 98.47 percent is Muslim. Among the minorities Christians are in majority sharing 1.36 percent in the district. Punjabi is the dominant language (96.6 percent), while, other languages spoken in the district are Urdu (1.9 percent), Pushto (1.2 percent). Major clans are Awans, Akra[disambiguation needed ], Bharat, The Bangyals, Gakhars, Gujars, Janjua Rajputs, Jalaps, Jats (Cheema, Dhamial Jats, Gondal, Ghuman, Sipra, Nagyal, Thathal, Kashmiris, Khokhars, Lilla Tribe Qureshis, Phaphra Mughals), Rajputs (Bhakral, Bhatti, Chib, Minhas, Narma, Sohlan, etc.), Arain, Syed and Punjabi Shaikh.

Literacy rate of Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. At 79%, it is only lower than that of Islamabad and neighbouring Rawalpindi.[26] Somewhat higher than the literacy in Punjab province (58 percent).[26] The literacy rate has remarkably increased from 38.9 percent in 1981. The rate is much higher in urban area when compared with rural areas both for males and females. 84% of the population have electricity and 96% have the water facility.[27]Human Development Index of Jhelum is 0.770, which highest in Pakistan after Karachi.

City

Shabir plaza Shandar Chowk
Gumbad wali Masjid

In the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion and has become a vibrant economic and cultural center. The old city has fascinating narrow streets and crowded bazaars.

The main market area of the city is centered around "Shandar Chowk", "GTS Chowk", "Muhammadi Chowk" and includes "Main Bazaar", "Niya Bazaar", "Raja Bazaar", "Kinari Bazaar", "Sarafa Bazaar", "Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith" and Soldier Arcade etc.

Some of the main roads of Jhelum City are Civil Line, Railway Road, Old GT Road, Kucheri Road, Iqbal Road and Rohtas Road.

A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has grown up into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division commanded by a Major General.

The estimated population of Jhelum in 2010 is 174,679[6] and the area of Jhelum is about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).

Geography and climate

Lying at 32°56′ North latitude and 73°44′ East longitude, Jhelum is located just 1 hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore. Jhelum is linked with these cities through the National Highway N-5. Several cities are within 1 to 2 hours drive including Gujrat (home to fan manufacturing),[28] Gujranwala,[29] Chakwal and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir.

Jhelum is extremely hot and humid in summer, and warm and generally dry in winter. The maximum recorded temperature in the pre-monsoon season of April to June is 45.7 °C (114.3 °F), whereas in winter the minimum temperature recorded is 1.8 °C (35.2 °F). Average annual rainfall is about 850 millimetres (33 in) which is much below the required quantity given the extremely high evaporation levels. Nevertheless, in the rainy season water torrents flow from the north to the river Jhelum with a very fast speed and cause damages to the crops, bridges, roads and are responsible for the soil erosion in the district.[30]

Climate data for Jhelum, Punjab
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
21.6
(70.9)
26.6
(79.9)
33.0
(91.4)
38.1
(100.6)
40.5
(104.9)
35.9
(96.6)
34.5
(94.1)
35.0
(95.0)
33.1
(91.6)
27.6
(81.7)
21.5
(70.7)
30.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
14.7
(58.5)
19.5
(67.1)
25.4
(77.7)
30.1
(86.2)
33.2
(91.8)
30.9
(87.6)
29.9
(85.8)
29.0
(84.2)
24.9
(76.8)
18.7
(65.7)
13.6
(56.5)
23.5
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
7.7
(45.9)
12.5
(54.5)
17.7
(63.9)
22.0
(71.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.8
(78.4)
25.3
(77.5)
23.0
(73.4)
16.6
(61.9)
9.9
(49.8)
5.7
(42.3)
16.4
Rainfall mm (inches) 33.8
(1.331)
50.0
(1.969)
60.5
(2.382)
36.6
(1.441)
31.8
(1.252)
51.9
(2.043)
237.3
(9.343)
221.2
(8.709)
77.7
(3.059)
12.2
(0.48)
9.9
(0.39)
30.4
(1.197)
853.3
(33.594)
Sunshine hours 217.0 206.1 229.4 252.0 313.1 288.0 248.0 241.8 249.0 282.1 246.0 195.3 2,967.8
Source no. 1: [31]
Source no. 2: (sunshine only)[32]

Major floods

The biggest flood in Jhelum came in 1992. This flood sunk Jhelum city. Some people argue that 1996 flood was the biggest but they are very weak in their analysis as 1996 flood was very normal flood and did nothing to the city. But 1992 flood was very devastating.[33]

Important sites

Front view of Melange super Market
Akram Shaheed Library

Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by the great Afghan king Sher Shah Suri. This fort is about 4 km in circumference and the first example of the successful amalgamation of Pukhtun and Hindu architecture in the sub-continent. Qila Rohtas is situated in a gorge approximately 16 km NW of Jhelum and 7 km from Dina.

The old city has a fascinating labyrinth of narrow streets and crowded bazaars. Opposite to the CMH Jhelum Cantt is located the beautiful mosque of the city, CMH Masjid Jhelum.

Located in the cantonment area is the St. John's Church Jhelum which was built in 1860. There was a local stadium near Gul Afshan Colony which is now transformed to a Cricket stadium named Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium. Close to Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium is located the Altaf Park which was constructed in 1994-95.

Nearly at a distance of 100m from Shandar Chowk, in the center of city is located Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park. Major Muhammad Akram Memorial Library is also present in this park. On 6 September at the occasion of Defence Day, Parade also took place over here.

Mangla Dam Water Reservoir

Lehri Nature Park is almost 30 kilometers from Jhelum and 90 kilometres on GT Road in the hilly Pothohar region from Islamabad. It is 10 kilometres from GT Road. The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km (19 mi) from Jhelum, it is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River. There is the Mangla View Resort[34] that is the first planned resort development in Pakistan to offer residences, villas, townhouses, hotels, serviced apartments & retail outlets. The resort is located on a 340-acre (1.4 km2) site on the Mangla Dam area.

Rasul Barrage is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km downstream from Jhelum. Two major water canals originate at the Rasul barrage, Rasul-Qadirabad link canal which is also called Lower-Jhelum link canal and Rasul-Shahpur branch canal.The area around the Rasul Barrage lake is also a picnic spot.

Travel and tourism

Local

Auto Rickshaws are very popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally clean and cheaper compared to petrol. Rickshaws by QingQi are another important mode of transportation. The older horse drawn tongas are now defunct although some can still be privately commissioned. Taxis and privately commissioned small passengger carrying vans are available

National

Bus Stand Jhelum

There is a regular bus/Hiace service available running from early hours of the morning to late night. Daily routes includes Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Chakwal, Mirpur and Faisalabad.

Regular Bus/Van service is also available with in Jhelum District, It include some of the important towns and villages such as: Buses from Jhelum to Pind Dadan Khan, Dina, Sohawa, Lillah, Nakka Khurd, Chakri Rajgan Pind Sawika, Nagyal, Sanghoi, Mangla Cantt, Nara, Domeli, Darapur, Jalalpur Sharif and many more, while Vans from Jhelum to Sanghoi, Dina, Kharian, Sarai Alamgir, Chak Jamal, Chak Doulat, Mughalabad, Boken, Dhanyala and many other destinations as well as Baragowah.

Railway

Jhelum Railway Station

The Jhelum Railway Station was built in 1928 during British rule before the independence of Pakistan. It was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire. Jhelum is on main line of Pakistan Railways, and linked to whole country through Railway line across the Pakistan. Many of the railway lines and bridges were designed and constructed by exceptionally hardworking engineers during the British time and after independence in railway workshop Jhelum.

Air

The nearest airport is the Islamabad International Airport, which is approximately 110 km by road from Jhelum. A small airport called Mangla Airport, located near Dina, is in use of the aviation wing of the Pakistan Army.

Telecommunication

The PTCL provides the main network of landline telephone with minority shares of few other operators like WorldCall. All major mobile phone companies operating in Pakistan provide service in Jhelum. Broadband internet access is available from DSL, EVDO to state of the art WiMax technology from many ISPs, WiMax and WiFi operators like PTCL EVO,[35] Wateen, Mobilink, WorldCall, LinkdotNet etc. WorldCall has laid its fiberoptics throughout the city of Jhelum for future project of FTTH with Tripple Play service.[36] In August 2008 PTCL has also launched its IPTV service named PTCL Smart TV in Jhelum.

Sports

Cricket Stadium Jhelum
Horse and rider in action, this animal went on to win

Located within the city is a golf course called the River-View Golf Club,[37] where national golf tournaments are held regularly.[38]

There is also a Cricket Stadium Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium where District lavel tournaments are held. In October 2008, Pakistan Cricket Board upgraded this stadium for Regional events.[39]

Besides the mainstream sports like cricket, hockey, and squash, a lot of other sports are also played in the rural areas around the city. These, which are equally popular, include tent pegging, volleyball, football, stone-lifting, and Kabaddi thousands of people flock to these local grand sporting events as keenly as the average sports fan anywhere in the world.

These events are usually sponsored by the UK and foreign based Paksistani diaspora.

.

Poverty

Jhelum like many of Pakistans urban areas is an impoverished and underdeveloped city, it has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and declining exports or manufacture. Poverty levels amongst the most needy have increased dramatically and support to meet their needs has been cut. In sharp contrast much of the general public have increased their personal wealth. There are many expensive motor vehicles, ostentatious houses, and designer shops which contrast starkly with the poverty and poor infrastructure that immediately surrounds them. Whilst the male literacy rate has increased the female literacy rate in Jhelum has demonstrably decreased and is now amongst the lowest in Punjab.[40] Many mothers bringing up children alone encounter enormous difficulties and prejudice. It is a critical issue because If a family has no work prospects, is living as house servants or as refugees trusted by few and despised by many then they are more likely to put children and themselves out on the roads to beg. Whilst many people beg out of necessity it seems the phenomenon has increased uncontrollably over the last ten years, many of the cities roads and street corners throng with beggars chasing people for paltry sums of money. They appear to be closely controlled and organised by criminal gangs who benefit the most. It is these gangs in turn who create the biggest problems to the wider society. They have at their disposal, juvenile delinquints, disabled persons, females and child workers, many of them shameless with horrific appearance or disabilities that are a convenient tool for extorting whatever little money they can.

Many of the resident affluent people see these beggars as more of a blessing in disguise than irritating entities. They find them to be the most readily available recipients of charity or "Sadqa" on a regular basis. It is often a philanthropic spirit that makes them fork out money, if on the one hand the affluent see beggars as a medium to purifying (or legalise) their wealth, the beggars find this occupation the easiest way to earn a living. Hence this relationship has abetted beggary and turned it into an organised form. It seems as the wealth of the general population in Jhelum has increased so too have the numbers of beggars, unfortunately too many of them are vulnerable child workers.[41]

While most child workers have homes to return to, Jhelum has its fair share of street children completely alone, at the mercy of their employers, and circumstances night and day. Exposed to organised criminal gangs, drug addicts, and abuse. They are at highest risks of developing communicable diseases such as TB, Hepatitis and HIV. Inevitably many by the time they are 16 are juvenile delinquents with anti social tendencies and a problem to wider society. Unemployable and faithfull to the gang culture which has seen them through the years they often resort to pickpocketing, robbery, violence, prostitution and trafficking as a means of survival.[42]

Crime & Disorder

Crime in Jhelum is present in many forms this includes drug trafficking, money laundering, murder robbery and fraud. There is a proliferation of authorised and unauthorised firearms and ammunitions into the hands of the general public and petty thiefs. In recent years armed robberies and holdups on quiet roads have seen a dramatic increase only recently a motorcycle gang responsible for large amounts of crime were apprehended, they were in possession of an extraordinary arsenal of weapons and ammunitions. Consequently there has been a year on year rise in crime. The numbers of police officers injured fatally or otherwise has also risen.[43] This has generated an heightened fear of crime amongst the population at large. Many people are frightened to travel at night unless absolutely necessary. Statistically crime has risen by 6% per annum. For some reason twice as many robberies are reported in Jhelum than in nearby Attock and Chakwal.[44]

Jhelum has its very own long established Heera Mandi which to all intents and purposes seeems to be still very active.[45] At one time this centred around the Palace Cinema on the Upper Chowk. As the Chowk became redeveloped the acitivities moved to an area known as the Ghaggar Maala. Some of the patrons hypocritical and even going so far as to justify their activities under the out dated religious edict of Muta[46]

Underground criminal gangs manage activities in the area, operating at a low key low profile level, amongst the myriads of small shops, stalls and havellis. It is reputed that with the right contacts one can purchase almost anything one desires from here. This includes alcohol, drugs, prostitution Prostitution in Pakistan and other blackmarket commodoties. Crime in Pakistan

Education

Govt. College GT Road Jhelum

Jhelum has a fairly well-developed educational infrastructure. The overall literacy rate for Jhelum is 79 percent, somewhat a higher literacy in Punjab province (58 percent).[26]

Jhelum has 6 Degree Colleges for Women, 6 Degree Colleges for Men, 6 Co-education Colleges, 6 Commerce Colleges, one Law College, with numerous higher secondary schools and over 150 high schools.[47]

Higher/technical education

In technical education there are two technical colleges, the Government Institute of Technology, Chak Daulat and the Government Technical Training Institute.[48] Jhelum also has two sub-campuses of the Virtual University of Pakistan namely Wings Institute of Learning and Punjab College For Women.[49] University of the Punjab is also establishing a sub-campus at Jhelum. Governament of Punjab has allocated 65 kanals of land for this purpose.[50]

Air School System is an Independent Education System that follows National Curriculum in accordance with Federal Ministry of Education and is registered as a Private Limited Company under the Companies Ordinance 1984. Air Foundation School System carries Trade Mark under the Ordinance 2001/Act 1940, Government of Pakistan. AFSS is ISO 9001 - 2000 certified by Moody International - All rights reserved. www.airfoundation.org.pk

Colleges

  • Air Foundation School System Jhelum Campus (Boys & Girls)
  • Govt Noor Mudrassa Tul Banat Girls School, established since 1944
  • Army Public School and College Jhelum Cantt.
  • F.G. Intermediate College Jhelum Cantt
  • Fauji Foundation Model School & College, Jhelum Cantt.
  • Bahria Foundation College, GT Road, Jhelum.
  • Govt. Degree College, Jhelum.[51]
  • Govt. College. G.T. Road, Jhelum.[52]
  • Govt. College for Women, Jhelum.
  • Govt. College of Commerce, Bilal Town, Jhelum.
  • National Foundation School and College, Jhelum.
  • Govt. Islamia Girls Higher Secondary School and College, Jhelum.
  • Govt. Islamia Boys Higher Secondary School and College, Jhelum.
  • Jinnah Law College Near Kutcheri, Jhelum.
  • M.A. Jinnah College of Commerce & Computer Science, Jhelum.
  • PICS, Bilal town Jhelum.
  • City College for Girls, Jhelum
  • Islamic Asian College
  • Cadet College Jhelum[53]

Hospitals

DHQ Civil Hospital Jada Jhelum
AlKhadim Memorial Hospital

Jhelum has some of the largest hospitals[54] in the area which include the hospital in cantonment area of the city managed by the Pakistan Army or sub organisations.[55]

  • District Headquarter Hospital, Jada
  • Combined Military Hospital Jhelum
  • Fauji Foundation Hospital, GT Road[56]
  • Khadam Ali Memorial Hospital, Machine Mohalla No. 1
  • Khan Muhammad Hospital, AlAsria Road.
  • Sughra Hospital, Jhelum Cantt
  • Shahid memorial trust hospital Jhelum
  • Inayat Karim Medical Center, Jhelum Main G.T.road
  • AlKaram Hospital, Civil Lines
  • Afzal Hospital, Machine Mohalla No.3
  • Noor-un-Nisa Hospital
  • Fazal Hospital, Civil Lines
  • Azeem Hospital, Jhelum Cantt
  • Umair Children Hospital, Machine Mohalla No.3
  • Capt.Moazzam Shaheed Hospital
  • Mirza Hospital, Shandar Chowk
  • Zam Zam Diagnostic Centre, near main gate D.H.Q Hospital Jhelum.
  • Zam Zam Pathology Lab, G.T Road, Dina

Major industries

Pakistan Tobacco Company Jhelum

Some of the major Industries are:[57]

  • Pakistan Tobacco Company, Jhelum[58]
  • KDC Plywood Factory[59]
  • Pakistan ChipBoard Factory[60]
  • Allience Textile Mill[61]
  • Rani Ghee Mill[62]

Notable people

People with origins in Jhelum[63] are listed below:

  • Ghafer Shahzad, Deputy Director Architecture (Punjab Auqaf Department), First PhD Architecture from UET, Lahore
  • Raja Porus who fought against Alexander in 326BC
  • Major Muhammad Akram, Shaheed Nishan-e-Haider
  • Dr Ghulam Hussain, Ex. Secretary General Pakistan People's Party, Ex. Federal Minister (Mr. Z.A Bhutto's Cabinet).
  • General Asif Nawaz Janjua, former Chief of Army Staff Pakistan Army
  • Admiral (R) Tariq Kamal Khan, former Chief of Naval Staff Pakistan Navy
  • EX-Wing Commander Syed Manzoor ul Hassan Hashmi (late) awarded Sitara-e-Jurat PAF twice each time after 1965 and 1971 WARs;
  • Syed Mushtaq Hussain Shah (Late) Tehsildar (R) Department of Revenue-Government of Punjab, died on 28 August 2005. He belonged to Village Raiya Chak Maddu near C.M.H. Jhelum Cantonement and now lies buried in the Muslim graveyard of the same village;
  • Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, Sufi saint and a Punjabi poet of great repute, he is especially renowned as the writer of a book of poetry called Saiful Malūk.[64]
  • Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan[65]

ch muhammad saqlain MPA punjab assembly

Jhelum pictures gallery

Media related to Jhelum at Wikimedia Commons

See also

References

  1. ^ Location of Jhelum - Falling Rain Genomics
  2. ^ Jhelum Police official website
  3. ^ Globalsecurity - Dominated Recruitment
  4. ^ BBC NEWS - City of Soldiers
  5. ^ Youtube Video - AAJ NEWS Report (City of martyrs and warriors)
  6. ^ a b c d World Gazetteer of population
  7. ^ The District Jhelum
  8. ^ Tehsil Municipal Administration Jhelum - Industries of Jhelum.
  9. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of ancient Indian geography By Subodh Kapoor-page-3
  10. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=43Fzt-G_-XYC&pg=PA3&dq=great+abhiras&hl=en&ei=3ymQTeabHImmcKyBvY0K&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#
  11. ^ Tareekh-e-Jhelum, page 92 by Anjum Sultan Shahbaz
  12. ^ The District Jhelum
  13. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=43Fzt-G_-XYC&pg=PA3&dq=great+abhiras&hl=en&ei=3ymQTeabHImmcKyBvY0K&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#<
  14. ^ a b Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, v. 8, 20, 29; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12-14, ix. 1, x. 1
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Jhelum District Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 152
  16. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1910). "Alexander III (Alexander the Great)". Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. 1. 
  17. ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 90
  18. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=FoT6gPrbTp8C&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=Abisares++abhira+or+ahir+king&source=bl&ots=d_8Stz5xqE&sig=su7906CaYlblt0hJ5Yo0jJTrzvo&hl=en&ei=xQUGTZTWKcSAlAeTvrD-Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Abisares%20%20abhira%20or%20ahir%20king&f=false
  19. ^ Mahabharata,Sabha-Parva,Ch.27;JASD.(1852)p. 234
  20. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=43Fzt-G_-XYC&pg=PA3&dq=great+abhiras&hl=en&ei=3ymQTeabHImmcKyBvY0K&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#<
  21. ^ Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhelum - Government of Pakistan
  22. ^ World-Gazetteer.com. "Jhelum City". http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gpro&lng=en&des=wg&geo=-172&srt=pnan&col=abcdefghinoq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=&geo=442609372. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  23. ^ Jhelum Report
  24. ^ Population of Jhelum District
  25. ^ population growth rate
  26. ^ a b c http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/statistics/pslm_prov2006-07/2.14a.pdf
  27. ^ District Profile
  28. ^ University of Gujrat
  29. ^ Gujranwala Business Center
  30. ^ Annual weather report of Jhelum
  31. ^ "Jhelum, Pakistan". Climate Charts. http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/p/PK41598.php. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  32. ^ "Jhelum, Pakistan". allmetsat. http://en.allmetsat.com/climate/pakistan-afghanistan.php?code=41598. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  33. ^ The biggest flood
  34. ^ Mangla View Resort
  35. ^ PTCL EVO
  36. ^ LinkdotNET
  37. ^ Jhelum River View Golf Club
  38. ^ River-View Golf Club
  39. ^ Jang News report(District Cricket Stadium, Jhelum)
  40. ^ www.paiman.org.pk/resources/DHPs/DP_Jhelum.pdf
  41. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_22-2-2005_pg3_6
  42. ^ Rebecca Lyman (March 14, 2011). "Pakistan: Poverty unveiled". World Vision, http://meero.worldvision.org/. http://meero.worldvision.org/sf_pakistan.php. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  43. ^ ://www.jhelumpolice.gov.pk/crime.htm
  44. ^ http://archives.dawn.com/dawnftp/72.249.57.55/dawnftp/2007/08/16/nat14.htm
  45. ^ http://www.paktribune.com/news/index.shtml?204133
  46. ^ http://www.kr-hcy.com/statichtml/files/104292584629524,print.shtml
  47. ^ School Directory of PUNJAB (Jhelum)
  48. ^ Technical education in Jhelum
  49. ^ VU Jhelum campuses
  50. ^ Punjab University NewsLetter
  51. ^ Govt. Degree College, Jhelum
  52. ^ Govt. College. G.T. Road, Jhelum
  53. ^ [1]
  54. ^ Types of Health Facilities report in Jhelum
  55. ^ Medical facilities in Jhelum
  56. ^ Fauji Foundation Hospital on PhoneBook
  57. ^ TMA Jhelum(Industries)
  58. ^ Pakistan Tobacco Company
  59. ^ KDC Plywood Factory
  60. ^ Pakistan ChipBoard Factory
  61. ^ Allience Textile Mill
  62. ^ Rani Ghee Mill
  63. ^ ApnaJhelum.com Personalities
  64. ^ Saiful Malūk by Mian Muhammad Bakhsh
  65. ^ Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
  66. ^ Justice Iftikhar Hussain Chaudhry, Chief Justice, Lahore High Court
  67. ^ Satish Gujral
  68. ^ BCC TV News Nosheen Idrees, runner up for the Miss Pakistan World

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jhelum — Jhelum …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jhelum —   [ dʒeɪləm] der, in der Antike Hydạspes, Fluss in Indien und Pakistan, 724 km lang, entspringt am oberen Ende des Hochtals von Kaschmir, in dem er dann Srinagar und den Wularsee durchfließt; mündet in den Chenab. In Pakistan ist er der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Jhelum — [jā′ləm] river in India, flowing from the Himalayas in Kashmir through Pakistan into the Chenab: c. 480 mi (772 km) …   English World dictionary

  • Jhelum —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents lieux partageant un même toponyme. Jhelum affluent de l Indus connu sous le nom d Hydaspe dans l Antiquité Jhelum ville du Pakistan sur les rives de la Jhelum Le district de Jhelum dont… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jhelum — /jay leuhm/, n. a river in S Asia, flowing from S Kashmir into the Chenab River in Pakistan. 450 mi. (725 km) long. * * * ▪ Pakistan       town, Punjab province, northeastern Pakistan. The town lies just west of the Jhelum River (there bridged by …   Universalium

  • Jhelum — Original name in latin Jhelum Name in other language Alessandria Bucefala, Dzelam, Dzelamas, Dzhelam, Dhelam, Delamas, Jhelam, Jhelum, jehalama, jellum, jhelama sahara, jie he lei mu, Џелам, Джелам State code PK Continent/City Asia/Karachi… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Jhelum — or ancient Hydaspes geographical name river 450 miles (724 kilometers) NW India (subcontinent) flowing from Kashmir S & SW into the Chenab …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Jhelum — Jhelam oder Jehlam (Hindi: झेलम, Jhelam; Gurmukhi: ਜੇਹਲਮ, Jehalam) ist der Name eines Flusses in Indien und Pakistan, siehe Jhelam (Fluss) eines istrikts im Nordosten der pakistanischen Provinz Punjab, siehe Jhelam (Distrikt) dessen Hauptstadt,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jhelum — ► Río de la India y Pakistán, afluente del Indo a través del Chenab; 725 km …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jhelum — Jhe•lum [[t]ˈdʒeɪ ləm[/t]] n. geg a river in S Asia, flowing from S Kashmir into the Chenab River in Pakistan. 450 mi. (725 km) long …   From formal English to slang

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