Reproductive technology encompases all current and anticipated uses of
technologyin humanand animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraceptionand others.
Assisted reproductive technology
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the use of reproductive technology to treat infertility. This is today the only application of reproductive technology to increase reproduction that is used routinely. Examples include "in vitro" fertilization and its possible expansions.
cloning(see human cloningfor the special case of human beings)
cryopreservationof sperm, oocytes, embryos
in vitro fertilisation
intracytoplasmic sperm injection
preimplantation genetic diagnosis( PGD)
testicular sperm extraction(TESE)
Gamete intrafallopian transfer( GIFT)
Contraceptionis a form of reproductive technology that enables people to control their fertility.
The following techniques, in contrast to ART, are not yet routinely used. In fact, most of them are even at the developmental stage:
germinal choice technology
* "in vitro"
Many issues of reproductive technology have given rise to bioethical issues, since technology often alters the assumptions that lie behind existing systems of sexual and reproductive
Also, ethical issues of
human enhancementarise when reproductive technology has evolved to be a potential technology for not only reproductively inhibited people but even for otherwise reproductively healthy people.
Science fictionhas tackled the themes of creating life through other than the conventional methods since Mary Shelley's " Frankenstein". In the twentieth century, Aldous Huxley's " Brave New World" (1932) was the first major fictional work to anticipate the possible social consequences of reproductive technology. Its largely negative view was reversed when the author revisited the same themes in his utopian final novel, "Island" (1962). A fuller list of fiction that deals with the ideas raised by reproductive technologies can be found at Reproduction and pregnancy in science fiction.
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