Personal computer game
A personal computer
game(also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a video gameplayed on a personal computer, rather than on a video game consoleor arcade machine. Computer games have evolved from the simple graphics and gameplay of early titles like " Spacewar!", to a wide range of more visually advanced titles.cite press release | title = Computer and Video Game Software Sales Reach Record $7.3 Billion in 2004| publisher = Entertainment Software Association| date = January 26, 2005 | url =http://www.theesa.com/archives/2005/02/computer_and_vi.php | accessdate =2006-10-15]
PC games are created by one or more game developers, often in conjunction with other specialists (such as
game artists) and either published independently or through a third party publisher. They may then be distributed on physical media such as DVDs and CDs, as Internet-downloadable shareware, or through online delivery services such as Direct2Drive and Steam. PC games often require specialized hardware in the user's computer in order to play, such as a specific generation of graphics processing unitor an Internetconnection for online play, although these system requirementsvary from game to game.
Although personal computers only became popular with the development of the
microprocessor, mainframe and minicomputers, computer gaming has existed since at least the 1960s. One of the first computer games was developed in 1961, when MIT students Martin Graetz and Alan Kotok, with MIT employee Steve Russell, developed " Spacewar!" on a PDP-1computer used for statistical calculations.cite book | author = Levy, Steven | year = 1984 | title = | publisher = Anchor Press/Doubleday | id = ISBN 0-385-19195-2 ]
The first generation of PC games were often text adventures or
interactive fiction, in which the player communicated with the computer by entering commands through a keyboard. The first text-adventure, "Adventure", was developed for the PDP-11by Will Crowther in 1976, and expanded by Don Woods in 1977.cite web|url=http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/001/2/000009.html |year=2007 | title=Somewhere Nearby is Colossal Cave: Examining Will Crowther's Original 'Adventure' in Code and in Kentucky |accessdate=2007-09-29|author= Jerz, Dennis | work = Digital Humanities Quarterly] By the 1980s, personal computers had become powerful enough to run games like "Adventure", but by this time, graphics were beginning to become an important factor in games. Later games combined textual commands with basic graphics, as seen in the SSI Gold Boxgames such as " Pool of Radiance", or "Bard's Tale".
By the mid-1970s, games were developed and distributed through
hobbyistgroups and gaming magazines, such as " Creative Computing" and later " Computer Gaming World". These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions.cite news |title=Computer Gaming World's RobotWar Tournament |url=http://static.filefront.com/cgw/1981_1112_issue1.pdf |format=PDF |work= Computer Gaming World|page=17 | date=October, 1982 | accessdate= 2006-10-22]
As the video game market became flooded with poor-quality games created by numerous companies attempting to enter the market, and over-production of high profile releases such as the
Atari 2600adaptation of "E.T." and Pacmangrossly underperformed, the popularity of personal computers for education rose dramatically. In 1983, consumer interest in video games dwindled to historical lows, as interest in computer games and the MTV-fueled music industry rose.cite web|url=http://www.thedoteaters.com/p3_stage6.php |title=Player 3 Stage 6: The Great Videogame Crash |accessdate=2006-08-16 |date=1999-04-07]
The effects of the crash were largely limited to the console market, as established companies such as
Atariposted record losses over subsequent years. Conversely, the home computer market boomed, as sales of low-cost colour computers such as the Commodore 64rose to record highs and developers such as Electronic Artsbenefited from increasing interest in the platform.
Increasing adoption of the
computer mouse, driven partially by the success of games such as the highly successful " King's Quest" series, and high resolution bitmapdisplays allowed the industry to include increasingly high-quality graphical interfaces in new releases. Meanwhile, the Commodore Amiga computer achieved great success in the market from its release in 1985, contributing to the rapid adoption of these new interface technologies.cite web|url=http://oldcomputers.net/amiga1000.html |title=Commodore Amiga 1000 Computer |accessdate=2006-08-16]
Further improvements to game artwork were made possible with the introduction of the first
sound cards, such as AdLib's Music Synthesizer Card, in 1987. These cards allowed IBM PC compatiblecomputers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps. However, the rise of the Creative Labs Sound Blastercard, which featured much higher sound quality due to the inclusion of a PCMchannel and digital signal processor, led AdLib to file for bankruptcy in 1992.
The year before,
id Softwarehad produced one of the first first-person shootergames, " Hovertank 3D", which was the company's first in their line of highly influential games in the genre. The same team went on to develop " Wolfenstein 3D" in 1992, which helped to popularize the genre, kick-starting a genre that would become one of the highest-selling in modern times.cite web| url =http://gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=8241 | title =Analysts: FPS 'Most Attractive' Genre for Publishers | accessdate =2006-08-17 | last =Cifaldi | first =Frank | date =2006-02-21] The game was originally distributed through the shareware distribution model, allowing players to try a limited part of the game for free but requiring payment to play the rest, and represented one of the first uses of texture mappinggraphics in a popular game, along with " Ultima Underworld".cite web|url=http://dir.salon.com/story/tech/feature/2003/05/05/doom/index.html?pn=2 |title=Masters of "Doom" |accessdate=2006-09-23 |last=James |first=Wagner]
Segaand Nintendoconsole systems kept their CPU speed at 3-7 MHz, the 486 PC processor ran much faster, allowing it to perform many more calculations per second. The 1993 release of "Doom" on the PC was a breakthrough in 3D graphics, and was soon ported to various game consoles in a general shift toward greater realism.cite web|url=http://www.gamepilgrimage.com/Consolehistory2.htm |title=Console history |accessdate=2006-09-23]
Many early PC games included extras such as the peril-sensitive sunglasses that shipped with "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy". These extras gradually became less common, but many games were still sold in the traditional over-sized boxes that used to hold the extra "
feelies". Today, such extras are usually found only in Special Edition versions of games, such as Battlechests from Blizzard .cite web|url=http://www.escapistmagazine.com/print/62/11 |title=Feelies |accessdate=2006-09-24 |last=Varney |first=Allen]
By 1996, the rise of
Microsoft Windowsand success of 3D console titles such as " Super Mario 64" sparked great interest in hardware accelerated 3D graphics on the PC, and soon resulted in attempts to produce affordable solutions with the ATI "Rage", Matrox"Mystique" and Silicon Graphics "ViRGE". Tomb Raider, which was released in 1996, was one of the first third person shooter games and was praised for its revolutionary graphics. As 3D graphics libraries such as DirectXand OpenGLmatured and knocked proprietary interfaces out of the market, these platforms gained greater acceptance in the market, particularly with their demonstrated benefits in games such as " Unreal".Shamma, Tahsin. [http://www.gamespot.com/pc/action/unreal/review.html Review of Unreal] , Gamespot.com, June 10, 1998.] However, major changes to the Microsoft Windowsoperating system, by then the market leader, made many older MS-DOS-based games unplayable on Windows NT, and later, Windows XP(without using an emulator, such as DOSbox).cite web|url=http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/games/expert/durham_og.mspx |title=Getting Older Games to Run on Windows XP |accessdate=2006-09-22 |last=Durham, Jr. |first=Joel |date=2006-05-14]
The faster graphics accelerators and improving CPU technology resulted in increasing levels of realism in computer games. During this time, the improvements introduced with products such as ATI's
Radeon R300and NVidia's GeForce 6 Serieshave allowed developers to increase the complexity of modern game engines. PC gaming currently tends strongly toward improvements in 3D graphics.cite web|url=http://www.justadventure.com/articles/3D/3DGraphicsTrens.shtm |title=Brief Glimpse into the Future of 3D Game Graphics |accessdate=2006-09-23 |last=Necasek |first=Michal |date=2006-10-30]
Unlike the generally accepted push for improved graphical performance, the use of
physics engines in computer games has become a matter of debate since announcement and 2005 release of the nVidia PhysXPPU, ostensibly competing with middlewaresuch as the Havok physics engine. Issues such as difficulty in ensuring consistent experiences for all players,cite web|url=http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060514-6828.html |title=Tim Sweeney ponders the future of physics cards |accessdate=2006-08-22 |last=Reimer |first=Jeremy |date=2006-05-14] and the uncertain benefit of first generation PhysX cards in games such as " Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter" and " City of Villains", prompted arguments over the value of such technology.cite web|url=http://www.pcper.com/article.php?aid=245 |title=AGEIA PhysX PPU Videos - Ghost Recon and Cell Factor |accessdate=2006-08-22 |last=Shrout |first=Ryan |date=2006-05-02 ] cite web|url=http://anandtech.com/video/showdoc.aspx?i=2828 |title=PhysX Performance Update: City of Villains |accessdate=2006-09-13 |last=Smith |first=Ryan |date=2006-09-07 ]
Similarly, many game publishers began to experiment with new forms of marketing. Chief among these alternative strategies is episodic gaming, an adaptation of the older concept of
expansion packs, in which game content is provided in smaller quantities but for a proportionally lower price. Titles such as "" took advantage of the idea, with mixed results rising from concerns for the amount of content provided for the price.cite web|url=http://uk.gamespot.com/pc/action/halflife2aftermath/review.html|title=Half Life 2: Episode One for PC Review|accessdate=2006-09-02|year=2006|month=June]
PC game development
Game development, as with
console games, is generally undertaken by one or more game developers using either standardised or proprietary tools. While games could previously be developed by very small groups of people, as in the early example of Wolfenstein 3D, many popular computer games today require large development teams and budgets running into the millions of dollars.cite web| url =http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20060405/wardell_01.shtml | title =Postmortem: Stardock'sGalactic Civilizations II: Dread Lords | accessdate =2006-09-13 | last =Wardell | first =Brad | date =2006-04-05]
PC games are usually built around a central piece of software, known as a
game engine,cite web| url =http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,1697,594,00.asp | title =Game Engine Anatomy 101, Part I | accessdate =2006-09-22 | last =Simpson | first =Jake | Month =April| Year =2002] that simplifies the development process and enables developers to easily port their projects between platforms. Unlike most consoles, which generally only run major engines such as Unreal Engine 3 and RenderWaredue to restrictions on homebrewsoftware, personal computers may run games developed using a larger range of software. As such, a number of alternatives to expensive engines have become available, including open sourcesolutions such as Crystal Space, OGRE and DarkPlaces.
The multi-purpose nature of personal computers often allows users to modify the content of installed games with relative ease. Since console games are generally difficult to modify without a proprietary
software development kit, and are often protected by legal and physical barriers against tampering and homebrew software,cite web|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/07/21/ps2_mod_chip_win/|title=Judge deems PS2 mod chips illegal in UK|accessdate=2006-09-22|year=2004|month=July] cite web|url=http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20050910-5296.html|title=Xbox 360 designed to be unhackable|accessdate=2006-09-22|year=2005|month=October] it is generally easier to modify the personal computer version of games using common, easy-to-obtain software. Users can then distribute their customised version of the game (commonly known as a "mod") by any means they choose.
The inclusion of map editors such as
UnrealEdwith the retail versions of many games, and others that have been made available online such as GtkRadiant, allow users to create modifications for games easily, using tools that are maintained by the games' original developers. In addition, companies such as id Softwarehave released the source codeto older game engines, enabling the creation of entirely new games and major changes to existing ones.cite news |title=Quake 3 Source Code Released |url=http://www.shacknews.com/onearticle.x/38305| date=August, 2005 | accessdate= 2006-10-22]
Modding had allowed much of the community to produce game elements that would not normally be provided by the developer of the game, expanding or modifying normal gameplay to varying degrees. One notable example is the
Hot Coffee modfor the PC port of "", which enables access to an abandoned sex minigame by simply modifying a bitof the game's data file.
Computer games are typically sold on standard storage media, such as compact discs,
DVD, and floppy disks. [cite web
title= The Next Billion Dollar Videogame Opportunity|accessdate=2006-09-24] These were originally passed on to customers through
mail orderservices,cite news |first=Dana |last=Lombardy |title=Inside the Industry |url=http://static.filefront.com/cgw/1984_0910_issue18.pdf |format=PDF |work= Computer Gaming World|page=6 | date=October, 1984 | accessdate= 2006-10-15] although retail distribution has replaced it as the main distribution channel for video games due to higher sales.cite news |first=Dana |last=Lombardy |title=Inside the Industry |url=http://static.filefront.com/cgw/1982_0910_issue6.pdf |format=PDF |work= Computer Gaming World|page=2 | date=October, 1982 | accessdate= 2006-10-15] Different formats of floppy disks were initially the staple storage media of the 1980s and early 1990s, but have fallen out of practical use as the increasing sophistication of computer games raised the overall size of the game's data and program files.
The introduction of complex
graphics engines in recent times has resulted in additional storage requirements for modern games, and thus an increasing interest in CDs and DVDs as the next compact storage media for personal computer games. The rising popularity of DVD drives in modern PCs, and the larger capacity of the new media (a single-layer DVD can hold up to 4.7 gigabytes of data, more than five times as much as a single CD), have resulted in their adoption as a format for computer game distribution. To date, CD versions are still offered for most games, while some games offer both the CD and the DVD versions.
Shareware marketing, whereby a limited or demonstration version of the full game is released to prospective buyers without charge, has been used as a method of distributing computer games since the early years of the gaming industry and was seen in the early days of
Tanarusas well as many others. Shareware games generally offer only a small part of the gameplay offered in the retail product, and may be distributed with gaming magazines, in retail stores or on developers' websites free of charge.
In the early 1990s, shareware distribution was common among fledging game companies such as
Apogee Software, Epic Megagames and id Software, and remains a popular distribution method among smaller game developers. However, shareware has largely fallen out of favor among established game companies in favour of traditional retail marketing, with notable exceptions such as Big Fish Gamesand PopCap Gamescontinuing to use the model today. [cite news
title=The return of shareware|date=June 18, 2003|author=Chris Morris|accessdate=2006-09-24]
With the increased popularity of the
Internet, online distribution of game content has become more common. [cite web
title=Spot On: The (new) dawn of digital distribution|date=June 18, 2003 |author=Brendan Sinclair|accessdate=2006-09-23] Retail services such as Direct2Drive and
Download.comallow users to purchase and download large games that would otherwise only be distributed on physical media, such as DVDs, as well as providing cheap distribution of shareware and demonstration games. Other services, allow a subscription-based distribution model in which users pay a monthly fee to download and play as many games as they wish.
The Steam system, developed by
Valve Corporation, provides an alternative to traditional online services. Instead of allowing the player to download a game and play it immediately, games are made available for "pre-load" in an encrypted form days or weeks before their actual release date. On the official release date, a relatively small component is made available to unlock the game. Steam also ensures that once bought, a game remains accessible to a customer indefinitely, while traditional mediums such as floppy disks and CD-ROMs are susceptible to unrecoverable damage and misplacement.
Computer game genres
real time strategygenre, which accounts for more than a quarter of all PC games sold, has found very little success on video game consoles, with releases such as Starcraft 64failing in the marketplace. Strategy games tend to suffer from the design of console controllers, which do not allow fast, accurate movement.cite web | author = Joe Fielder| title = StarCraft 64| work = Gamespot.com |date = 2000-05-12| url = http://www.gamespot.com/n64/strategy/starcraft64/review.html?q=starcraft%2064| accessdate = 2006-08-19]
Conversely, action games have found considerable popularity on video game consoles, making up nearly a third of all console video games sold in 2004, compared to just four percent on the computer. Sports games have also found greater support on game consoles compared to personal computers.
Computer gaming technology
- CPU (
Microprocessor) Primary storage(RAM) Expansion cards ( graphics cards, etc) Power supply
- Optical disc drive
Secondary storage( Hard disk)
Modern computer games place great demand on the computer's hardware, often requiring a fast
central processing unit(CPU) to function properly. CPU manufacturers historically relied mainly on increasing clock rates to improve the performance of their processors, but had begun to move steadily towards multi-core CPUs by 2005. These processors allow the computer to simultaneously process multiple tasks, called threads, allowing the use of more complex graphics, artificial intelligence and in-game physics.cite web|url=http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2377&p=4|title=Xbox 360 designed to be unhackable|accessdate=2006-09-22|year=2005|month=October]
Similarly, 3D games often rely on a powerful
graphics processing unit(GPU), which accelerates the process of drawing complex scenes in realtime. GPUs may be an integrated part of the computer's motherboard, the most common solution in laptops,cite web|url=http://hardware.earthweb.com/chips/article.php/3570161|title=Platform Trends: Mobile Graphics Heat Up|accessdate=2006-10-22|year=2005|month=December] or come packaged with a discrete graphics card with a supply of dedicated Video RAM, connected to the motherboard through either an AGP or PCI-Expressport. It is also possible to use multiple GPUs in a single computer, using technologies such as NVidia's Scalable Link Interfaceand ATI's CrossFire. Sound cards are also available to provide improved audio in computer games. These cards provide improved 3D audio and provide audio enhancement that is generally not available with integrated alternatives, at the cost of marginally lower overall performance.cite web|url=http://www.anandtech.com/multimedia/showdoc.aspx?i=2518&p=10|title=X-Fi and the Elite Pro: SoundBlaster's Return to Greatness|accessdate=2006-10-22|year=2005|month=August] The Creative Labs SoundBlasterline was for many years the "de facto" standard for sound cards, although its popularity dwindled as PC audio became a commodity on modern motherboards. Physics processing units (PPUs), such as the AGEIA PhysXcard, are also available to accelerate physics simulations in modern computer games. PPUs allow the computer to process more complex interactions among objects than is achievable using only the CPU, potentially allowing players a much greater degree of control over the world in games designed to use the card.cite web|url=http://hardware.earthweb.com/chips/article.php/3570161|title=Platform Trends: Mobile Graphics Heat Up|accessdate=2006-10-22|year=2005|month=December]
Virtually all personal computers use a keyboard and mouse for user input. Other common gaming peripherals are a headset for faster communication in online games,
joysticks for flight simulators, steering wheels for driving games and gamepads for console-style games.
Computer games also rely on
third-partysoftware such as an operating system (OS), device drivers, libraries and more to run. Today, the vast majority of computer games are designed to run on the Microsoft WindowsOS. Whereas earlier games written for MS-DOSwould include code to communicate directly with hardware, today Application programming interfaces (APIs) provide an interface between the game and the OS, simplifying game design. Microsoft's DirectXis an API that is widely used by today's computer games to communicate with sound and graphics hardware. OpenGLis a cross-platformAPI for graphics rendering that is also used. The version of the graphics card's driver installed can often affect game performance and gameplay. It is not unusual for a game company to use a third-party game engine, or third-party libraries for a game's AI or physics.
Local area network gaming
Multiplayer gaming was largely limited to
local area networks (LANs) before cost-effective broadband Internet accessbecame available, due to their typically higher bandwidth and lower latency than the dial-up services of the time. These advantages allowed more players to join any given computer game, but have persisted today because of the higher latency of most Internet connections and the costs associated with broadband Internet.
LAN gaming typically requires two or more personal computers, a
routerand sufficient networking cables to connect every computer on the network. Additionally, each computer must have a network cardinstalled or integrated onto its motherboard in order to communicate with other computers on the network. Optionally, any LAN may include an external connection to the Internet.
Online multiplayer games have achieved popularity largely as a result of increasing broadband adoption among consumers. Affordable high-bandwidth Internet connections allow large numbers of players to play together, and thus have found particular use in massively multiplayer online RPGs,
Tanarusand persistent online games such as World War II Online.
Although it is possible to participate in online computer games using dial-up
modems, broadband internet connections are generally considered necessary in order to reduce the latency between players (commonly known as "lag"). Such connections require a broadband-compatible modem connected to the personal computer through a network interface card(generally integrated onto the computer's motherboard), optionally separated by a router. Online games require a virtual environment, generally called a "game server." These virtual servers inter-connect gamers, allowing real time, and often fast paced action. To meet this subsequent need, Game Server Providers (GSP) have become increasingly more popular over the last half decade. While not required for all gamers, these servers provide a unique "home," fully customizable (such as additional modifications, settings, etc) - giving the end gamers the experience they desire. Today there are over 500,000 game servers hosted in North America alone. [ [http://www.steampowered.com/v/index.php?area=stats&cc=US Steam: Game and Player Statistics ] ]
Emulation software, used to run software without the original hardware, are popular for their ability to play legacy video games without the consoles or operating system for which they were designed. Console emulators such as
NESticleand MAMEare relatively commonplace, although the complexity of modern consoles such as the Xboxor Playstationmakes them far more difficult to emulate, even for the original manufacturers.cite web| url = http://www.winsupersite.com/reviews/xbox360_05.asp| title = Xbox 360 Review| accessdate = 2006-09-12| year = 2005| month = November]
Most emulation software mimics a particular hardware architecture, often to an extremely high degree of accuracy. This is particularly the case with classic home computers such as the
Commodore 64, whose software often depends on highly sophisticated low-level programming tricks invented by game programmers and the demoscene.
Computer games have long been a source of controversy, particularly related to the violence that has become commonly associated with video gaming in general. The debate surrounds the influence of objectionable content on the social development of
minors, with organisations such as the American Psychological Associationconcluding that video game violence increases children's aggression, [cite web | author= American Psychological Association| url=http://www.psychologymatters.org/videogames.html | title= Violent Video Games - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects ] a concern that prompted a further investigation by the Center for Disease Controlin September 2006.cite web| url = http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060918-7771.html
title = Senate bill mandates CDC investigation into video game violence| accessdate = 2006-09-19| year = 2006| month = September] Industry groups have responded by noting the responsibility of parents in governing their children's activities, while attempts in the United States to control the sale of objectionable games have generally been found unconstitutional.cite web| url = http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060825-7597.html| title = Judge rules against Louisiana video game law| accessdate = 2006-09-02| year = 2006| month = August]
Video game addiction is another cultural aspect of gaming to draw criticism as it can have a negative influence on health and on social relations. The problem of addiction and its health risks seems to have grown with the rise of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs).cite web| url = http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/07/03/health/webmd/main1773956.shtml
title = Detox For Video Game Addiction?| accessdate = 2006-09-12| year = 2006| month = July]
List of gaming topics
List of games with DirectX 10 support
List of computer games that require Pixel Shaders
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