Market Hall and Sheds
Market Hall and ShedsMarket Hall
Location: 188 Meeting St., Charleston, South Carolina Coordinates: Coordinates: Area: .33 acres (1,300 m2) Built: 1840 Architect: Edward B. White Architectural style: Greek Revival Governing body: Local NRHP Reference#: 73001689 Significant dates Added to NRHP: June 4, 1973 Designated NHL: November 7, 1973
Market Hall and the sheds of the City Market, or Centre Market, comprise a historic market complex in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Established in the 1790s, the market stretches for four city blocks from the architecturally-significant Market Hall, which faces Meeting Street, through a continuous series of one-story market sheds, the last of which terminates at East Bay Street. In 1973, Market Hall, which has been described as a building of the "highest architectural design quality," was designated a National Historic Landmark, and was listed, along with its accompanying sheds, on the National Register of Historic Places.
Initially known as the Centre Market, Charleston's City Market was developed as a replacement for the city's Beef Market building, which burned in 1796. Market Hall, designed by Charleston architect Edward B. White, was added in the early 1840s. Throughout the 19th century, the market provided a convenient place for area farms and plantations to sell beef and produce, and also acted as a place for locals to gather and socialize. Today, the City Market's vendors sell souvenirs and other items ranging from jewelry to Gullah sweetgrass baskets.
Market Hall is a Greek Revival-style building consisting of one raised story resting atop a rusticated open ground-level arcade. The building's high base and frontal portico were inspired by Greek and Roman temples such as the Temple of Portunus and Temple of Athena Nike. The portico contains four Doric columns that support the entablature and pediment, and is accessed by a double flight of stairs with elaborate iron work. The upper floor is scored in an ashlar pattern. The cornice, portico, and Doric capitals are red sandstone, while the triglyphs and moldings are cement. The metopes in the entablature are decorated with alternating bucrania and rams' heads, which are symbols for a meat market. The hall's exterior brick walls are covered with brownstone stucco.
The City Market stretches for 1,240 feet (380 m) through a continuous series of sheds oriented east-to-west, and flanked by North Market Street on the north side and South Market Street on the south. Market stalls occupy the first story of Market Hall, and continue through a one-story shed that stretches from the rear of the hall to Church Street. The second shed stretches from Church to Anson Street, the third from Anson to State Street, and the fourth from State Street to East Bay. Most of the sheds are simple rectangular structures with open stalls and center walkways, the exception being the shed behind Market Hall, which has a winding walkway and enclosed shops, similar to a minimall. Since their completion in the early 19th century, the sheds have been renovated and rebuilt numerous times due to damage from earthquakes, fire, and other disasters.
Charleston's first public market was established in 1692 at the corner of Broad and Meeting streets, although a formal brick building wasn't built at the site until 1739. This first "Beef Market" was replaced by a more appealing structure in 1760, and within a short period, new markets for fish and general merchandise were established along Vendue (Queen) and Tradd streets. In 1788, Revolutionary War general Charles Cotesworth Pinckney donated a strip of recovered marshland for the establishment of the "Centre Market," which would stretch from the docks of Charleston Harbor all the way to Meeting Street.
The first market sheds were erected around 1790, and gradually expanded to occupy most of the strip from the harbor to Meeting Street by 1806. After the Beef Market building burned in 1796, Charleston's beef market was shifted to the Centre Market. In its early days, the market was primarily a place to sell foodstuffs, and was subdivided into sections for beef, fish, and farm produce. The market was also a social center, where the city's lower and middle class residents could gather for drinking and playing games. Vultures, which helped keep the market clean by eating discarded meat scraps, were a common sight at the market into the 20th century.
In 1838, a fire destroyed the market's head-house, and the city enlisted local architect Edward B. White (1806–1882) to design the current head-house, Market Hall, which was completed in 1841. The upper room of the hall initially served as a large assembly room, and later as a military recruiting office at the outbreak of the Civil War.
In 1899, the United Daughters of the Confederacy began using Market Hall to house the Confederate Museum, which displayed Confederate artifacts and other items from the city's Civil War period. The museum closed in 1989, however, after Market Hall suffered substantial damage during Hurricane Hugo (including the partial removal of its roof).
On the morning of 29 September 1938, a series of tornadoes swept through Charleston, killing 32, injuring 100, and destroying $2 million in property. One tornado extensively damaged the City Market.
Following Hurricane Hugo in 1989, the building was restored by the City of Charleston and received a Carolopolis Award from the Preservation Society in January 2003. The building was repainted in its original colors, which included strong ochre coloring and bright green ironwork, much to the displeasure of many locals, including the mayor of Charleston.
- Market House (Fayetteville, North Carolina), a functionally-similar National Historic Landmark
- ^ a b c d Tray Stephenson and Bernard Kearse, National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for Market Hall and Sheds, 20 April 1973. Retrieved: 26 May 2010.
- ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html.
- ^ "Market Hall and Sheds". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1379&ResourceType=Building. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b c Nicole Isenbarger, Otters, Hucksters, and Consumers: Placing Colonoware Within the Internal Slave Economy Framework (Master's Thesis, University of South Carolina Department of Anthropology, 2006), pp. 66-70.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Jonathan H. Poston, The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture (University of South Carolina Press 1997), pp. 338-339, 395-396.
- ^ City Market Preservation Trust, History, Charelston City Market. Retrieved: 26 May 2010.
- ^ http://www.erh.noaa.gov/chs/events/1938CharlestonTornadoes.shtml
- Historic Charleston City Market — official site
- Market Hall and Sheds, Charleston County (188 Meeting St., Charleston), including 8 photos, at South Carolina Department of Archives and History
- Market Hall — Historic American Buildings Survey entry at the Library of Congress; contains dozens of photographs and architectural diagrams
- Historic Charleston's Religious and Community Buildings, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
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