Crown-cardinal

Henry of Portugal, both cardinal and King of Portugal (formerly a Cardinal-Infante)
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

A crown-cardinal (Italian: cardinale della corona)[1] was a cardinal protector of a Catholic nation, nominated or funded by a Catholic monarch to serve as their representative within the College of Cardinals[2][3] and, if applicable, exercise the jus exclusivae.[4] More generally, the term may refer to any cardinal significant as a secular statesman or elevated at the request of a monarch.

Francis Burkle-Young defines a crown cardinal as one "elevated to the cardinalate solely on the recommendation of the European kings and without, in many cases, having performed any service at all for the advance of the Church."[5]

According to conclave historian Frederic Baumgartner, the crown-cardinals "rarely came to Rome except for the conclaves, if then, and they were largely unknown to the majority of the College. Usually unable to take part in the pratiche, they were not papabili and rarely received more than one or two votes".[6] Crown-cardinals generally opposed the election of crown-cardinals from other kingdoms, although they tended to unite against the election of cardinal-nephews.[6]

Opposition to national cardinal protectors arose in the fifteenth century due to the perceived conflict of interest, and Pope Martin V attempted to forbid them entirely in 1425.[7] A reform of Pope Pius II dated 1464 regards national cardinal protectors as generally inconsistent with curial responsibility, with several exceptions.[7] Such protectorships were first openly permitted by popes Innocent VIII and Alexander VI, both of whom required the explicit written consent of the pontiff for a cardinal to take up a "position of service to a secular prince".[8] An unnamed cardinal even suggested elevating national cardinal protectors to a full and official position in the Roman Curia, equivalent to an ambassador.[8]

Contents

History

The institution of a cardinal protector of a nation-state may have originated in the 14th century, serving as a predecessor for the diplomatic institutions of the Holy See developed in the 16th century.[9] The institution of the crown-cardinal first became a dominant one within the College of Cardinals with the consistory of Pope Eugene IV on December 18, 1439 (on the heels of the election of Antipope Felix V by the Council of Basel) which nominated an unprecedented number of cardinals with strong ties to European monarchs and other political institutions.[10]

Monarch/Nation Cardinal Notes
Charles VII of France Renaud de Chartres Chancellor of France
Charles VII of France Guillaume d'Estouteville Royal cousin, constructor of Mont Saint Michel
Henry VI of England Louis de Luxembourg de Beaurevoir Chancellor for France
Henry VI of England John Kempe former chancellor of England and archbishop of York
Afonso V of Portugal António Martins de Chaves Bishop of Porto
Kingdom of Hungary (interregnum) Dionysius Szechy Primate-designate of Hungary
Władysław III of Poland Zbigniew Oleśnicki Archbishop of Krakow
Holy Roman Empire (interregnum) Petrus de Schaumburg Imperial Counsellor
René I of Naples Niccolo d'Acciapaccio Archbishop of Capua
Milan Gerardo Landriani Capitani Bishop of Como
Genoa Giorgio Fieschi di Lavagna Archbishop of Genoa
Philip the Good Jean Le Jeune Ambassador to the Council of Ferrara-Florence
Zbigniew Oleśnicki, one of the first crown-cardinals

The first explicit reference to protectorship pertaining to a nation-state dates to 1425 (the Catholic Encyclopedia says 1424[11]) when Pope Martin V forbade cardinals to "assume the protection of any king, prince or commune ruled by a tyrant or any other secular person whatsoever."[12] This prohibition was renewed in 1492 by Pope Alexander VI. This prohibition was not renewed by Pope Leo X in the ninth session of the Lateran Council of 1512.[11]

Some crown-cardinals were cardinal-nephews or members of powerful families; others were selected solely on the recommendation of European monarchs, in many cases with little previous ecclesiastical experience.[13] During the reigns of Avignon Pope Clement VI and Pope Urban VI in particular, it was acknowledged that monarchs could select retainers and expect them to be elevated to the College of Cardinals.[13] The going rate for the creation of a crown-cardinal was about 2,832 scudi.[2]

Pope Alexander VII had to elevate crown-cardinals in pectore.[14] Pope Urban VI (1378–1389) forbade crown-cardinals from receiving gifts from their respective sovereigns.[11]

World War I cemented the decline of the institution of the crown cardinal, as many monarchies either went extinct or declined in power.[13]

Role in conclaves

In the case of Spain, France, and Austria, from the 16th to 20th centuries, crown-cardinals had the prerogative to exercise the jus exclusivae (a veto for "unacceptable" candidates) during a Papal conclave on behalf of their patron monarch. Crown-cardinals usually arrived with a list of such unacceptable candidates but often had to confer with their patrons during conclaves via messengers, and attempt (sometimes unsuccessfully) to delay the conclave until a response arrived. For example, Pope Innocent X (elected 1644) and Pope Innocent XIII (elected 1721) survived late arriving veto orders from France and Spain respectively.[1] Austrian crown-cardinal Carlo Gaetano Gaisruck arrived too late to the Papal conclave of 1846 to exercise the veto against Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (who had already been elected and taken the name Pius IX).

List of cardinal protector crown-cardinals[15]

Of Hungary

Of Austria

Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, crown-cardinal of Austria, was the last to exercise the jus exclusivae.

Protectors:

1523–1531: Lorenzo Pucci

1532–1535: Giovanni Salviati

1540–1542: Girolamo Aleander

1542–1555: Marcello Cervini

1555–1580: Giovanni Girolamo Morone

1580–1600: Andreas von Österreich

1603–1634: Franz von Dietrichstein

1635–1638: Ippolito Aldobrandini

1638–1642: Maurizio di Savoia

1655–1667: Ernst Adalbert von Harrach

  • Federico Sforza (1664–1666, substitute protector of Habsburg hereditary lands)[16]

1673–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia

1689–1701: Francesco Maria de' Medici

1701–1707: Leopold von Kollonitsch

1707–1712: Johann Philipp von Lamberg

1712–1725: Christian von Sachsen-Zeitz

1726–1738: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach

1738–1751: Sigismund von Kollonitsch

1751–1758: Ferdinand Julius von Troyer

1779–1800: František Herczan

1823–1834: Giuseppe Albani

1858–1867: Pietro Silvestri

Vice-protectors and co-protectors

  • 1536–1541: Alessandro Cesarini
  • 1560–1565: Cristoforo Madruzzo
  • 1571: Marcantonio Colonna
  • 1574/ 1580/81: Tolomeo Galli
  • 1581–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo
  • 1584–1587: Antonio Carafa
  • 1604–1607: Alfonso Visconti
  • 1607–1611: Ottavio Paravicini
  • 1612–1621: Pietro Aldobrandini
  • 1621–1632: Ludovico Ludovisi
  • 1629–1631: Cosimo de Torres
  • 1635–1641: Carlo Emanuele di Savoia
  • 1642–1644: Alfonso de la Cueva
  • 1644–1655: Ernst von Harrach
  • 1645–1664: Girolamo Colonna
  • 1664–1667: Fedrigo Sforza
  • 1667–1675: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt
  • 1690–1693: Josè Saens de Aguirre
  • 1694–1700: Francesco del Guidice
  • 1701/02/ 1706–1710: Vincenzo Grimani
  • 1703-05/ 1708-12: Fabrizio Paolucci
  • 1713–1719: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach
  • 1719–1722: Michael Friedrich von Althan
  • 1722–1726: Alvaro Cienfuegos
  • 1735–1743: Niccolò del Giudice
  • 1743–1779: Alessandro Albani

Of England

Of Ireland
  • Girolamo Ghinucci (1539–1541)
  • Rodolfo Pio di Carpi (1545–1554)
  • Giovanni Girolamo Morone (1555? – 1574?)
  • Francesco Alciati (1574–1580)[17]
  • Flavio Orsini (1580–1581)
  • Nicholas Pelleve (1582–1594)
  • Girolamo Mattei (1594? – 1603)
  • Pompeo Arrigoni (1605–1616)
  • Fabrizio Veralli (1616? – 1624)
  • Ludovico Ludovisi (1625–1632)[18]
  • Antonio Barberini (1633? – 1671)
  • Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1671–1698)
  • Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (1706–1737)
  • Neri Maria Corsini (1737–1770)
  • Mario Marefoschi (1771–1780)
  • Gregorio Salviati (1781–1794)
  • Carlo Livizzani (1794–1802)
Of Scotland
  • Antoniotto Pallavicini (1504–1507)
  • Pietro Accolti (1514–1532)
  • Benedetto Accolti (1532–1538)
  • Rodolfo Pio di Carpi (1538–1549)
  • Giovanni Domenico de Cupis (1550–1553)[19]
  • Niccolo Caetani Sermoneta (1570–1585)
  • Camillo Borghese (1603–1605)
  • Maffeo Barberini (1608–1623)
  • Francesco Barberini (1623–1679)
  • Phillip Howard of Norfolk (1680–1694)
  • Taddeo da Verme (1706–1717)
  • Alessandro Falconieri (1727–1734)
  • Domenico Riviera (1734–1752)
  • Giuseppe Spinelli (1754–1763)
  • Giovanni Francesco Albani (1763–1803)
  • Charles Erskine (1804–1811)

Of France

François de Joyeuse, cardinal protector of France, anointing Queen Dowager Marie de Medici in 1610

The King of France historically had only one cardinal protector at a time,[16] chosen by a complicated process which involved the King, the secretary of state for foreign affairs, the French ambassador to Rome, and other French power brokers, but not the pope.[20] The crown-cardinal of France was also abbot commendatario of several French abbeys.[21]

There was traditionally at least one resident French cardinal in the Roman Curia during the first half of the sixteenth century, but Louis XII and Francis I chose three successive Italian cardinals as protector of France thereafter.[7]

1513–1516: Federico di Sanseverino

1516–1523: Giulio de Medici

1523–1548: Agostino Trivulzio

  • Niccolò Gaddi (vice-protector from 1533)[22]

1549–1572: Ippolito d’Este[23][24]

1573–1586: Luigi d'Este

1587–1615: François de Joyeuse

  • Vice-protector Arnaud d'Ossat (1599–1604)
  • Vice-protector François de La Rochefoucald (October 1609–May 1611)[25]

1616–1620: Alessandro Orsini

1621–1636: Maurizio di Savoia

1636–1644: Antonio Barberini

1645–1672: Rinaldo d’Este

  • Alessandro Bichi (vice-protector 1645 until 1657)

1672–1676: Virginio Orsini (from 1646 acted as co-protector)

1676–1701: César d'Estrées

1702–1709: Francesco Maria de’Medici

1709–1740: Pietro Ottoboni

1758–1765: Prospero Colonna di Sciarra

1769–1792/4: François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis

Of the Holy Roman Empire

Ludovico Madruzzo, crown-cardinal of the Holy Roman Empire

The protector of the Holy Roman Empire was often the protector of the Austrian hereditary lands.[16]

  • 1492–1503: Francesco Piccolomini[26]
  • 1518–1539: Lorenzo Campeggio
  • 1540: Pedro Manriquez
  • 1540–1542: Girolamo Aleander
  • 1542–1550: Innocenzo Cibo
  • 1550–1557: Juan Álvarez de Toledo
  • 1557–1573: Otto Truchsess von Waldburg
  • 1573–1600: Ludovico Madruzzo
  • 1603–1611: Ottavio Paravicini
  • 1611–1633: Scipione Borghese
  • 1635/36: Franz von Dietrichstein[27]
  • 1636–1642: Moritz von Savoyen
  • 1644–1666: Girolamo Colonna
  • 1666–1682: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt
  • 1682–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia
  • 1689–1701: Francesco Maria de' Medici[28]
  • 1701–1707: Leopold von Kollonitsch
  • 1707–1712: Johann Philipp von Lamberg
  • 1712–1725: Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz
  • 1726–1738: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach
  • 1738–1751: Sigismund von Kollonitsch
  • 1751–1758: Ferdinand Julius von Troyer
  • 1758–1765: vakant
  • 1765–1779: Alessandro Albani
  • 1779–1800: Franziskus von Paula Herzan von Harras

Vice-protectors and co-protectors

  • 1517–1530: Lorenzo Pucci
  • 1530–1532: Wilhelm van Enkevoirt
  • 1534–1539: Alessandro Cesarini
  • 1538–1540: Girolamo Ghinucci
  • 1540–1542: Alessandro Farnese
  • 1542–1550: Juan Álvarez de Toledo
  • 1550–1553: Bernardo Maffei
  • 1557–1559: Pedro Pacheco
  • 1558–1568: Clemente Dolera
  • 1587–1593: Filippo Spinola
  • 1594–1600: Ottavio Paravicini
  • 1621–1625: Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern
  • 1625–1644: Giulio Savelli
  • 1644: Girolamo Colonna
  • 1664–1666: Federico Sforza (substitute protector)[16]
  • 1666–1682: Carlo Pio di Savoia
  • 1690–1693: Josè Saens de Aguirre
  • 1694–1700: Francesco del Guidice
  • 1701/02/ 1706–1710: Vincenzo Grimani
  • 1703-05/ 1708-12: Fabrizio Paolucci
  • 1713–1719: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach
  • 1719–1722: Michael Friedrich von Althan
  • 1722–1726: Alvaro Cienfuegos
  • 1735–1743: Niccolò del Giudice
  • 1745–1765: Alessandro Albani

Of Poland

  • Pedro Isvalies (ca. 1506 — 1511)
  • Achille de Grassi (1512–1523)
  • Lorenzo Pucci (1523–1531)[29]
  • Antonio Pucci (1532–1544)
  • Alessandro Farnese (1544–1589)[30]
    • Bernardino Maffei (vice-protector 1550-1553)
    • Giacomo Puteo (vice-protector 1555-1563)
    • Giacomo Savelli (vice-protector 1563-1587)
  • Alessandro Peretti di Montalto (1589–1623)
  • Cosimo de Torres (vice-protector 1622–1623, protector 1623–1642)
  • Giulio Savelli (1642–1644)
    • Gianbattista Pamphilj (vice-protector until 1644)
  • Gaspare Mattei (1644–1650)
  • Virginio Orsini (co-protector 1647–1650, protector 1650–1676)
  • Pietro Vidoni (co-protector 1676, protector 1676–1681)
  • Carlo Barberini (1681–1704)
  • Annibale Albani (1712–1751)
  • Gian Francesco Albani (1751–1795)

Of Sweden

Cardinal-protectors of Sweden were appointed by king of Poland Zygmunt III Waza, who had claimed the rights to the Swedish Crown.[31]

Of Portugal

1517–1531: Lorenzo Pucci

1533–1544: Antonio Pucci

1545–1564: Guido Ascanio Sforza

1565–1572: Carlo Borromeo

1573–1589: Alessandro Farnese

1591–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo[32]

1604–1626: Odoardo Farnese

1626–1634: Francesco Barberini

1635–1638: Ippolito Aldobrandini

1657–1676: Virginio Orsini

1676–1714: César d'Estrées

1714–1721: Michelangelo Conti

1739–1770: Neri Maria Corsini

1859–1884: Camillo di Pietro

1887–1888: Włodzimierz Czacki

1891–1910/30: Vincenzo Vannutelli

Of Savoy/Kingdom of Sardinia

Protectors of the Duchy of Savoy

1534–1537: Paolo Cesi[19]

1576–1594: Michele Bonelli

1594–1621: Pietro Aldobrandini

1621–1632: Ludovico Ludovisi

1633–1671: Antonio Barberini

1671–1704: Carlo Barberini

Protectors of the Kingdom of Sardinia

1727–1779: Alessandro Albani

1822? – 1834: Giuseppe Albani

1835–1853: Luigi Lambruschini

Of Naples

1530–1542: Alessandro Cesarini

1544–1549: Alessandro Farnese

1556–1564: Guido Ascanio Sforza

1566–1574: Alessandro Sforza

1574–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo

1605–1608: Ascanio Colonna

1608–1642: Girolamo Doria

1644–1650: Gaspare Mattei

1657–1663: Camillo Astalli

1664–1676: Federico Sforza[16]

1689–1699: José Sáenz de Aguirre

Of Sicily

1524–1542: Alessandro Cesarini

1542–1589: Alessandro Farnese

1592–1626: Odoardo Farnese

1626–1634: Francesco Barberini

1635–1642: Luigi Caetani

1645–1656: Pier Donato Cesi

1664–1687: Lorenzo Raggi

  • Federico Sforza (1664–1666, substitute protector)[16]

1687–1699: José Sáenz de Aguirre

1699–1725: Francesco del Giudice

Of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies

1738–1747: Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona[33]

1747–1789: Domenico Orsini

1789–1795: Ferdinando Spinelli

1799–1806?: Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo

Of Castile/Spain

Ferdinando de' Medici, crown-cardinal of Spain from 1582 to 1584

The King of Spain could have as many as five or six cardinal protectors (Spanish: Protector de Espana) simultaneously, although traditionally the protector of Castile was the most frequently turned to.[16]

1516–1517: Francisco Remolins

1517–1529: Lorenzo Pucci

1529–1534: Andrea della Valle

1534–1563: Ercole Gonzaga

1563–1566: Francesco Gonzaga

1566–1574: Francisco Pacheco de Toledo[32]

1574–1581: Alessandro Sforza[17]

1582–1588: Ferdinando de' Medici[34]

  • Francesco Alciati (Vice-protector circa 1569)[17]

1588–1592: Juan Hurtado Mendoza[35]

1592–1599: Pedro de Deza Manuel[36]

1599–1601: Alessandro d'Este

1601–1606: Francisco de Ávila[37]

1606–1617: Antonio Zapata y Cisneros

1617–1632: Gaspare Borja y Velasco

1632–1645: Gil Carrillo de Albornoz

1645–1666: Carlo de' Medici

  • Federico Sforza (1664–1667, substitute protector)[16]

1667–1672: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt

1673–1677: Luis Manuel Portocarrero

1677–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia

1689–1702: Francesco Maria de' Medici

1702–1713?: Francesco del Giudice

1713–1725: Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona[38]

1725–1743: Luis Antonio Belluga y Moncada

1743–1747: Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona[33]

1748–1760: Joaquin Fernandez Portocarrero

Of Aragon

1517–1531: Lorenzo Pucci

1531–1542: Alessandro Cesarini

1542–1589: Alessandro Farnese

1592–1626: Odoardo Farnese

1626–1634: Francesco Barberini

1635–1641: Carlo Emanuele Pio di Savoia

1645–1666: Girolamo Colonna

1666–1682: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt

1682–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia

1689–1702: Francesco Maria de’Medici

Of Flanders

1561–1572: Carlo Borromeo

1573–1597: Marcantonio Colonna

1597–1608: Ascanio Colonna

1608–1633: Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese

1633–1642: Pietro Maria Borghese

1644–1666: Girolamo Colonna

  • Federico Sforza (1664–1666, substitute protector)[16]

1669–1676: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt

1677–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia

1689–1702: Francesco Maria de’Medici

List of other national cardinal protectors

Of Switzerland

Of Republic of Genoa

  • Giandomenico Spinola (1626–1630)[40]
  • Laudivio Zacchia (1631–1637)[41]
  • Pietro Maria Borghese (1638–1642)[42]

List of non-cardinal protector crown-cardinals

Of Austria
Of Bavaria
  • Philipp Wilhelm (22 September 1576 - 18 May 1598), Bishop of Regensburg from 1595, Cardinal from 1597[45]
  • Johann Casimir v. Häffelin (6 April 1818 – 27 August 1827), Ambassador of Bavaria to the Holy See (since 18 November 1803), probably a de-facto court bishop since 11 November 1787 (as general vicar of the Bavarian Priory of the Order of Malta)
Of England
Of France
  • Jean Jouffroy, continued role as procurator after elevation as cardinal[7]
  • Jean Balue, continued role as procurator after elevation as cardinal; styled as "French protector" in Rome[7][46]
  • André d'Espinay (March 9, 1489–November 10, 1500)[47]
  • Armand Jean de Richelieu (November 3, 1622 – December 4, 1642), Bishop of Luçon, Prime Minister
  • Jules Mazarin (1641-1661)
  • Jean Siffrein Maury (1794–1806), Archbishop of Montefiascone, representative of the Bourbon pretender, sided with Napoleon I in 1806
  • Joseph Fesch (2 December 1804 – 22 June 1815), Archbishop of Lyons, step-uncle to Napoleon I, Ambassador of France to the Holy See (1803–1806, but in 1803 there wasn't as yet a crown) and Imperial Grand Almoner (1805–1814); his role as crown-cardinal ended with the end of the Napoleonic reign, whereas he remained Cardinal and Archbishop
Of the Holy Roman Empire
Of Poland
Of Portugal
Of Spain
Of Tuscany

See also

References

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8.
  • Pastor, Ludwig. 1902. The History of Popes. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd.
  • Wilkie, William E. 1974. The cardinal protectors of England. Cambridge University Press.

Notes

Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu
Henry Benedict Stuart, cardinal and Jacobite pretender
  1. ^ a b Chadwick, Owen; pp. 265-267.
  2. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg "Cardinal " in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. ^ Reinerman, Alan J. 1989. Austria and the Papacy in the Age of Metternich. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. p. 59.
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Right of Exclusion " in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ Francis A. Burkle-Young. 1998. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century: The election of Pope Eugenius IV (1431)."
  6. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 150.
  7. ^ a b c d e Wilkie, 1974, p. 8.
  8. ^ a b Wilkie, 1974, p. 9.
  9. ^ Bireley, Robert. 2007. Book Review. The Catholic Historical Review. 93, 1: 172-173.
  10. ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope Nicholas V (1447)."
  11. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg "Cardinal Protector " in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  12. ^ Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 161
  13. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "The election of Pope Eugenius IV (1431)."
  14. ^ Pastor, 1940, p. 133.
  15. ^ The complete lists of crown cardinal-protectors in 16th and 17th can be found in Josef Wodka: Zur Geschichte der nationalen Protektorate der Kardinäle an der römischen Kurie, Innsbruck und Leipzig 1938, pp. 46-130.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Signorotto, Gianvittorio, and Visceglia, Maria Antonietta. 2002. Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64146-2. p. 163
  17. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of March 12, 1565 (IV)"
  18. ^ Gillis, Clive. 2004. "Days of Deliverance Part 9: Rome makes the New Irish Confederation invincible."
  19. ^ a b Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of July 1, 1517 (V)."
  20. ^ a b Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 164.
  21. ^ Salvator, Miranda. 1998. "Consistory of November 7, 1689."
  22. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of May 3, 1527 (I)."
  23. ^ Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, pp. 164-165.
  24. ^ Yardley, Jonathan. 2005, June 26. "The Cardinal's Hat." Washington Post. BW02.
  25. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of December 10, 1607 (III)."
  26. ^ Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 29
  27. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of March 3, 1599 (IV)"
  28. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "September 2, 1686 (II)"
  29. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of September 23, 1513 (I)"
  30. ^ pl:Alessandro Farnese (1520-1589)[1]
  31. ^ Wodka, p. 124
  32. ^ a b Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of February 26, 1561 (II)"
  33. ^ a b Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of October 1, 1732 (IV)"
  34. ^ Minnich, Nelson H. 2003. Book Review. The Catholic Historical Review. 89, 4: 773-778
  35. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of December 18, 1587 (V)"
  36. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of February 21, 1578 (V)"
  37. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of September June 5, 1596 (II)"
  38. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of May 17, 1706 (II)."
  39. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of January 31, 1560 (I)"
  40. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of January 19, 1626 (III)"
  41. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of January 19, 1626 (III)"
  42. ^ Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "Consistory of October 7, 1624 (II)"
  43. ^ a b c Trollope, 1876, p. 51.
  44. ^ a b c Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8 p. 173
  45. ^ Trollope, 1876, p. 52.
  46. ^ Wilkie, 1974, p. 16.
  47. ^ a b Burke-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope Alexander VI (1492)"
  48. ^ Minor, Vernon Hyde. 2005. The Death of the Baroque and the Rhetoric of Good Taste. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84341-3. p. 138
  49. ^ Pastor, 1941, p. 405
  50. ^ Robinson, Nancy Nowakowski. 2004. Institutional Anti-Judaism. Xlibris. ISBN 1-4134-2161-X. p. 75

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  • Cardinal — • A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Cardinal     Cardinal     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Cardinal-Infante — could refer to the following, all of whom were both infante and cardinals: *Cardinal Infante Ferdinand *Cardinal Infante Afonso of Portugal *Luis de Borbón y Farnesio, 13th Count of Chinchón *Henry of Portugal *Infante Jaime of Coimbraee… …   Wikipedia

  • Cardinal (Catholicism) — A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of… …   Wikipedia

  • Cardinal Richelieu —     Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke de Richelieu     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke de Richelieu     Cardinal; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first he intended to follow a… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Cardinal — Car di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesi[ae] Roman[ae]). See {Cardinal}, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope s council, or the sacred college. [1913 Webster] The clerics of the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cardinal bird — Cardinal Car di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesi[ae] Roman[ae]). See {Cardinal}, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope s council, or the sacred college. [1913 Webster] The clerics… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cardinal flower — Cardinal Car di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesi[ae] Roman[ae]). See {Cardinal}, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope s council, or the sacred college. [1913 Webster] The clerics… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cardinal grosbeak — Cardinal Car di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesi[ae] Roman[ae]). See {Cardinal}, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope s council, or the sacred college. [1913 Webster] The clerics… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cardinal red — Cardinal Car di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardinalis (ecclesi[ae] Roman[ae]). See {Cardinal}, a.] 1. (R. C. Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical princes who constitute the pope s council, or the sacred college. [1913 Webster] The clerics… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cardinal Woodpecker — Conservation status Least Concern ( …   Wikipedia

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