Batak (Indonesia)

ethnic group
group=batak


poptime=9 million
popplace=North Sumatra: 5.6 million
langs=Batak languages (Alas-Kluet, Angkola, Dairi, Karo, Mandailing, Simalungun, Toba), Malay, Indonesian
rels=Christian, Muslim, Parmalim, Hinduism
related=Malay

Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of ethnic groups found in the highlands of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Their heartland lies to the west of Medan centred on Lake Toba. In fact the "Batak" include several groups with distinct, albeit related, languages and customs (adat). While the term is used to include the Toba, Karo, Pak Pak, Simalungun, Angkola and Mandailing groups, some of these peoples prefer not to be known as Batak.

ociety

Batak societies are patriarchal organized along clans known as "Marga". The Toba Batak believe that they originate from one ancestor "Si Raja Batak", with all "Margas", descended from him. A family tree that defines the father-son relationship among Batak people is called "tarombo". Toba Batak are known traditionally for their weaving, wood carving and especially ornate stone tombs. Their burial and marriage traditions are very rich and complex. The burial tradition includes a ceremony in which the bones of one's ancestors are reinterred several years after death. This secondary burial is known among the Toba Batak as ("mangongkal holi").

Before they became subjects of the colonial Dutch East Indies government, the Batak had a reputation for being fierce warriors. Today the Batak are mostly Christian with a Muslim minority. Presently the largest Christian congregation in Indonesia is the HKBP ("Huria Kristen Batak Protestan") Christian church. The dominant Christian theology was brought by Lutheran German missionaries in the 19th century, including the well-known missionary Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen. Christianity was introduced to the Karo by Dutch Calvinist missionaries and their largest church is the GBKP (Gereja Batak Karo Protestan). But, the Mandailing Batak were converted to Islam in the early 19th century.

Language

Batak speak a variety of closely related languages, all members of the Austronesian language family. There are two major branches, a northern branch comprising the Pakpak language and the Batak Karo language that are similar to each other but distinctly different from the languages of the southern branch comprising three mutually intelligible dialects: Toba, Angkola and Mandailing. Simalungun Batak is an early offspring of the southern branch. Some Simalungun dialects can be understood by speakers of Karo Batak whereas other dialects of Simalungun can be understood by speakers of Toba. This is due to the existence of a linguistic continuum that often blurs the lines between the six Batak dialects.

ee also

*Batak alphabet
*Marga (Batak)
*List of Bataknese
*Batak in Singapore

External links

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91854 The family tree of the Batak languages, from Ethnologue.com]
* [http://www.tarombo.net Tarombo Keluarga Batak Online]
* [http://www.silaban.net/category/artikel-batak/ Many article about Batak in Indonesian language, from Silaban Brotherhood]
* [http://www.technocraft.org/tuansihubil/tarombo.htm Tarombo Tuan Sihubil. Online and live for the clans Tampubolon, Baringbing and Silaen]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Batak — may refer to: Ethnic groups * Batak (Indonesia) ** Batak languages ** Batak alphabet ** Marga (Batak) (Batak s family name) * Batak (Philippines) Locations * Batak, Bulgaria ** Batak Dam * Batak Rabit Other * Batak massacre * Batak Pony * Huria… …   Wikipedia

  • Batak — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Vivienda típica Batak Los Batak son uno de los pueblos de Indonesia. Su área central está en el norte de Sumatra con centro en el Lago Toba. Antes de su pacificación bajo el gobierno colonial holandés de las Indias… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Batak Toba language — Infobox Language name = Batak Toba states = Indonesia region = Samosir Island and east, south, and west of Toba Lake in north Sumatra. speakers = 2,000,000 iso3 = bbc familycolor = Austronesian fam1 = Austronesian fam2 = Malayo Polynesian fam3 =… …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… …   Universalium

  • Indonesia — Republik Indonesia Republik Indonesien …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Batak Pony — Infobox Horse name= Batak Pony country= Indonesia note=| The Batak Pony is a pony breed from Indonesia. Originating in Central Sumatra, it is thought to have descended from Mongolian Horse and Arabian blood, and has continually been infused with… …   Wikipedia

  • Batak languages — Infobox Language family name=Batak region=Sumatra, Indonesia familycolor=Austronesian fam2=Malayo Polynesian (Western) fam3=Sumatra child1=Batak Alas Kluet child2=Batak Angkola child3=Batak Dairi child4=Batak Karo child5=Batak Mandailing… …   Wikipedia

  • Batak Karo language — Infobox Language name=Batak Karo familycolor=Austronesian states=Indonesia region=Southeast Asia speakers=600,000 fam2=Malayo Polynesian |nation=IndonesiaBatak Karo is an Austronesian language that is spoken in Indonesia. It is used by around 600 …   Wikipedia

  • Batak — Los Batak son uno de los pueblos de Indonesia. Su área central está en el norte de Sumatra con centro en el Lago Toba. Antes de su pacificación bajo el gobierno colonial holandés de las Indias orientales, los Batak eran conocidos como fieros… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Indonesia —    Protestantism was brought to Indonesia by the Dutch, who in 1605 established their first outpost in the island country. The Dutch East India Company soon forced the 150,000 native Catholics in the Moluccas (converted by the Portuguese) to… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.