official_name = Hanford, California
mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location in Kings County and the state of
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Kings
leader_name = Joaquin D. Gonzalez
leader_name1 = Dan Chin
leader_name2 = Gary Misenheimer
area_total_km2 = 33.9
area_total_sq_mi = 13.1
area_land_km2 = 33.9
area_land_sq_mi = 13.1
area_water_km2 = 0
area_water_sq_mi = 0
elevation_ft = 249
elevation_m = 76
population_as_of = 2008
population_total = 51,965
population_density_km2 = 1229.7
population_density_sq_mi = 3182.1
timezone = Pacific
utc_offset = -8
latd = 36 |latm = 20 |lats = 0 |latNS = N
longd = 119 |longm = 38 |longs = 49 |longEW = W
timezone_DST = PDT
utc_offset_DST = -7
postal_code = 93230, 93232
area_code = 559
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 06-31960
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 1660714
Hanford is an important commercial and cultural center in the south central
San Joaquin Valleyand is the county seatof Kings County, California. It is the principal city of the Hanford-Corcoran, California Metropolitan Statistical Area(MSA Code 25260), which encompasses all of Kings County, including the cities of Hanford and Corcoran. The ZIP Codeis 93230 (93232 for post office boxes). The city of Hanford is surrounded by communities that do not fall within the city limits but use the same zip code. These communities include Grangeville, Hardwick and Home Garden.
The population was 41,686 at the
2000 census. However, the California Department of Financeestimates that the population had grown to 51,965 as of January 1, 2008. [California Department of Finance, Table E-1, State/County Population Estimates with Annual Percent Change, May 2008]
Hanford is located at coor dms|36|19|60|N|119|38|49|W|city (36.333273, -119.646889)GR|1. It is situated in the south central portion of California's San Joaquin Valley, 28 miles (45 km) SSE of the city of
Fresno, at an elevation of convert|249|ft|m above sea level. The terrain is level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.1 square miles (33.9 km²), all of which is land not covered by water. The only natural watercourse is Mussel Slough, remnants of which still exist on the city's western edge. The Kings River is about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) north of Hanford. The People's Ditch, an irrigationcanal dug in the 1870s, traverses Hanford from north to south. [http://www.calarchives4u.com/history/kings/king1913-ch23.htm]
Hanford has a climate typical of that of the San Joaquin Valley floor with hot, dry summers and cool winters characterized by dense
Tule fog. The rainy season occurs from November through April. The average annual rainfall over the ten years from 1997/98 through 2006/07 was 8.97 inches (228 mm). Historical climate data for Hanford are available at http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/hnx/hjomain.php.
National Weather ServiceForecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for Hanford and the surrounding area are available from its website at http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/hnx/.
The Hanford area was inhabited by the Tachi
YokutIndians for several thousand years prior to Euro-American contact. They occupied areas along watercourses such as creeks, springs and seep areas (such as sloughs), along perennial and seasonal drainages, as well as flat ridges and terraces. [John Torrey, Paul Awosika et al., "Environmental Impact Report for the Hanford Mall", Earth Metrics Inc. for the city of Hanford and State of California Clearinghouse, rpt. 10082, March 8, 1990] Therefore, the areas along streams are considered likely locations for prehistoric cultural resources. Permanent villages were usually placed on an elevation above the seasonal flood levels. Surrounding areas were used for hunting and seed, acorn, and grass gathering.
Hanford is named for James Madison Hanford, a
railroadexecutive, after the Southern Pacific Railroadtracks were laid through a sheep camp in the year 1877. According to "History of Kings County" : "It was but a short step from sheep-camp to village and with the railroad as an attraction the village flourished and became a town within a few historic months." [Brown, Robert R. and Richmond, J.E., "History of Kings County", A.H. Cawston, Hanford, CA, 1940]
In 1880, a dispute over land titles between settlers and the Southern Pacific Railroad resulted in a bloody gun battle on a farm 9 km (5.6 mi) northwest of Hanford that left seven men dead. This event became famous as the
Mussel Slough Tragedy.
A post office was set up in 1887.
Several times, major fires destroyed much of the young community's business district. The need for fire protection led to the town becoming an incorporated city in 1891.
An electrical generating plant was built in 1891 by pioneering flour miller H.G. Lacey, bringing the first electric lights to the city. The Lacey Milling Company was still operating in Hanford in 2008.
The first public high school, Hanford Union High School, was started in 1892 with one teacher, W. S. Cranmer, and an average enrollment of fourteen. [Gibson, Harold, "History of Kings County Public Schools," Hanford, CA, 2004]
When Kings County was created in 1893 from the western part of
Tulare County, Hanford became its county seat.
A second railroad was laid through Hanford in 1897, which today is the main north-south line of the
BNSF Railwaythrough the San Joaquin Valley. The original east-west Southern Pacific Railroad branch line is now operated by the San Joaquin Valley Railroad.In 1901, a restaurant called the Star opened on Sixth Street across from the Southern Pacific tracks. The Star Restaurant was still doing business at the same location in 2008.
Saloons flourished in Hanford's early days despite an anti-saloon movement until the town voted to become "dry" in 1912, eight years before nationwide
Prohibition in the United Statestook effect. [Brown, Robert R. and Richmond, J.E., "History of Kings County", A.H. Cawston, Hanford, CA, 1940]
As of the
2000 census, there were 41,686 people, 13,931 households, and 10,378 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 3,184.4 people per square mile (1,229.6/km²). There were 14,721 housing units at an average density of 1,124.5/sq mi (434.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.06% White, 5.01% Black or African American, 1.36% Native American, 2.85% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 20.80% from other races, and 5.73% from two or more races. 38.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Foreign-born residents accounted for 13.2% of Hanford's population and 28.3% spoke a language other than English at home.
There were 13,931 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.
Hanford is a major trading center serving the surrounding agricultural area. According to the California Employment Development Department, as of January 2007, most residents of the Hanford area were employed in services (29,200 employees), government (14,300 employees) and farming (7,600 employees) as well as in some manufacturing enterprises (3,400 employees). [http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/]
The heavy industry sector has declined significantly over the past 20 years. An oil refinery formerly operated in the city under several different owners (Caminol Oil Co. from 1932-1967, Beacon Oil Co. from 1967-1982 and Ultramar Oil Co. from 1982-1987) until it permanently closed in 1987 [http://www.energy.ca.gov/oil/refinery_history.html] . A tire manufacturing plant was built in 1962 by the Armstrong Rubber Co., which operated it until that company was purchased by the Italian manufacturer
Pirelli, which eventually closed the factory in 2001. On December 11, 2007, the Hanford City Planning Commission approved construction of a plant that is expected to produce 60 million gallons (227 million liters) of ethanolper year for use as a gasoline additive and alternative fuel for vehicles. Most of the feedstock will be cornshipped from the Midwest. The proposed plant would be operated by Great Valley Ethanol LLC and is expected to open in 2010. [Fresno Bee, December 16, 2007]
The retail sector is growing with taxable sales of USD 414.7 million reported in 2002, up by 4.6% from 2001. [http://www.kingsedc.org/hanford.html]
Major employers within the city of Hanford in 2006 included the
Kings Countygovernment with 1,041 employees, the Adventist Health Systemwith 857, the Hanford Elementary School District with 520, the Del Montetomato cannery with 435 year-round and 1,500 seasonal employees and Marquez Brothers International, Inc., makers of Hispanic cheese and other dairy products. [http://www.kingsedc.org/hanford.html] Many Hanford residents work for other nearby employers such as NAS Lemoore, the U.S. Navy's largest master jet base located 25 km (15.5 mi) WSW of Hanford and for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitationwhich operates three state prisons in Kings County.
The unemployment rate in July 2008 for Kings County as a whole was 9.9%. [http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/]
According to the
United States Census Bureau, median household income in Hanford was USD 37,582 and 17.3% of the population was living below the poverty linein 1999, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. The median income for a household in the city was USD 37,582, and the median income for a family was USD 41,395. Males had a median income of USD 37,120 versus USD 25,971 for females. The per capita incomefor the city was USD 17,504.
The homeownership rate was 59% in 2000. [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0631960.html]
Hanford Municipal Airportserves general aviationand has a 5,175 ft (91,577 m) paved runway.
Orange Belt Stagesbus company serves Hanford.
Kings Area Rural Transit (KART) operates regularly scheduled fixed route bus service, vanpool service for commuters and Dial-A-Ride (demand response) services throughout Kings County as well as to Fresno. [http://www.kartaits.com/]
Amtrakprovides passenger rail service to the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento, and service to Southern California by a combination of rail and bus. Freight service is available from both the BNSF Railway and the San Joaquin Valley Railroad.
The city's water system is supplied by a network of 18 wells ranging from 600 to convert|1500|ft|m deep and serves 14,874 water connections. The water is not chlorinated or otherwise treated.
According to the Consumer Confidence Report issued by the city in 2007, the water contains naturally-occurring
arsenicin excess of the maximum contaminant level adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The federal standard is 10 micrograms of arsenic per liter of water. In a public notice issued to residents on September 12, 2008, the city reported that nine wells sampled in June 2008 had arsenic levels ranging from 5.0 to 66 micrograms per liter. The notice stated that the city's water system should be in full compliance with all drinking water standards within approximately 15 months.
Although it does not pose a health hazard, Hanford's drinking water also contains
hydrogen sulfide, which causes the water to have a noticeable "rotten egg" odor. [http://www.ci.hanford.ca.us/Public%20Works%20-%20Water%20Division.htm]
The city's sanitary sewer system consists of convert|206|mi|km of collector lines and 21 pump stations.
The wastewater treatment plant is located in the southern part of the city on Houston Avenue and treats 5 million gallons of sewage per day. The treated effluent is used to irrigate non-food crops. [http://www.ci.hanford.ca.us/Public%20Works.htm]
Electricity and gas
Southern California Edisonprovides electricity to most of Hanford. However, the industrial park area in the southernmost part of the city is served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.
Natural gas is supplied by the
Southern California Gas Company.
Telephone and cable television
Telephone service is provided by
AT&T. Comcasthas the cable TV franchise for Hanford.
Hanford is incorporated as a general law city under the
California Constitution. The city has a council-managergovernment with a city manager[http://www.ci.hanford.ca.us/City%20Manager.htm] appointed by the city council. [http://www.ci.hanford.ca.us/City%20Council.htm]
The city council is made up of five members elected by districts for four-year terms. There are no term limits in effect. The mayor and vice-mayor are elected annually by the city council from among its members. On December 4, 2007, the city council re-elected Joaquin D. Gonzalez to a second one-year term as mayor and elected Dan Chin to serve as vice mayor. Other council members include David G. Ayers, Marcelyn M. Buford and Dave Thomas.
Hanford's city manager is the chief administrative officer of the city and is responsible for the overall administrative direction of the city. The city manager's duties include development and implementation of the annual budget for approval by the city council. Gary Misenheimer was appointed as city manager in 2007.
In the state legislature Hanford is located in the 16th Senate District, represented by Democrat
Dean Florez, and in the 30th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Nicole Parra. Federally, Hanford is located in California's 20th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +5 [cite web | title = Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest? | publisher = Campaign Legal Center Blog | url=http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html | accessdate = 2007-10-20] and is represented by Democrat Jim Costa.
The United States Census of 2000 reported that 74.5% of Hanford residents aged 25 and over were high school graduates and 14.4% had bachelor's degrees or higher. [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/0631960.html]
The Hanford Elementary School District provides Kindergarten through eighth grade education for most of the city. It operates the following elementary and junior high schools: [http://www.hesd.k12.ca.us/]
*Lee Richmond Elementary
*Martin Luther King Jr. Elementary
*James Monroe Elementary
*George Washington Elementary
*John F. Kennedy Jr. High
*Woodrow Wilson Jr. High
The Pioneer Union Elementary School District serves much of the northern part of Hanford and operates Pioneer Elementary and Pioneer Middle Schools. Frontier Elementary was under construction in 2007 with a scheduled opening in the Fall of 2008. [http://www.pioneerschooldistrict.org/education/district/district.php?sectionid=1] A portion of north Hanford is served by the Kings River-Hardwick School District. [https://www.edline.net/pages/krhsd] A small area in southwest Hanford is served by the
Armona Union School District, which operates Armona Elementary and Parkview Middle schools in the nearby community of Armona. [http://www.hjuhsd.k12.ca.us/news/growthnews.htm]
Hanford Joint Union High School Districtprovides public secondary education. It operates Hanford High School and Hanford West High School as well as Earl F. Johnson High School, which is a continuation high school. The District also operates the Hanford Adult School. A new comprehensive full-service high school, called Sierra Pacific High School, is planned that will be part of the Hanford Joint Educational Center, which is a joint use project of the Hanford Joint Union High School District, the College of the Sequoiasand the City of Hanford. The Hanford Joint Educational Center is located on 13th Avenue 1/4 of a mile north of Lacey Blvd. [http://www.hjuhsd.k12.ca.us/news/growthnews.htm]
The College of Sequoias is a
community collegebased in Visalia, Californiathat currently operates a satellite campus in Hanford. A permanent education center in Hanford is planned as part of the Joint Educational Center. [http://www.cos.edu/] Chapman Universityhas a Hanford campus for adult students. [http://www1.chapman.edu/univcoll/ac/hanford/]
Private elementary schools in Hanford include St. Rose-McCarthy School and Western Christian School.
The Clark Center for Japanese Art and Culture
The Clark Center features The Ruth & Sherman Lee Institute, [http://www.ccjac.org/] the mission of which is to collect, preserve and exhibit works of fine art, primarily the arts of Japan. The Center, a complex of buildings in a style informed by Japanese architecture, also houses a specialist library for Japanese art and culture.
Hanford Carnegie Museum
Hanford Carnegie Museumwas built in 1905 as one of the many Carnegie librariesthat were funded by the steel industry magnate, Andrew Carnegie. The library was replaced by a new structure at a different location in 1968. The old library was subsequently renovated and re-opened as the Hanford Carnegie Museum in 1974. The building is of Romanesque architecturewith displays of furniture and photos describing the history of the Hanford area. [http://www.visithanford.com/hfdvis23i.html]
Kings District Fair
The Kings District Fair is a traditional county fair held on four days in mid-July at the Kings Fairgrounds. [http://www.visithanford.com/hfdvis23b.html]
Renaissance of Kings Cultural Arts Faire
The Renaissance of Kings Cultural Arts Faire [http://www.hanfordrenofkings.org] is held the first weekend of October at Courthouse Square in Hanford's city center. The Faire recreates the period of time during the rule of
King Henry VIIIof England. There is no admission charge and the event typically attracts 15,000 people over the two-day period.
Kings Art Center
The Kings Art Center was opened in 1989 to be the premier visual arts gallery and art training center of Kings County. Gallery shows are changed approximately every four weeks. Typical shows include photography, pottery, water color, mixed media, prints, textiles and fibers. Art classes for adults and children are scheduled throughout the year. [http://www.kingsartcenter.com]
Hanford in literature
William Saroyan's short story, "The Journey to Hanford" that appeared in " My Name Is Aram" is a comic account of two characters from Fresno--a boy and his wastrel uncle—who share a single bicycle as they travel the approximately thirty-mile route between Fresno and Hanford, taking along a sack of rice to feed them through what turns out to be a largely pointless summer.
Hanford's Chinese community
Chinese immigrants arrived in the late 19th century to build railroads and work on farms. They created a thriving
Chinatownin Hanford in the neighborhood around China Alley. [Ibid.] China Alley was the site of the famous but now closed Imperial Dynasty restaurant. Hanford's Taoist Temple ( National Register of Historic Places#72000226) built in 1893 is also located there. A Moon Festivalis held in China Alley in early October. For more information about China Alley and the Taoist Temple, go to http://visithanford.com/downtownmap/downtownmap18.html
Hanford's Black community
While the black community has long played an important role in the city, the City of Hanford only began to celebrate
Martin Luther King, Jr. Dayon January 15, 2007 after a long battle led by the local branch of the NAACP. The City Council then recognized the day as an official holiday with a Resolution honoring Dr. King, read by then Mayor Joaquin Gonzales. Soon after Hanford truly celbrated Dr. King by giving him MLK school located just south of the Hanford DMV. The most prominent African-Americans living in the community include Chris Jordan, almost 30 year veteran City of Hanford Police Captain, then elected in 2006 as the first African-American Sheriff of Kings County. The late civil rights activist, Wanda Williams-Hinton, turned the Black History Monthcelebration into an annual citywide tradition. [Hanford Sentinel, November 30, 2006]
Setana, Hokkaido, JapanHanford is a sister city with Setana, a small town on Hokkaido, Japan. The program is known for promoting international friendship. Both cities send a delegate group of both prominent city citizens and high school students. For the city of Hanford, high school students are selected from both high schools through an application and interview process for delegate spots. The Setana high school provides a student delegate position for their entire upper class. Hanford delegates travel to Setana, Japan in the summer. Setana delegates travel to Hanford in the winter.
ites of Interest
Fox Theaterwas constructed in 1929 and is located on Irwin Street in Hanford's city center. It is regularly used for live concerts. Featured artists in 2006 and 2007 included the Charlie Daniels Band, Dwight Yoakam, Kathy Griffinand George Jones. In the past, the Hanford Fox Theater hosted benefit performances by Bob Hope, Red Skeltonand John Denver. [http://www.foxhanford.com/]
*The Kings County Courthouse was erected after Kings County was formed; it opened in 1896. Constructed in an eclectic mix of styles in a park in the center of Hanford, it was expanded in 1914. The building served as the county's courthouse until 1976 when it was replaced by the new Kings County Government Center on West Lacey Boulevard. The old courthouse was remodeled in the early 1980s and now houses offices, small shops and restaurants. [McDevitt, Ray, "Courthouses of California - An Illustrated History," pp. 206-207, California Historical Society, San Francisco, CA, 2001.]
*The building now known as The Bastille just north of the old courthouse was the Kings County Jail from 1898 until 1964. Constructed in Romanesque style, it is notable for its crenellated octagonal tower. It currently finds use as a restaurant and nightclub. [Ibid.]
*Superior Dairy [http://www.visithanford.com/downtownmap/downtownmap07.html] is a classic 1920s ice cream parlor that is well-known in the Hanford area. The business makes all of its ice cream on-site. Superior Dairy is across the street from the Civic Auditorium and The Bastille.
Hanford is the site of the Sentinel Criterium [http://www.kingscountybicyclists.org] bicycle races held on the last Sunday of March. The convert|0.9|mi|km|sing=on hourglass style loop course is run on downtown streets. The Criterium is held under
USA Cyclingracing rules and permit.
auto racingtakes place at the Kings Speedway [http://www.kingsspeedway.net] from June through October. The track is a 3/8 mile semi-banked clay oval and is located at the Kings Fairgrounds.
Jermaine Haleyis a football player who was born in Hanford.
Ken Caminitiis a baseball player who was born in Hanford.
Tyson Chandleris an NBA basketball player who was born in Hanford.
Calvin M. Dooleygraduated from Hanford Union High School in 1972 and served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1991 to 2005.
Dameane Douglaswas a wide receiver in the National Football League who was born in Hanford.
Harlan F. Hagenlived in Hanford and served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1953 to 1967.
Bill Landisis a baseball player born, raised in, and still lives in Hanford. He played on the 1967 American League Champion Boston Red Sox.
Mark Leewas a cornerback in the National Football League who was born in Hanford.
*Louis Bert Lindley, Jr., better known as
Slim Pickensis a rodeo cowboy and actor who grew up in Hanford.
Lorenzo Neala 3 time pro bowl full back in the NFL was born in Hanford.
*Scott Parker, one of the few Californian-born hockey players to play in the NHL.
*Steve Perry is a rock singer with the band Journey who was born in Hanford.
James Rainwater, physicist and co-winner of the 1975 Nobel Prizein Physics, lived in Hanford as a child and graduated from Hanford High School.
Jan-Michael Vincent, actor, moved to Hanford with his family as a teenager, and graduated from Hanford High School.
Cornelius Warmerdam, long time pole vault world record holder, grew up in Hanford.
Darrell Winfieldis an actor who played the Marlboro manand was born in Hanford.
*Richard Wing, famous restaurateur, built the
Imperial Dynasty restaurantin Hanford with his family. The Wings have four generations in Hanford.
Delbert Wong(1920-2006), first judge of Chinese-Americandescent, was born in Hanford.
* [http://www.ci.hanford.ca.us/ City of Hanford website]
* [http://www.HanfordChamber.com/ Hanford Chamber of Commerce website]
* [http://www.visithanford.com/ Hanford Conference and Visitors Agency website]
* [http://www.mainstreethanford.com/ Main Street Hanford website]
* [http://www.hanfordsentinel.com/ Hanford Sentinel newspaper website]
* [http://www.elocallink.tv/clients3/ca/hanford/main.php Website with online videos about Hanford]
* [http://www.topix.net/wire/city/hanford-ca Local news for Hanford continually updated from thousands of sources on the web.]
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