Bodoland is an area located in the north bank of
Brahmaputra riverin the state of Assamin north east region of India, by the foothills of Bhutanand Arunachal Pradesh; inhabited predominantly by Bodo languagespeaking ethnic group. Currently the map of Bodoland includes the Bodoland Territorial Areas District (BTAD) administered by an autonomous Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC). The map of Bodoland overlaps with the districts of Kokrajhar, Baksa, Chirang and Udalguri in state of Assam. At present, Kokrajhartown serves as the headquarter (capital) of Bodoland.
Demand for a Homeland, called Bodoland
The early history of Bodos is largely unknown. By definition, Bodos (pronounced BO-ROs) do not display tribalistic culture or rituals in that they do not live in caves or jungles or go hunting wild animals. For centuries majority Bodos remained as farmers, cultivators, and peace loving
society. Like many cultures in the world today, Bodos are also ethnocentricor nationalistsociety. Cultural assimilationwith Assamese was not productive. In brief, before the British Raj, Bodo- kachari Kingdommay have included a vast area extending far and beyond Assam, a small province in the North-East India. History suggest that Dimapurwas the capital of Bodo-Kachari kingdom. The British-India colonial rulers effectively adapted divide and rulepolicy for over 300 years. It is likely that Bodo-Kachari were lagging behind their fellow Indians in terms of education and employability. Since the time of British Raj, Assamis known to produce oil and natural gas, and Assam tea. Before independence (1947), North-East India was a remote place, a land that was inaccessible due to heavy rain and forestation. Compared to other parts of India, such as West Bengaland Maharastra, Education came to North East India late, as late as after the independence. Even after India obtained independence, most official jobs were performed by immigrants from West Bengal, East Bengal (now Bangladesh), and other parts of British-India. When India obtained independence, Bodos were not represented by any group. In the process, like the Khasis (Hills-tribe), Bodos were given opportunity to take advantage of scheduled-tribe (ST, plains). This process lead to the creation of tribal belts and blocks, protected lands meant for farming and grazing, specifically for Bodo people.
Plains Tribals Council of Assam
In the early 60's the Plains Tribals Council of Assam (PTCA), a political party representing Bodos (pronounced BO-ROs) and other plains tribals of Assam realized that tribal belts and blocks were gradually being acquired by rich landlords or new immigrants through illegal means. Moreover, Bodos had little or no access to economic aid that were given by the central government. Without economic package to the Bodo dominated areas, education was a distant cry. In those days, there were hardly any roads that connected Bodo dominated area to the main cities of
Assam. These were several reasons for which, in 1967, PTCA demanded a Union Territory called Udayachal, to be carved out of Assam. The proposed Udayachal map included mainly those areas that was known as tribal belts and blocks. The creation of tribal belts and blocks (for scheduled-tribes) was a mechanism to protect farming and grazing lands mainly from rich landlord and illegal immigrants. The demand for Udayachal never materialized. Many government came and gone, players changed and so did the game. By the end of 70's it became clear that Bodos had a little or no influence in the Indian political process. Specifically, in AssamBodos areas were neglected. Neglects included diverting and misuse of tribal-plan funds. For similar reasons, Khasis and Garos, carved out Meghalayafrom Assam. In the late 80's, All Bodo Students' Union's ( ABSU) became very concerned about decades of neglects. ABSU and Bodo political parties jointly moved and demanded a separate state, called Bodoland.
All Bodo Students' Union (ABSU)
The official Bodoland Movement [George, Sudhir Jacob (1994) " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-4687%28199410%2934%3A10%3C878%3ATBMIAU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5 The Bodo Movement in Assam] ", Asian Survey 34(10) pp. 878-892] for an independent state of Bodoland started on
March 2, 1987under the leadership of Upendranath Brahmaof ABSU. The ABSU created a political organization, the Bodo Peoples' Action Committee (BPAC), to spearhead the movement. The ABSU/BPAC movement began with the slogan "Divide Assam 50-50". The ABSU/BPAC leadership of the movement ended with the bipartite Bodo Accord [Bodo Accord, February 20, 1993, signed by Government of Assam, ABSUand BPAC.] of February 20, 1993and the creation of the BAC. The accord soon collapsed amidst a vertical split in ABSU and other Bodo political parties brought about mainly by the split between S K Bwiswmuthiary and Premsingh Brahma, and violence erupted in Bodo areas leading to a displacement of over 70,000 people.
Illegal immigration remains a chronic problem for
Assam. Notably, before the ABSU movement for Bodoland, the All Assam Students Union(AASU) launched agitation to stop illegal immigration. This long agitation by AASU provided initial impetus for Bodoland movement. One of the main objectives of the ABSU movement was to save tribal belts and blocks, and Bodo dominated areas from the illegal immigrants. Second, to establish educational institutions and create job opportunities, improve quality of daily life, and bring parity with Assamese folks. However, these objectives never materialized.
Bodo students plights
Even after independence, for several decades, higher education was out of reach for most Bodos. Universities and higher educational institutes are located in far away places such as Gauhati (now called Guwahati), Shillong, or Dibrugarh. Moreover, year after year majority Bodo students were denied admissions in
Cotton College, Assam Agricultural University, Assam Engineering Collegeand Gauhati University. In addition, even after obtaining a college degree, Bodos had limited or no job opportunities. These reasons fueled disappointment and anger among Bodo students. Although, Bodos were given ST quota, most of those jobs or opportunities went unfilled. Every office in Assam were filled with Assamese speaking folks, from officers down to peons. Creating a better educational opportunities for Bodos became first goal for ABSU's. However, as All Assam Students Union's (AASU) agitation to drive out illegal immigrants (year 1979-85) was slowing down, the demand for a separate state, called Bodoland was gaining momentum.
Bodo Liberation Tigers Force
The creation of
Gorkhaland, Jharkhandand Uttarakhandserve as good examples of Indian democracy and political maturity. In contrast, the Bodo Accord has not brought noticeable changes to Bodoland in terms of education, job opportunity, business development, or improvement of existing institutions, roads, and communications. For these reasons, BTLF continued to agitate for a separate state within Assam. Nevertheless, this phase of the movement ended with the Memorandum of Settlement [ " [http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/assam/documents/papers/memorandum_feb02.htm Memorandum of Settlement on Bodoland Territorial Council] ", February 10, 2003, signed by Government of India, Government of Assamand Bodo Liberation Tigers (Bodo Liberation Tigers] with the BLTF on February 10, 2003, and the establishment of the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) under the Sixth Sechedule of the Constitution of India. The BLTF, which was formed to accept the BTC Agreement, laid down their weapons on December 6, 2003and its chief, Hagrama Mohilary, was sworn in as the Chief Executive Member (CEM) of the interim BTC on December 7, 2003. The BLTF joined hands with the ABSU to form a political party, the BPPF, but soon parted ways in 2005at the time of the BTC elections. After the elections Mohilary consolidated his powers. The success of his faction in the 2006 Assam Assembly Elections has created a situation in which the Bodos under the leadership of Hagrama Mohilary has considerable influence in the Government of Assamfor the first time in history.
Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC)
The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) is a 46-member body established according to the Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) of
February 10, 2003. The first elections for the BTC were held on May 13, 2005. [" [http://www.assamtribune.com/may3005/at01.html BTC Election results] "] Of the 46 members, 40 are elected, and the rest nominated. The BTC could have not more than 12 executive members each of whom looks after a specific area of control called somisthi. The area under the BTC jurisdiction is called the Bodo Territorial Autonomous District (BTAD). The Council enjoys autonomy and control over departments specified in the MoS, but it does not control the district administration.
The BTAD consists of four contiguous districts—Kokrajhar, Baska, Udalguri and
Chirang—carved out of eight existing districts— Dhubri, Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup, Darrangand Sonitpur—an area of 27,100 km² (35% of Assam).
Despite the Bodo accord, neglects remain, no economic parity is apparent. Lately, there are a few signs of efforts to improve these situations. However, there are thousands of people still languishing in refugee camps including Bodos and non-Bodos. Their lives have been disrupted several times in last two decades. Although, a few dozen single lane roads have been repaired in last few years, while hundreds of bridges remain in poor condition. Once in while, The Assam Tribune has been reporting those neglects. The national highway is in the process of expansion. Whether the BTC addressed the issues of Bodo self-determination is still an open question. " [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2024/stories/20031205003103900.htm Territories of fear] " Frontline, 20:24, November 22, 2003]
Bodo Sahitya Sabha
* [http://www.bodoland.net bodoland.net]
* [http://www.bodoland.org Bodoland.org]
* [http://www.bodolandcouncil.org BTC official site]
* [http://www.geocities.com/ndfb2001 National Democratic Front of Boroland]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bodoland — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Colores nacionales de Bodoland Nombre que adoptaron los nacionalistas Bodos para un estado habitado por esta etnia y separado de Assam, estado de la India en el que se encuentra su cultura … Wikipedia Español
Bodoland — Nombre que adoptaron los nacionalistas Bodos para un estado habitado por esta étnia y separado de Assam, estado de la India en el que se encuentra su cultura … Enciclopedia Universal
Bodoland Territorial Council — The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) is a territorial previlege established according to the Memorandum of Settlement [Full Text [http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/assam/documents/papers/memorandum feb02.htm Memorandum of… … Wikipedia
National Democratic Front of Bodoland — Flag of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland The National Democratic Front of Bodoland, also known as NDFB or the Bodo Security Force, is a terrorist outfit which seeks to obtain a sovereign Bodoland for the Bodo people in Assam, India. The… … Wikipedia
Frente Nacional Democrático de Bodoland — Bandera del Frente Nacional Democratico de Bodoland. En 1988 se creó la Bodo Security Force (BSF) bajo la dirección de Ranjan Daimary. En 1996 esta organización dio origen a la Bodoland Liberation Tigers Force y un año más tarde una parte de sus… … Wikipedia Español
Frente Nacional Democrático de Bodoland — En 1988 se creó la Bodo Security Force (BSF) bajo la dirección de Ranjan Daimary. En 1996 esta organización dio origen a la Bodoland Liberation Tigers Force y un año más tarde una parte de sus miembros crearon la Bodoland Army y finalmente el… … Enciclopedia Universal
Fuerza de los Tigres de Liberación de Bodoland — La Bodo Liberation Tiger Force (BLTF) (en español:Fuerza de los Tigres de Liberación de Bodoland) era una organización armada creada el 18 de junio de 1996 por Prem Singh Brahma, con el objetivo un estado de Bodoland en el norte del Brahmaputra,… … Wikipedia Español
Fuerza de los Tigres de Liberación de Bodoland — La Bodo Liberation Tiger Force (BLTF) fue creada el 18 de Junio de 1996 por Prem Singh Brahma para crear un estado de Bodoland en el norte del Bhramaputra, un distrito autónomo Bodo al Sur de dicho río y el reconocimiento de los bodos del… … Enciclopedia Universal
Separatistische Organisationen im Nordosten Indiens — sind Organisationen und Gruppen, die seit der Unabhängigkeit 1947 gegen die Zentralregierung in New Delhi kämpfen oder gekämpft haben. Meist ging es darum, einzelnen Ethnien Souveränität oder Selbstverwaltung in diesem völkerreichen und schwer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Aspirant states of India — Map of India showing most of the aspirant states: #Anga Pradesh(Brown) #Ladakh (Pink) #Harit Pradesh (Dark Green) #Maru Pradesh (Dark Grey) #Bundelkhand (Dark blue) #Bagelkhand (water blue) #Purvanchal (Purple) #Mithila #Gorkhaland (red)… … Wikipedia