- Roger Nash Baldwin
Roger Nash Baldwin (
January 21 1884– August 26 1981) was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). He served as executive director of the ACLU until 1950. Many of the ACLU's original landmark cases took place under his direction, including the Scopes Monkey Trial, the Sacco and Vanzettimurder trial, and its challenge to the ban on James Joyce's "Ulysses". [ See Crystal Eastman, an ACLUco-founder, as well as her brother Max Eastman(and, particularly, his criticism of James Joyce).] Baldwin was a well known pacifistand author.
Roger Nash Baldwin was born in
Wellesley, Massachusettsto Frank Fenno Baldwin and Lucy Cushing Nash. He earned his bachelor's and master's degrees at Harvard University; afterwards, he moved to St. Louis on the advice of Louis D. Brandeis. There he taught sociology at Washington University, worked as a social workerand became chief probation officerof the St. Louis Juvenile Court. He also co-wrote "Juvenile Courts and Probation" with Bernard Flexnerat this time; this book became very influential in its era, and was, in part, the foundation of Baldwin's national reputation.
Baldwin was a lifelong
pacifist; he was a member of the American Union Against Militarism(AUAM), which opposed American involvement in World War I, and spent a year in jail as a conscientious objectorrather than submit to the draft. After the passage of the Selective Service Act of 1917, Baldwin called for the AUAM to create a legal division to protect the rights of conscientious objectors. On July 1, 1917, the AUAM responded by creating the Civil Liberties Bureau(CLB), headed by Baldwin. The CLB separated from the AUAM on October 1st, 1917, renaming itself the National Civil Liberties Bureau, with Baldwin as director. In 1920, NCLB was renamed the American Civil Liberties Union with Baldwin continuing as the ACLU's first executive director. [http://infoshare1.princeton.edu/libraries/firestone/rbsc/finding_aids/aclu1920/]
As director, Baldwin was integral to the shape of the association's early character; it was under Baldwin's leadership that the ACLU undertook some of its most famous cases, including the
Scopes Monkey Trial, the Sacco and Vanzettimurder trial, and its challenge to the ban on James Joyce's "Ulysses". Baldwin retired from the ACLU leadership in 1950. He remained active in politics for the rest of his life; for example, he co-founded the International League for the Rights of Man, which is now known as the International League for Human Rights.
In St. Louis, Baldwin had been greatly influenced by the radical social movement of the anarchist
Emma Goldman. He joined the Industrial Workers of the World. In 1927, he had visited the Soviet Union and wrote a book, "Liberty Under the Soviets". He later denounced communismin his book, "A New Slavery", which condemned "the inhuman communist police state tyranny" [http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baldwin.html] . In the 1940s, Baldwin led the campaign to purge the ACLU of Communist Party members [http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baldwin.html] .
In 1947, General
Douglas MacArthurinvited him to Japanto foster the growth of civil liberties in that country. In Japan, he founded the Japan Civil Liberties Union, and the Japanese government awarded him the Order of the Rising Sun. In 1948, Germany and Austria invited him for similar purposes.
Jimmy Carterawarded Baldwin the Medal of Freedomon 16 January 1981.
Baldwin died of
heart failureon August 26, 1981 at Valley Hospital in Ridgewood, New Jersey. [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60B10F6395F0C748EDDA10894D9484D81&scp=1&sq=%22roger+baldwin%22&st=nyt|NY Times Obituary August 27, 1981.]
The New York Times", Thursday, October 31, 1918. Pacifist Professor Gets Year In Prison; Roger N. Baldwin Refused To Submit To Examination Under Draft Law. Nearing With Him In Court Shakes Baldwin's Hand After Sentence. Professor Asserts He Loves American Ideals. Roger N. Baldwin, former Director of the National Civil Liberties Bureau and an official of the American Union Against Militarism, was sentenced yesterday to serve one year in the Federal penitentiary at Atlanta for violating the selective draft law through refusal to submit to physical examination.
* [http://infoshare1.princeton.edu/libraries/firestone/rbsc/finding_aids/lamson.html Roger Baldwin: Founder of the American Civil Liberties Union: A Portrait] by Peggy Lamson [ISBN 0395247616, Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1976] p. 192
* [http://www.law.ucla.edu/volokh/blog/baldwin.pdf "Freedom in the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.] (PDF) by Roger Nash Baldwin, in "
Soviet Russia Today", 1934.
* [http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/ws859f657 Roger Nash Baldwin papers] in the
Seeley G. MuddManuscript Library
* [http://harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baldwin.html Roger Nash Baldwin, Unitarian] Bio of Roger Nash Baldwin by
Robert C. Cottrell
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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Roger Nash Baldwin — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Roger Nash Baldwin (21 de enero de 1884, Wellesley, Massachusetts 26 de agosto de 1981, Ridgewood, Nueva Jersey) fue un líder de los derechos civiles de su país natal, Estados Unidos. Nació en una familia… … Wikipedia Español
Roger Nash Baldwin — (1884 1981) est un activiste américain connu pour avoir fondé l Union américaine pour les libertés civiles. Né à Wellesley dans le Massachusetts, il étudia à l Université Harvard puis enseigna à sociologie à l Université de Washington. Influencé… … Wikipédia en Français
Baldwin,Roger Nash — Baldwin, Roger Nash. 1884 1981. American civil rights activist. In 1918 he helped found the American Civil Liberties Union, which he directed from 1920 to 1950. * * * … Universalium
Baldwin, Roger Nash — ▪ American activist born Jan. 21, 1884, Wellesley, Mass., U.S. died Aug. 26, 1981, Ridgewood, N.J. American civil rights activist, cofounder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Born into an aristocratic Massachusetts family … Universalium
Baldwin, Roger (Nash) — born Jan. 21, 1884, Wellesley, Mass., U.S. died Aug. 26, 1981, Ridgewood, N.J. U.S. civil rights leader. Born into an aristocratic Massachusetts family, Baldwin attended Harvard University and taught sociology at Washington University (1906–09)… … Universalium
Baldwin, Roger (Nash) — (21 ene. 1884, Wellesley, Mass, EE.UU.–26 ago. 1981, Ridgewood, N.J.). Dirigente estadounidense de derechos civiles. Hijo de una aristocrática familia de Massachusetts, asistió a la Universidad de Harvard y enseñó sociología en la Universidad de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Roger Baldwin — may refer to:* Roger Nash Baldwin, (1884 1981), founder of ACLU * Roger Sherman Baldwin, (1793 1863), US lawyer and politician * Roger Baldwin (blackjack author), blackjack strategy pioneer … Wikipedia
Baldwin — Baldwin, James Baldwin, Stanley * * * (as used in expressions) Baldwin, James (Arthur) Baldwin, Robert Baldwin, Roger (Nash) Baldwin (de Bewdley), Stanley, 1 conde … Enciclopedia Universal
Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family — The Baldwin, Evarts, Hoar Sherman family is a large political family of the United States spanning the country s history. *Roger Sherman (1721 1793) *John Adams *John Quincy Adams *William Tecumseh Sherman *Susan B. Anthony *William Maxwell… … Wikipedia
Baldwin (surname) — The name Baldwin is of English origin, from the Old English Bealdwine , or the Old German equivalent Baldavin , meaning bold friend . It was frequently used in medieval Britain as a surname.Real people* Abraham Baldwin (1754–1807), American… … Wikipedia