List of Iranic states and empires

The following is a list of Iranic states and empires. It includes both states and empires founded by the Iranian peoples and "those that have been heavily affected by Iranian civilization or culture".

Modern nations


=De facto states=

;South Ossetia

Autonomous entities

;Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County;North Ossetia-Alania;North-West Frontier Province;Balochistan (Pakistan);Iraqi Kurdistan

Former and Defunct countries and autonomous regions

;Daoud's Republic of Afghanistan: Lasted from July 17, 1973 to April 28, 1978.;Democratic Republic of Afghanistan: Lasted from 1978 to 1992.;Kingdom of Kurdistan(Iraq): Lasted from September 1922 to July 1924.

;Republic of Ararat : Lasted from 1927 to 1931.;Republic of Mahabad: Lasted from January 22, 1946 to December 15, 1946.;Tajik ASSR: Lasted until 1929.;Tajik SSR: Lasted from 1929 to 1991.;Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic: Lasted from June to August 1993.

Historical Kingdoms and empires


;Bazrangids;Kilwa Empire;Rustamids;Zanj Empire


;Ottoman Empire: (1299-1922) [Kinross, Patrick. 2002. "The Ottoman Centures: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire". Perennial] [ [ The Ottomans: Origins] ] (because the culture of the ruling dynasty, the House of Osman, was largely derived from the Persian culture, the Ottomans may also be regarded as Turkic Persianate; see also: Turko-Persian Tradition)O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, ( [ LINK] )] ["Persian in service of the state: the role of Persophone historical writing in the development of an Ottoman imperial aesthetic", Studies on Persianate Societies 2, 2004, pp. 145-163.] ["Historiography. xi. Persian Historiography in the Ottoman Empire", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 12, fasc. 4, 2004: 403-411.] [F. Walter, "Music of the Ottoman court", Chap. 7 "The Departure of Turkey from the "Persianate" Musical Sphere" ( [ LINK] )]


;Alans;Chosroid Dynasty: a dynasty of Iranian origin and a branch of the Mihranids.;Cimmerians: ancient equestrian nomads of Iranian or Thracian origin;Mihranids: Parthian or Persian ruling family of Arran from the 6th century to the 8th century.;Shaddadid: Kurdish rulers of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 or 1199.;Shirvanshahs: Persianized family of original Arab descent that ruled Shirvan from 801 to 1538.

Central Asia

;Bactria-Margiana: ca. 2200–1700 BCE.;Sogdia:;Greco-Bactrian Kingdom: Lasted from 250 until 125 BCE.;Turan (Avesta);Massagetae;Hephthalite [M. A. Shaban, "Khurasan at the Time of the Arab Conquest", in "Iran and Islam", in memory of Vlademir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press, (1971), p481; ISBN 0 85224 200 x.] [ [ The White Huns - The Hephthalites] ] [Enoki Kazuo, "On the nationality of Hephthalites", 1955] : Lasted from 425 until 557 CE.;Samanid dynasty: Lasted from 819 until 999 CE.;Ghurids: Islamic Tajik dynasty, lasted from 543-613 until 1148-1215;Hotaki: Pashtun dynasty, lasted from 1709 until 1738.;Ghaznavid dynasty: Ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking family of Turkic "mamluk" origin; the Turkic identity of the dynasty is controversial.M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, ( [ LINK] ): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."] [Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."] Lasted from 962 until 1187;Khwarezm Shahs: Ruled by a predominantly Persian-speaking family of Turkic "mamluk" origin; Turkic identity of the dynasty is controversial. [M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth", member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.] Lasted from 1097 until 1231.;Timurid dynasty Fact|date=June 2008: Turkicized and Persianized dynasty of Mongol origin. Lasted from 1370 until 1506;Durrani Empire: Lasted from 1747 until 1823.



Iranian plateau and Middle East

;Ayyubids: Kurdish;Mannaeans: Possibly an Indo-Iranian peoples, 10th to 7th centuries BCE.;Median Empire: First Iranian empire, lasted from 727 until 549 BCE.;Achaemenid Empire: Second Iranian empire, lasted from 559 until 330 BCE.;Parthia: Third Iranian empire, lasted from 63 BCE until 220 CE.;Sassanid Empire: Fourth Iranian empire, lasted from 226 until 651 CE.;Abbasid Caliphate Fact|date=June 2008: Persianized Arab Islamic dynasty which lasted from 750 until 1258 CE.;Rawadids: Kurdicized family of original Arab descent;Buyid dynasty: Persian Shi'a dynastic confederation from Daylaman;Sajids: Sogdian dynasty ruling NW Ira from 889 A.D. to 929 A.D.;Sallarid: Daylamite dynasty ruling NW Iran from 942 A.D. to 979 A.D.;Justanid: Daylamite dynasty. From 791 A.D. to 974 A.D.;Hasanwayhid: Kurdish dynasty. Lasted from 959 until 1015 CE.;Annazid: Kurdish dynasty. Lasted from 990 until 1116 CE.;Seljuq Empire: Ruled by a Persianized Turkic dynasty of Oghuz Turkic origin. K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, ( [ LINK] ): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."] Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, ( [ LINK] ): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."] Lasted from 1073 until 1307.;Ziyarid: Iranian dynasty that ruled in the Caspian sea provinces of Gorgan and Mazandaran. Lasted from 928 until 1043;Safavid dynasty [Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. Original from the University of Michigan. pg 313. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989. pg 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottomon Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977. pg 77 ] : Fifth Iranian empire, lasted from 1502 until 1722.;Afsharid dynasty: Sixth Iranian empire, lasted from 1736 until 1796;Zand dynasty: Dynasty of Lor descent which ruled in Southern Iran, lasted from 1750 until 1794.;Qajar dynasty: Seventh Iranian empire, lasted from 1781 until 1925.;Pahlavi dynasty: Last Iranian dynasty, lasted from 1925 until 1979.

outh Asia

;Indo-Scythians;Pallavas: Pahlava rulers, and founders, of the Pallava Kingdom in southern India, lasting from the 6th century to the late 9th century.;Kadava kingdom: Rulers claimed descent from the Pallavas, 13th and 14th centuries.;Mughal Empire [Titley, Norah M. 1983. Persian Miniature Painting and its Influence on the Art of Turkey and India. Austin: University of Texas, 159] : Persianized mixed Persian, Turkic, and Mongolic Islamic Indian dynasty, lasting from April 21, 1526 to September 21, 1857.

ee also

*Iranian peoples
*Ancient Iranian peoples
*Iranian languages


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