Al-Ashraf Khalil

al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn ( _ar. الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون‎); (b. c. 1262, Cairo - d. 1293, Turuga). Was the eighth Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293. He is most famous for conquering the last of the Crusader states in Palestine.


Al-Ashraf Khalil, the 8th Kipchak Turkic Sultan of Egypt [ Ibn-Taghri, p.4/ vol.8] was the son of Sultan Qalawun. He became heir to the Sultanate and was named co-sultan with his father shortly after the sudden death of his older brother as-Salih Ali in 1288. [Opponents of Khalil believed that Khalil himself poisoned as-Salih ali. Al-Maqrizi, p.207/ vol.2] During the investiture, Khalil faced a formal problem as the succession document was not signed by his late father. According to the ceremony judge, Fath ad-Din Abdul Zahir, his father refused to sign the document before his death saying: "Fath ad-Din, I can not let Khalil rule the Muslims". [Al-Maqrizi,p.219/ vol.2. Ibn Taghri, p.3/ vol.8. Whether this was a conspiracy of opposing Emirs or not is not clear.] When Khalil saw the document without his father's signature he said: "Fath ad-Din, the sultan declined to give it to me, but God gave it to me" and he was inaugurated. [Ibn Taghri, p.3/ vol. 8] [Al-Maqrizi, p.218 / vol. 2] Qalawun's vice-Sultan, Hosam ad-Din Turuntay and Emir Kitbugha, were arrested by Khalil and Turuntay was executed as he led a conspiracy to kill him but Kitbugha was later released [Al-Ashraf Khalil learned that Turuntay was plotting to kill him. He called him to the citadel with Kitbugha and executed him. Khalil had hated Turuntay since the days of his father Qalawun as Turuntay liked his brother as-Salih Ali and disliked him and his followers. After executing Tarantay, Khalil said: "Who lives one day longer than his enemy fulfills all his wishes". Al-Maqrizi p.219/ vol.2] . While Baydara al-Mansuri [Baydara al-Mansuri was the Vizier of Sultan Qalawun. When Al-Ashraf Khalil became a Sultan, Baydara replaced Turuntay as vice-sultan. Al-Maqrizi, p.217 and p.219/vol.2] became the new Vice-Sultan, Hosam ad-Din Lajin [Hosam ad-Din Lajin was the deputy of Sultan Qalawun in Damascus. When Al-Ashraf Khalil took the power, Lajin was deposed and arrested and brought to Cairo to be executed but he was pardoned and received back his post in Damascus after Emir Badr al-Din Baydara al-Mansuri pleaded for him. Lajin became the Sultan of Egypt later in 1297. Al-Maqrizi, p.274/ vol.2. See also Lajin. ] became the deputy of the Sultan in Syria and Ibn al-Salus [Ibn al-Salus Shams ad-Din Muhammed was a Damascene merchant who became a "Muhtasib" (superviser of markets). During Qalawun's reign, Al-Asraf Khalil brought him to Cairo and made him his secretary but Qalawun persecuted him. After the death of Qalawun, Sultan Al-Ashraf granted him the post of Vizier. Ibn Taghri, p.14/note 2/ vol.8 ] was granted the post of vizier. After Khalil liquidated his opponents and secured his position he was ready to complete the work which his father did not finish, namely the recapturing of the last strongholds of the Franks situated on the Syrian coast.

Conquest of Acre

Qalawun, father of Khalil, conquered the County of Tripoli in 1289, and in 1290 marched on Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but, to the relief of the Franks of Acre, he died in November before launching the attack. He was succeeded by Khalil who decided to continue the attack. Khalil sent a message to William of Beaujeu [William of Beaujeu (Guillaume de Beaujeu) was the 21st Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1273 until his death during the siege of Acre in 1291. See Guillaume de Beaujeu] , the Master of the Temple, telling him about his intentions to attack Acre and urging him not to send messengers or gifts. ["Because you have been a true man, so we send you advance notice of our intentions, and give you to understand that we are coming into your parts to right the wrongs that have been done. Therefore we do not want the community of Acre to send us any letters or presents (regarding this matter), for we will by no means receive them." —From the letter of Al-Ashraf Khalil to William of Beaujeu, The Templar of Tyre, Chronicle Gestes des Chiprois, p.104/ part 3] But a delegation from Acre led by Sir Philip Mainebeuf [ The Templar of Tyre, Gestes des Chiprois, p.104 / part 3] [Philip Mainebeuf, who spoke Arabic, was accompanied by a knight named Bartholomew Pisan and a scribe named George. The Templar of Tyre, Gestes des Chiprois, p.104/ part 3] , arrived in Cairo [Al-Maqrizi, p.222/ vol. 2] with gifts and appealed to Khalil not to attack Acre. Khalil did not accept the request and imprisoned the Frank messengers. [Asili, p.110] [ The Templar of Tyre, Gestes des Chiprois, p.104/ part 3]

Al-Ashraf Khalil assembled the forces of Egypt and Syria, which included a great number of volunteers [ Abu al-Fida,p.278/ vol.13. According to Ibn Taghri most of Khalil's troops were volunteers. Ibn Taghri, p.5/ vol. 8] and siege engines from everywhere at Hisn al-Akrad. Some of Khalil's catapults were huge and had such names as "Al Mansuri" and "The Furious" in addition to lighter, but potent, mangonels called "Black Bulls". [Asili, p. 110. Templar of Tyre, p.105] [Al-Mansuri (The victorious; Arabic: المنصورى) might refer to Khalil himself as he was Khalil Al-Mansuri, The Furious (Arabic: Al-Ghadibah الغاضبة), Black Bulls (Arabic: Al-Thiran Al-Sawda'a الثيران السوداء)] Four armies from Damascus (led by Lajin), Hama (led by al-Muzaffar Taqai ad-Din), Tripoli (led by Bilban) and Al Kark (led by Baibars al-Dewadar) marched to Acre to join the Egyptian army of Khalil. [ There are no reliable figures for the Muslim army, according to some sources it consisted of 60 000 cavalry and 160 000 infantry. Though the numbers seem exaggerated, the army of the Muslim was probably larger than that of the Crusaders. Asili, p.111] In addition to the historian Baibars al-Dewadar [Rukn ad-Din Baibars al-Dewadar was also a historian. He gave his account about the battle for Acre in his book "Zobdat al-Fikrah Fi Tarikh al-Hijrah ( 11 volumes )".] who led the army of Al Karak, Abu al-Fida was another prominent historian who accompanied al-Ashraf in his Levantiane expedition [The historian Abu Al-Fida was in the army of Hama. Asli, p.114] .

The Franks of Acre were for sometime aware of the earnestness of the situation. They asked for help from Europe which resulted in nothing significant. A small group of knights, among them the Swiss Otto of Grandson, were sent by king Edward I of England. Burchard of Schwanden, the Grand Master of the German Teutonic Knights, resigned and was replaced by Konrad von Feuchtwangen who suddenly left Acre for Europe. The only noteworthy reinforcement came from king Henry II of Cyprus who fortified the walls and sent forces led by his brother Amalric to defend the city. Acre was well defended by two lines of thick walls [Acre is one of the few cities in the world whose walls have remained standing over the centuries.See List of cities with defensive walls] and had Twelve towers [The towers of Acre were built in the outer wall and the inner wall. Among these towers were the Tower of the Countess of Blois, the Accursed Tower, the Tower of the Legate, the Tower of the Patriarch, the Tower of St. Nicholas, the English Tower, the Germans Tower, the Tower of Henri II, the Tower of King Hugh and the Tower of St. Lazarus. Asili, p.113. Templar of Tyre, p.106/note2 ] which were built by European kings [The English tower was built by Henry I. Asili, p.113] and rich pilgrims. [The Tower of the Countess of Blois was built by the Countess of Blois. Asili, p.114]

] and to restore the truce signed by them and the Muslims. Khalil promised the messengers to spare the life of everyone if the Franks hand him Acre peacefully but the messengers refused his offer. [Asili, p.117. Templar of Tyre, p.108-109] While the messengers were still there a huge catapult stone launched from the city struck the ground near the sultan's tent. Khalil, believing that the crusaders were negotiating in bad faith, reacted furiously and wanted to kill the two messenger but Emir Sanjar al-Shuja' pleaded for them and they were sent back to the city.

From May 8, Acre's towers began to cave in one after one. On May 18, early in the morning at sunrise, the Sultan gave his order to launch an all-out attack on all points, accompanied by sound of trumpets and drums carried on 300 camels. [Al-Maqrizi, p.223/ vol.2. Asili, p.118] The Muslim forces advanced towards a great tower that was called the Accursed Tower [The Accursed Tower was in the inner wall, situated between the Tower of King Henri II and the Tower of the Teutonic Knights. Templar of Tyre, p.106. Asili, p.113] and forced the Frankish garrison to retreat to the side of the Gate of St. Anthony. Muslim standards were placed on the walls. All counter-attacks and attempts made by the Hospitallers and the Templars to recapture the tower were in vain. King Henry II and the Master of the Hospital boarded their galleys and fled from Acre. [Templar of Tyre, p.113] William of Beaujeu, the Master of the Temple, and Matthew of Clermont were killed. By capturing these positions, the Muslim forces were now inside the city fighting the Franks in the streets and alleys of Acre, which turned into a terrifying chaos as the inhabitants were fleeing towards the sea. How many inhabitants perished on land and in sea is unknown. [According to Ludolph of Suchem (which seems exaggeration): "In Acre and the other places nearly a hundred and six thousand men were slain or taken, and more than two hundred thousand escaped from thence. Of the Saracens more than three hundred thousand were slain, as is well known even to this day." —From Ludolph of Suchem, p. 268-272 ] [Many nobles of Acre managed to flee in boats by paying money to the mercenary commander and Knight Templar Roger de Flor who made use of the situation and made his fortune by blackmailing the refugees of Acre. Asili, p.120-121] ["More than five hundred most noble ladies and maidens, the daughters of kings and princes, came down to the seashore, when the city was about to fall, carrying with them all their jewels and ornaments of gold and precious stones, of priceless value, in their bosoms, and cried aloud, whether there were any sailor there who would take all their jewels and take whichever of them he chose to wife, if only he would take them, even naked, to some safe land or island" —From Ludolph of Suchem, p.268-272 ] Before night, Acre, after being in the hands of the Franks for 100 years [ Acre was conquered by the Crusaders in 1104. In 1187, Saladin recaptured Acre but it was captured again by the Crusader Richard the Lionheart in 1191. See also Siege of Acre.] , was in the hands of Al-Ashraf Khalil and his army after a siege of 43 days, with exception of the huge headquarters of the Templars which stood on the west side of the city seashore. After a week, Al-Asraf Khalil negotiated with Peter de Severy, who was in charge of the Templars, and it was agreed that the Templars and everyone inside the fortress would have free passage to Cyprus, but the Sultan's men who were sent to the fortress to supervise the evacuation seemed not disciplined enough to handle the matter and were massacred by the Templars. Under the cover of darkness, Theobald Gaudin, the new Master of the Temple, left the fortress for Sidon with a few people and the fortune of the Templars. In the morning, Peter de Severy went to the Sultan to settle a new negotiation but he was arrested with his followers and they were executed in retaliation for the Sultan's men who were masscared earlier by the Templars inside the fortress. When the besieged Templars in the fortress saw what happened to Peter de Severy, they continued the fight. On May 28, after a wide breach was made under the fortress, the Sultan sent about 2000 men to take it. The Frankish fortress collapsed killing everyone inside, including Sultan's men. [According to Ludolph of Suchem, the besieged Templars deliberately undermined the walls of the fortress' tower to let it collapse on the Sultan's men. Ludolphi, Rectoris Ecclesiæ Parochialis in suchem, p.46 ]

The news of the conquest of Acre reached Damascus and Cairo. Al-Ashraf Khalil entered the decorated city of Damascus with Franks chained at the feet and the captured crusader standards which were carried upside-down as a sign of their defeat. After celebrating his victory in Damascus, Khalil left for Cairo which was also decorated and celebrating. [The gate of the San Andreas Church was transported from Acre to Cairo to be used in the Al-Ashraf's Mosque which the Sultan was building. Asili, p.123] Arriving at Cairo, he ordered the release of Philip Mainebeuf and the men who accompanied him to Cairo earlier. [Ibn Taghri, p.9/ vol.8]

Capture of Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa and Tartus

The port of Tyre was one of the most protected strongholds of the Franks on the Syrian coast. Saladin failed twice to capture it. Tyre was passed from Margaret of Lusignan [Margaret of Lusignan, the Dowager Lady of Tyre, widow of John of Montfort. see also Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem] to her nephew Amalric shortly before the capture of Acre by Al-Ashraf Khalil. On May 19, Al-Ashraf, while still in Acre, sent a group of men, led by Emir Sanjar al-Shuja'i, to examine the situation in Tyre. Having a small garrison and seeing the fleeing refugees from Acre, Adam of Cafran, the Bailli of Tyre, panicked and fled to Cyprus. Tyre was taken by the Muslims without a fight.

A month after the capture of Acre, Al-Ashraf Khalil sent a force led by Emir al-Shuja'i to Sidon. The Knights Templar, as their fortune had been brought to Sidon earlier by Theobald Gaudin, the new Master of the Temple, decided to take refuge inside a castle that was built on an isle ca. 90 meters from the shore. Gaudin took the fortune and left for Cyprus after he promised his followers to send reinforcement from Cyprus. But Gaudin never sent anything and his followers had to fight till they fled by sea, in the night, to Tartous after they saw the Muslims building a bridge. Emir al-Shuja'i ordered the destruction of the sea castle on July 14. [Remains of the sea castle still exist today. See picture above.]

After the capture of Sidon, al-Shuja'i marched to Beirut. Beirut, which had a small garrison, was an important trading seaport for the Crusaders. Eschiva of Ibelin, the Lady of Beirut, thought she was secure because she had a truce with al-Ashraf Khalil's father Qalawun. "al-Shuja'i" summoned the commanders of the garrison and arrested them. Seeing the commanders arrested, everyone fled by sea. Beirut was taken by the Muslims on July 31. "al-Shuja'i" ordered the razing of its walls and castles and turned its Cathedral to a Mosque.

Haifa was captured on July 31, with little resistance. Tartus was besieged by Emir Bilban and the crusaders had to flee to the nearby island of Arwad [The island of Arwad, also called Ruad Island, is 3 km from Tartus. See Arwad.] and was captured on August 3, followed by Atlit on August 14. Nothing was left for the Franks except the Island of Arwad which was captured by an Egyptian army later in 1302. [See also Siege of Ruad]

In 1292, Al-Ashraf Khalil accompanied by his Vizier Ibn al-Salus arrived to Damascus and left - via Aleppo - to besiege the castle of Qal'at ar-Rum (Hromgla in Armenian). Qal'at ar-Rum, which was the seat of the Patriarch of Armenia, was besieged by more than 30 catapults [ Abu Al-Fida, p.386/ vol.13. According to Al-Maqrizi, al-Ashraf besieged Qal'at ar-Rum with 20 catapults. Al-Maqrizi, p.233/vol.2] and was captured after 30 days by Khalil, who renamed it Qal'at al-Muslimin (Castle of the Muslims) [ al-Maqrizi, p.234/ vol.2] . Khalil left Emir al-Shaja'i at the castle and returned to Damascus with prisoners. The population of Damascus bid farewell to the victorious Sultan on his way to Cairo at night with thousands of lighted candles. The Sultan entered Cairo from the Victory Gate (Bab al-Nasr) and was greeted by the celebrating population, also with thousands of lighted candles .

The Sultan returned to Damascus and assembled an army to invade Sis [The Holy See moved to Sis after al-Ashraf Khalil captured Qal'at ar-Rum] , the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, but Armenian messengers arrived to Damascus and appealed to him not to attack Sis. Til Hemdun, Marash and Behesni were given to the Sultan in exchange for peace. On the other hand, Khalil had good relations with the Kingdom of Cyprus, the Kingdom of Aragon, and the Kingdom of Sicily, who had commercial and military treaties with him.

The process of conquering the crusader kingdom, begun by Saladin in 1187, was finally completed by Khalil who was described on some of his monuments as Alexander. [Mannheim 2001, [ p. 316] ] Al-Ashraf was also planning to attack Cyprus [Asili, p.130. Runciman p.89-95/part 3] and the Mongols in Baghdad. [ In 1292, Gaykhatu the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate sent a message to Al-Ashraf Khalil threatening him that if he not allow him to live in Aleppo he would conquer the whole of the Levant. Al-Ashraf replied: "The khan has the same ideas as me. I too hope to bring back Baghdad to the fold of Islam as previously. We will see which of us two will be quicker". — Al-Maqrizi, p.242/vol.2 ]

The Crusaders were shocked. Their 200 years of effort had gone in vain. The crusaders' kingdom of Jerusalem had already been destroyed by Saladin, Baibars and Qalawun, and Louis IX's Seventh Crusade against Egypt ended in a complete failure, but the crusaders tried to keep their strongholds on the Syrian coast intact, hoping to be able one day to recapture what they had lost. Pope Nicholas IV tried to act but he died in 1292 [ Pope Nicholas IV was a promoter of the crusaders. After Qalawun recaptured Tripoli in 1289, Nicholas sent twenty galleys, which were armed in Venice, to the aid of the city of Acre. — the Templar Master. Chronicle Gestes des Chiprois, P.101/ part 3] , and the European kings, who became involved in internal conflicts and struggles [ One of these conflicts was the war that broke out between England and France in 1293. see also Philip IV of France] , became unable to organize new effective crusades. As for the Templars, they were accused of heresy in Europe and badly persecuted by King Philip IV of France and Pope Clement V.

Domestic conflicts and assassination

Militarily, Al-Ashraf Khalil possessed the vigor and capability of two of his predecessor, Baibars and his father Qalawun. But many Emirs disliked him. He started his reign by executing and imprisoning a few prominent Emirs of his father, among them the vice-Sultan Turuntay. During the battle for Acre he arrested Hosam ad-Din Lajin and later after he returned to Cairo he executed Sunqur al-Ashqar [ Shams ad-Din Sunqur al-Ashqar, was a prominent Emir and one of the most devoted Bahri Emirs since days of Sultan Baibars. He was taken prisoner by the Armenians and was freed in exchange for Leo the son of King Hethum I who was captured during the invasion of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in 1266. During the reign of Baibars' son Solmish he was the deputy of the Sultan in Damascus. During the reign of Qalawun he proclaimed himself a Sultan while in Damascus, taking the royal name al-Malik al-Kamil. He fought a few battles against Qalawun's Emirs but was pardoned later after he joined Qalawun's army against the Mongols. Al-Maqrizi, p.51, 121, 127, 131-133, 145/vol.2 ] and a few Emirs. Khalil continued his father's policy of replacing Turkish Mamluks with Circassians, a policy which contributed in the intensification of the rivalry among the Mamluks. After his victories against the Franks, arrogance got hold of al-Ashraf Khalil, he treated the Emirs roughly and began to sign messages and documents with the letter "KH" only. [In Arabic "Kh" is one letter (خ).] In addition, his Vizier Ibn al-Salus was envied by many Emirs and by the vice-Sultan Baydara in particular. Ibn al-Salus who, originally, was neither a Mamluk nor an Emir but a merchant from Damascus, became the most influential official during the reign of Khalil. While Al-Ashraf was rough on the Emirs, he was very generous towards Ibn al-Salus who did not treat the Emirs with respect. [Al-Maqrizi, p.221-222 and 251/vol.2. Ibn Taghri, p.45/vol.8. Abu Al-Fida,p.395/vol.13] Ibn al-Salus was involved in the unjustly persecution of the supreme judge of Egypt Ibn Bint al-A'az, as he was involved in provoking the Sultan against Baydara on several occasions.

In December 1293, Al-Ashraf Khalil accompanied by Ibn al-Salus, Baydara and other Emirs went to Turug [Now Kom Turuga ] [ [,30.151634&mra=mi&mrsp=0&sz=12&sll=30.96289,30.156441&sspn=0.182528,0.257149&ie=UTF8&ll=30.961418,30.148201&spn=0.18253,0.257149&t=h&z=12 Kom Turuga on map] ] in northern Egypt on a bird-hunting expedition. He sent Ibn Al-Salus to the nearby city of Alexandria to bring materials and to collect the taxes. Arriving at Alexandria, Ibn Al-Salus found out that the deputies of Baydara had already taken everything. On receiving a message from Ibn Al-Salus with this news, Al-Ashraf summoned Baydara to his "Dihlis" and insulted and threatened him in the presence of other Emirs. The distressed Baydar left the "Dihlis" and called Lajin, Qara Sunqur and other Emirs and together they decieded to kill the Sultan. On 31 December, while the Sultan was walking with his friend Emir Shihab ad-Din Ahmad he was attacked and assassinated by Baydara and his followers. The Emirs who struck the Sultan after Baydara were Hosam ad-Din Lajin and Bahadir Ras Nubah followed by other Emirs. After the assassination of Al-Ashraf Khalil, Baydara and his followers went to the "Dihliz" and proclaimed Baydara the new Sultan. But Baydara was soon arrested by the Sultani Mamluks and Emirs. [Before the arrest of Baydara he was asked by Baibars, Emir of Jandar, whether other Emirs knew about his plan to kill Al-Ashraf. He answered: "Yes, I killed him according to their advice and under their eyes" then he added the reasons for killing him which included: "He did not respect the Emirs and the Mamluks of his father. He made Ibn Al-Salus a Vizier. He arrested Izz ad-Din al-Afram and executed Sunqur al-Ashqar and others. He promoted his Mamluks to the rank of Emir". When he was asked whether Kitbugha knew about his plan, he replied: "Yes, he was the first one to suggest it." —Ref. Ibn Taghri, p. 18/ vol.8. Al-Maqrizi, p.247/ vol2] Baydara was killed by the Sultani Emirs led by Kitbugha [Kitbugha became Sultan of Egypt in 1295. See ] and Baibars al-Jashnikir [Baibars al-Jashnikir (Baibars II) became Sultan of Egypt in 1308. See Baibars II] and his head was sent to Cairo. Ibn al-Salus was arrested in Alexandria and was sent to Cairo where he was mistreated and at last beaten to death. The Emirs who were involved in the assassination of Al-Ashraf Khalil were severely punished and executed. Lajin and Qara Sunqur fled and disappeared [Lajin appeard sometime after the assassination of Al-Ashraf Khalil. He was pardoned by al-Nasir Muhammad who became the new Sultan. Ref. Ibn Taghri, p.40/ vol.8. Al-Maqrizi, p.255/ vol.2 . ] . After the death of Al-Ashraf Khalil, the Emirs decided to install his 9-years-old brother Al-Nasir Muhammad as the new Sultan with Kitbugha as vice-Sultan and al-Shaja'i as the new Vizier. But the death of Al-Ashraf Khalil was concealed for sometime. While Al-Ashraf was dead, his brother Al-Nasir Muhammad was proclaimed Vice-Sultan and heir. A message from Egypt to the Syrian Emirs said: "I appointed my brother al-Malik al-Nasir Muhammad as my Vicegerent and heir so that when I go to fight the enemy he replaces me ". [ According to Al-Maqrizi this letter was sent according to the instruction given by Emir al-Shuja'i. Al-Maqrizi, p.249/vol.2] As soon as everything was under control the death of Al-Ahraf Khalil was revealed to the public in Egypt and Syria [Al-Maqrizi, p.249-250/vol.2] .

Al-Ashraf Khalil ruled about three years and two months. He had two daughters. Besides being remembered as the conqueror of Acre, he was remembered by Muslim historians as an intelligent Sultan who was fond of reading and learning. [Also the chronicler Ludolph of Suchem described Al-Ashrafe Khalil as "an exceedingly wise man".Ludolphi, Rectoris Ecclesiæ Parochialis in suchem, p.42]

Coins of Al-Ashraf Khalil

Coins of Al-Ashraf Khalil were unique in Mamluk coinage history. New kind of titles were inscribed on his coins such as : al-Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Din Nasir al-Milah al-Muhamadiyah Muhyyi al-Dawalah al-Abasiyah ( The Sultan King al-Ashraf Salah al-Din the Promoter of the Muhammadan Nation and the Revitalizer of the Abbasid Caliphate ), al-Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf Salah al-Donya wa al-Din Qasim Amir al-mu'minin ( The Sultan King al-Ashraf reform of temporal world and faith sharer of the Emir of the faithful ) the Emir of the faithful was the title of the Abbasid Caliph. His father Qalawun was also mentioned on Al-Ashraf's coins as : Mawlana al-Sultan al-Malik al-Mansur ( Our benefactor the Sultan King al-Mansur) [ Mahdi, p. 97 ] .

ee also

* Bahri dynasty
* Kipchaks
* Siege of Acre (1291)
* Siege of Ruad
* Siege of Tripoli
* Qalawun



*Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity.(The historian Abu al-Fida took part in the sieges of Tripoli and Acre.)
*Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997.
*Idem in English: Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969.
*Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar,Matabat aladab,Cairo 1996, ISBN 977-241-175X
*Idem in French: Bouriant, Urbain , Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte,Paris 1895
*Asili,B., Al-Zahir Baibars and the end of the old crusades, Dar Alnafaes,Beirut 1992
*Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, Dar al-Kotob, Beirut 1992
*History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D. by Yusef. William Popper, translator Abu L-Mahasin ibn Taghri Birdi, University of California Press 1954
*Ludolph of Suchem, Description of the Holy Land and of the Way Thither, trans. Aubrey Stewart London: Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1895. Reprinted in James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press 1962
*Ludolphi, Rectoris Ecclesiæ Parochialis in suchem, de itinere Terræ Sanctæ,University of Michigan 1851
*Mahdi, Dr. Shafik, Mamalik Misr wa Alsham ( Mamluks of Egypt and the Levant), Aldar Alarabiya, Beirut 2008
*Runciman, Steven, A history of the Crusades 3. Penguin Books, 1987
*The Templar of Tyre, Chronicle (Getes des Chiprois), Published by Crawford, P., Ashgate Publishing. Ltd, Cyprus 2003. ISBN 1840146184
*cite book|last=Mannheim|first=Ivan|title=Syria & Lebanon Handbook|publisher=Footprint Travel Guides|year=2001|isbn=978-1900949903|url=|accessdate=2008-03-17

External links

* [,30.151634&mra=mi&mrsp=0&sz=12&sll=30.96289,30.156441&sspn=0.182528,0.257149&ie=UTF8&ll=30.961418,30.148201&spn=0.18253,0.257149&t=h&z=12 Map of Kom Turuga]

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