- God in Judaism
The conception of God in
Judaismis monotheistic. The God of Israelwas known by two principal names in the Bible. One is YHWH, known as the Tetragrammaton. This name is sometimes vocalized theoretically by scholars as Yahweh, and for tabuisticreasons is replaced with Adonai"Lord" in liturgy. The other commonly used name in the Bible, Elohim, may be related to the Northwest Semiticgeneric term for "god", El, though plural forms of El, such as "elim" and the diminutive "elilim", are found in the Bible.
Godhead is the English-language term which in Judaism is sometimes used to refer to "God-as-He-is-in-Himself."
In the philosophy of
Maimonidesand other Jewish-rationalistic philosophers, there is little which can be predicated about the "Godhead" other than its "existence," and even this can only be asserted equivocally.
In Jewish mystical thought (
Kabbalah), the term "Godhead" usually refers to the concept of Ein Sof (אין סוף), which is the aspect of God that lies beyond the emanations ( sefirot). The "knowability" of the Godhead in Kabbalistic thought is no better that what is conceived by rationalist thinkers. As Jacobs (1973) puts it, "Of God as He is in Himself—Ein Sof—nothing can be said at all, and no thought can reach there."
Judaism is based on a strict
monotheism. This doctrine expresses the belief in one "indivisible" God. The worship of multiple gods ( polytheism) and the concept of a Singular Godhaving multiple persons (as in the doctrine of Trinity) are equally heretical in Judaism. The prayer par excellence in terms of defining God is the " Shema Yisrael", originally appearing in the Hebrew Bible: "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One", also translated as "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is unique/alone."
God is conceived of as eternal, the creator of the universe, and the source of morality. God has the power to intervene in the world. The term God thus corresponds to an actual ontological reality, and is not merely a projection of the human psyche.
Maimonidesdescribes God in this fashion: "There is a Being, perfect in every possible way, who is the ultimate cause of all existence. All existence depends on God and is derived from God."
The Hebrew Bible and classical
rabbinic literatureaffirm theismand reject deism. However, in the writings of medieval Jewish philosophers, perhaps influenced by neo-Aristotelian philosophy, one finds what can be termed limited omniscience. [See Gersonides"Views on omniscience"]
God is creator of the universe
According to the first
account of creation in Genesis, the world was created by God in six days. While many Haredi Jews take this literally, many Modern Orthodox, Conservative and Reform authoritieswho regard the six days as "stages" in the creation of the universe and the earth, and that Judaism would not be in contradiction to the scientific model that states that the universe is about 15 billion years old, however by this point of view.
God is one
The idea of God as a duality or
trinityis heretical - it is considered akin to polytheism. " [God] , the Cause of all, is one. This does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species (which encompasses many individuals), nor one as in an object that is made up of many elements, nor as a single simple object that is infinitely divisible. Rather, God is a unity unlike any other possible unity." This is referred to in the Torah( Deuteronomy6:4): "Hear Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One." ( Maimonides, 13 principles of faith [http://members.aol.com/LazerA/13yesodos.html Second Principle] ).
While Jews hold that such conceptions of God are incorrect, they generally are of the opinion that non-Jews that hold such beliefs are not held culpable.
"See also Divine simplicity".
God is all-powerful
The Jewish belief in God's omnipotence is rooted in the bible: [ [http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/913.pdf "Jewish Beliefs about God" in "C/JEEP Curriculum Guide" American Jewish Committee] ]
* 'Why did Sarah laugh, and say "Shall I indeed bear a child now that I am old?" Is anything too hard for the Lord?'" (Gen. 18:13-3).
* “Attribute to the Lord all glory and power” (
Most rabbinic works also present God as having the properties of
omnipotence, omniscienceand omnibenevolence. This is still the primary way that most Orthodox and many non-Orthodox Jews view God.
The issue of
theodicywas raised again, especially after the extreme horrors of the Holocaustand several theological responses surfaced. These are discussed in a separate entry on Holocaust theology. The central questions they address are whether and how God is all powerful and all good, given the existence of evil in the world, particularly the Holocaust.
God is personal
Most of classical Judaism views God as personal. We have a relationship with God, God has a relationship with us. Much of the
midrash, and many prayers in the siddurportrays God as caring about humanity in much the same way that we care about God. Harold Kushner, a Conservative rabbi, writes that "God shows His love for us by reaching down to bridge the immense gap between Him and us. God shows His love for us by inviting us to enter into a Covenant ("brit") with Him, and by sharing with us His Torah".Fact|date=June 2007 Hasidismseems to endorse this view to some degree.Fact|date=June 2007
On the other hand,
Maimonidesand many other medieval Jewish philosophers rejected the idea of a personal God as incorrect. This may, however, simply be an emphatic form of the common Jewish view that God is unchanging, not describable and not anthropomorphic: see next section, and negative theology.
The nature of God
God is non-physical, non-
corporeal, and eternal. A corollary belief is that God is utterly unlike man, and can in no way be considered anthropomorphic. All statements in the Hebrew Bible and in rabbinic literature which use anthropomorphism are held to be linguistic conceits or metaphors, as it would otherwise be impossible to talk about God at all. See Divine simplicity; Negative theology; Tzimtzum.
To God alone may one offer prayer
Any belief that an intermediary between man and God could be used, whether necessary or even optional, has traditionally been considered heretical.
Maimonideswrites that "God is the only one we may serve and praise....We may not act in this way toward anything beneath God, whether it be an angel, a star, or one of the elements.....There are no intermediaries between us and God. All our prayers should be directed towards God; nothing else should even be considered."
Some rabbinic authorities disagreed with this view. Notably,
Nachmanideswas of the opinion that it is permitted to ask the angels to beseech God on our behalf. This argument manifests notably in the Selichotprayer called "Machnisay Rachamim", a request to the angels to intercede with God. Modern printed editions of the Selichot include this prayer.
Among the ancient Hebrews, the seven names for the
Deityover which the scribes had to exercise particular care were: ["The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins" (Robert Hendrickson, 1987) [http://towerweb.net/alt-lib/seven.shtml] ISBN 0816040885 ISBN 978-0816040889]
In medieval times, God was sometimes called "The Seven." ["The Reader's Encyclopedia", Second Edition 1965, publisher Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, editions 1948, 1955. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 65-12510, page 918]
last = Pines
first = Shlomo
title = Moses Maimonides: The Guide of the Perplexed
publisher = University of Chicago Press
location = Chicago
first = Daniel C.
last = Matt
title = Ayin: The concept of nothingness in Jewish mysticism
booktitle = The Problem of Pure Consciousness
pages = 121-159
publisher = Oxford University Press
location = New York
last = Jacobs
first = Louis
title = A Jewish Theology
publisher = Behrman House
location = West Orange, NJ
last = Scholem
first = Gershom
title = On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead: Basic Concepts in Kabbalah
publisher = Schoken
location = New York
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