- Joseph Grimaldi
name = Joseph Grimaldi
imagesize = 200px
caption = Joseph Grimaldi as Clown
birthdate = birth date|1778|12|18|mf=y
Clare Market, London
deathdate = death date and age|1837|5|31|1778|12|18|mf=y
yearsactive = 1780 – 1823
spouse = Maria Grimaldi ("died")
notable role = "Joey"
Joseph Grimaldi (
December 18, 1778– May 31, 1837), the most celebrated of English clowns Grimaldi's performances were reminiscent of the classic Commedia dell'arte.
Early and personal life
Grimaldi was born in
Clare Market, London, the son of an Italian, Signor Joseph 'Iron Legs' Grimaldi, ["London's Lost Theatres of the Nineteenth Century" Erroll Sherson pp. 26-7 (Ayer Publishing, 1972) ISBN 0405089694] ballet-master at the Drury Lane and Rebecca Brooker, a dancer in the theatre's corps de ballet. Grimaldi's father died when he was nine, and plunged the family into debt. When less than two years old, he was introduced to the stage at Drury Lane; at the age of three, he began to appear at the Sadler's Wellstheatre.
As a young man, Grimaldi fell in love and married the daughter of the principal proprietor of Sadler's Wells. Maria Grimaldi died in childbirth 18 months after their marriage. He found solace in performance, and eventually married again, to Mary. A son, Joseph Samuel Grimaldi was born and entered the profession, but drank himself to death, by the age of thirty.
pantomimeclown Grimaldi was considered without equal, his greatest success occurring in "Harlequin and Mother Goose; or the Golden Egg" at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden (1806 and often revived).
Joseph Grimaldi was an innovator, his performance as "Joey" introduced the modern clown to the world, building on the existing role of "
Clown" as a country bumpkin and fool, derived from the "Commedia dell'arte"; and making the clown the central character in the Harlequinade[ [http://www.peopleplayuk.org.uk/guided_tours/pantomime_tour/early_pantomime/grimaldi.php Grimaldi (Theatre Museum)] accessed 26 Feb 2007] . His physical comedy was extraordinary, as was his ability to invent visual tricks and buffoonery, and his ability to poke fun at the audience. As Music hallbecame popular, he introduced the pantomime dame to the theatre and was responsible for the tradition of audience participation. His most famous song was [http://www.peopleplayuk.org.uk/guided_tours/pantomime_tour/audio/sq6.mp3 "Hot Codlins"] - literally, Toffee Apples.
:"A little old woman, her living she got by selling hot codlins, hot, hot, hot. And this little old woman, who codlins sold, tho' her codlins were hot, she felt herself cold. So to keep herself warm she thought it no sin to fetch for herself a quartern of ........"The audience would shout "Gin", with some glee, and Grimaldi would fix them with a stare and say "Oh! For shame!", in mock disappointment.
A famous 'sad clown' anecdote was first told of Grimaldi (later also told of "
Grock"): A young man goes to see his doctor. He is overcome by a terrible sadness and doesn't think anything will make him feel better. The doctor says, "Why not do something happy, like going to see Grimaldi the clown?". The young man answers, with a knowing look, "Ah, but Doctor," he says, "I "am" Grimaldi."
Comedy performer Tony Allen said of Grimaldi's performance:
"Any description of Joey Grimaldi's varied talents always includes his unusual skill of lampooning popular figures of the day by apparently re-arranging fruit, vegetables and cooking utensils and other every day items on a barrow. It wasn't a one-off joke, he was known for it and he rang the changes. For example: upper class dandies, the Prince Regent included, had made the Hussar uniform high fashion. Now just how Grimaldi arranged a coal scuttle, a muff and a full-length coat into a primitive cartoon sculpture that had a Covent Garden audience of 2,500 rolling in the isles night after night was beyond me. I assumed that an allusion to royalty was dangerous and his comic genius must have been in the execution, leaving the joke therefore lost to us [ [http://www.newagenda.demon.co.uk/kencampbell.html "Entertainment, or Art?] accessed 21 Feb 2007] ."
Suffering from ill health, Grimaldi retired from the stage. In his farewell speech he told his audience "Like vaulting audition, I have overleaped myself and pay the penalty in advanced old age. It is four years since I jumped my last jump, filched my last oyster, boiled my last sausage and set in for retirement". By 1828, he was broke, and benefit performances were held at both
Sadlers Wells(March 17) and Covent Garden(June 28). A pension of £100 per annum was instituted by the Drury Lane Theatrical Fund. He could barely walk, but spent his last years at the "Cornwallis Tavern", in Pentonville, the landlord, George Cook carrying him back to his nearby lodgings at the end of the evening. On the night of May 31st, 1837, he died. He had become a physical wreck, owing to the years of extreme physical exertion his clowning had involved. The London Illustrated Newswrote "Grimaldi is dead and hath left no peer. We fear with him the spirit of pantomime has disappeared".
Joseph Grimaldi's grave is in "Joseph Grimaldi Park" (formerly, the courtyard of St. James's Chapel), Pentonville Road in Islington.
Memorial and Clowns' gallery
To this day, on every first Sunday in February, a memorial service is held for Grimaldi at All Saints' Church,
Haggerston, Hackney. At this service, hundreds of clowns flock from all over the world in full 'garb', and the service is followed by a show for the children. The church hall had been the home of the Clowns' Gallery, but after a fire they relocated to a nearby community centre.
His "Memoirs" in two volumes (1838) were edited by
Charles Dickens. The original editions of Grimaldi's memoirs are very hard to find.
It should be noted that the 'Memoirs' as they now exist leave much to be desired, since the editing was poorly done and the finished publication was based on an earlier editing job. Much of 'Memoirs' was not even written by Grimaldi (in the 1st person) but rather produced in the 3rd person (Dickens' technique). The original manuscript from which the 'Memoirs' was derived has long been thought to be lost. Richard Findlater discusses this problem in his work "Grimaldi: King of Clowns" (1955) and in his own edition of the 'Memoirs'. He suggests that the original work may still exist in a private collection.
* [http://www.its-behind-you.com/grimaldi.html Joseph Grimaldi - "It's Behind You"]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/MemoirsOfJosephGrimaldi "Boz" (Ed.) (Charles Dickens), "Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi", 1853 edition, with Notes and Additions by
* [http://text.islington.gov.uk/pdf/education/grimaldipanels.pdf Joey]
* [http://www.trinitysaintsunited.com/clowns_service.htm Clowns' Service information]
* [http://www.clownsinternational.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=8&Itemid=17 Clowns Gallery & Museum]
* [http://www.itravelnet.com/blog/2006/10/joseph-grimaldi-clown.html Joseph Grimaldi English Heritage] Blue Plaque at Grimaldi's home - Exmouth Market, London.
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