March Air Force Base
Infobox Military Structure
name=March Air Force Base
location= Located near
caption= 6 June 2002
Location of March Air Force Base
type=Air Force Base
United States Air Force
March Air Force Base (1918-1993) is a former front-line
United States Air Forcebase located 10 miles Southeast of Riverside, Californiaand about 65 miles East of Los Angeles. It is one of the oldest airfields operated by the United States Military. For almost 50 years, March AFB was a Strategic Air Commandbase during the Cold War.
Today, the facility is known as March Air Reserve Base and is a center of Air Force and other military reserve activities in Southern California.
Originally established as Alesandro Aviation Field on 1 March 1918, the facility was renamed March Field on 20 March 1918 in honor of 2d Lt Peyton Conway March, Jr (1896-1918). Lieutenant March was fatally injured on 12 February 1918, two weeks after he had been commissioned in the regular
United States Army Air Service, when his Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" crashed at Fort Worth, Texas.
The facility was renamed March Air Force Base on 13 January 1948 with the establishment of the United States Air Force as a separate branch of the United States military.
Major commands to which assigned
United States Army Air Service, 6 March 1918 - April 1923
United States Army Air Corps, March 1927 - 1 March 1935
* General Headquarters (GHQ) Air Force, 1 March 1935 - 31 March 1941
Fourth Air Force, 31 March 1941 - 13 April 1945
* Continental Air Forces, 13 April 1945 - 21 March 1946
Strategic Air Command, 21 March 1946 - 1 April 1946
Tactical Air Command, 1 April 1946 - 1 December 1948
Continental Air Command, 1 December 1948 - 1 May 1949
Strategic Air Command, 1 May 1949 - 1 June 1992
Air Combat Command, 1 June 1992 - 30 June 1996
Major units assigned
United States Army Air Service(1918-1923)
* Det, 818th Aero Sq, 1 March 1918 - 22 July 1919
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/agency/9bs.htm 9th Aero Squadron] , 22 July - 11 December 1919
* 23d Aero Squadron, 1 October 1921 - 21 March 1922
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/usaf/19fs.htm 19th Aero Squadron] , 1 October 1921 - 29 June 1922
United States Army Air Corps(1927-1941)
11th Bomb Squadron, 3 June - 31 July 1927
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/usaf/95rs.htm| 95th Pursuit Squadron] , 7 June - 31 July 1927
* 44th Observation Squadron, 25 June - 31 July 1927
* 13th School Group, 31 July 1927 - 30 April 1931
* 7th Bombardment Group, 29 October 1931 - 4 December 1934
* 17th Pursuit (Later Bombardment) Group, 15 July 1931 - 24 June 1940
* 19th Bombardment Group, 25 October 1935 - 4 June 1941
* 30th Bombardment Group, 15 January - 20 May 1941
* [http://41stbombgrp.com/history_41st.html 41st Bombardment Group] , 15 January - 20 May 1941
* 14th Pursuit Group, 10 June 1941 - 7 February 1942
* 51st Pursuit Group, 10 June 1941 - 7 February 1942
United States Army Air Forces(1941-1947)
* 30th Bombardment Group, 11 March 1942 - 28 September 1943
* 20th Fighter Group, 4 January - 11 August 1943
453rd Bombardment Group, 1 October - 2 December 1943
* 479th Fighter Group, 28 October 1943 - 7 April 1944
* 473d Fighter Group, 1 November 1943 - 31 March 1944
399th Bombardment Group, 3 December 1943 - 31 March 1944
* 420th Army Air Force Base Unit, 1 April 1944 - 9 April 1946
United States Air Force(1947-1996)
* 1st Fighter Group, 1 April 1946 - 15 August 1947
** Established as:
1st Fighter Wing(later Fighter-Interceptor Wing), 15 August 1947 - 18 July 1950
* 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, 25 July - 25 November 1947
** Established as: 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, 25 November 1947 - 28 March 1949
* 22d Bombardment Wing, 10 May 1949 - 1 October 1982
22d Air Refueling Wing, 1 October 1982 - 1 January 1994
Fifteenth Air Force, 7 November 1949 - 1 January 1992
* 330th Bombardment Wing, 25 June 1949 - 16 June 1951
* 44th Bombardment Wing, 2 January - 1 August 1951
* 12th Air Division, 10 February 1951 - 1 January 1962
* 106th Bombardment Group, 28 March 1951 - 1 December 1952
* 320th Bombardment Wing, 1 December 1952 - 15 December 1960
* 452d Troop Carrier (later Military Airlift) Wing (AFRES), 1 November 1960 - 1 January 1972
* 452d Tactical Airlift (later Air Refueling) Wing (AFRES), 1 January 1976 - 1 April 1994
* 445th Military Airlift Wing (AFRES), 30 March 1994 - 1 May 1994
The story of March Air Force Base begins at a time when the United States was rushing to build up its military forces in anticipation of an entry into
World War I.
News from the
Western Frontin Europe to those at home had not been good as it explained the horror and boundless human misery associated with stalemated trench warfare. Several European news sources reported significant German efforts at this time to build a fleet of flying machines that could well alter the nature of modern warfare and possibly carry the war to the skies.
In response, Congressional appropriations in early 1917 in the neighborhood of $640,000,000 attempted to back the plans of General George O. Squier, the Army's chief signal officer, to "put the Yankee punch into the war by building an army in the air."
At the same time, the
War Departmentannounced its intentions to build several new military installations. Efforts by Mr. Frank Miller, then owner of the Mission Inn in Riverside, California, Hiram Johnson and other California notables, succeeded in gaining War Department approval to construct an airfield at Alessandro Field located near Riverside, an airstrip used by aviators from Rockwell Fieldon cross-country flights from San Diego. A parade in Riverside on 9 February 1918 gave notice than an army flying field would soon be coming to Riverside.
The Army wasted no time in establishing a new airfield. Sergeant Charles E. Garlick, who had landed at Alessandro Field in a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" in November 1917, was selected to lead the advance contingent of four men to the new base from Rockwell Field. On 26 February 1918, Garlick and his crew and a group of muleskinners from nearby Colton, known to be experts in clearing land as well as for their colorful syntax, began the task of excavating the building foundations, and on 1 March 1918, Alessandro Flying Training Field was opened.
United States Army Air Service use
On 20 March 1918, Alessandro Flying Training Field became March Field, named in honor of Second Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr., son of the Army Chief of Staff, who had been killed in a flying accident in
Texasthe previous month. By late April 1918, enough progress had been made in the construction of the new field to allow the arrival of the first troops. The commander of the 818th Aero Squadron detachment, Captain William Carruthers, took over as the field's first commander and for a time operated out of an office in the Mission Inn. Within a record 60 days, the grain stubble-covered plain of Moreno Valley had been partially transformed to include twelve hangars, six barracks equipped for 150 men each, mess halls, a machine shop, post exchange, hospital, a supply depot, an aero repair building, bachelor officer's quarters and a residence for the commanding officer.
March Field's first primary mission was pilot training. On 15 May when the first JN-4D "Jenny" took off, March Field seemed to have come into its own as a training installation. The signing of the armistice on 11 November 1918, did not halt training at March Field initially but by 1921, the decision had been made to phase down all activities at the new base in accordance with sharply reduced military budgets. Known training units at March Field during this era were:
* 215th Aero Sq (Sq B) Mar - November 1918
* 68th Aero Sq (Sq A) Jun - November 1918
* 289th Aero Sq Aug - November 1918
* 293th Aero Sq (Sq D) Jun - November 1918
* 311th Aero Sq (Sq E) Jun - November 1918
* 311th Aero Sq (Sq C) Jun - November 1918
* 9th Aero Sq 22 July - 2 Aug, 15 November - 11 December 1919
* 19th Aero Sq 1 October - 29 June 1921
* 23d Aero Sq 1 October 1921 - 21 March 1922
In April 1923, March Field closed its doors with one sergeant left in charge.
United States Army Air Corps use
March Field remained quiet for only a short time. In July 1926, Congress created the Army Air Corps and approved the Army's five-year plan which called for an expansion in pilot training and the activation of tactical units. Accordingly, funds were appropriated for the reopening of March Field in March of 1927.
Colonel William C. Gardenhire, assigned to direct the refurbishment of the base, had just directed his crews to replace underpinnings of many of the previous buildings when he received word the future construction would be in Spanish Mission architectural design. In time, March Field would receive permanent structures. The rehabilitation effort was nearly complete in August 1927, when Major Millard F. Harmon reported in to take over the job of base commander and commandant of the flying school.
Classes began shortly after his arrival. The 13th School Group and its operational 47th School Squadron trained future Air Force leaders such as
Hoyt Vandenberg, Nathan Twining, Thomas Powerand Curtis LeMaywho completed their initial flight training at March Field. The base, however, was about to enter a new era.
As March Field began to take on the appearance of a permanent military installation, the base's basic mission changed.
When Randolph Field began to function as a training site in 1931, March Field became an operational base. Before the end of the year, the 7th Bombardment Group, commanded by Major Carl A. Spaatz, brought its Curtiss B-2 Condor and
Keystone B-3Abombers to the airfield. The activation of the 17th Pursuit Group and several subordinate units along with the arrival of the 1st Bombardment Wing initiated a period where March Field became associated with the Air Corps' heaviest aircraft as well as an assortment of fighters. Aircraft on March's flightline in the 1930s included Keystone B-4, Martin B-10/B-12 and Douglas B-18 Bolobombers; Boeing P-12, P-26 Peashooter, and Curtiss P-36 Hawkpursuit aircraft; Northrop A-17A dive bombers and Douglas O-38observation aircraft.
In the decade before World War II, March Field took on much of its current appearance. It also became more than a place hard to find on aerial maps of Southern California. Lieutenant Colonel Henry H. (Hap) Arnold, base commander from 1931 to 1936, changed this. Through well-publicized maneuvers to Yosemite,
Death Valleyand other sites in California, a visit by Governor James Rolph in March 1932, numerous visits by Hollywoodcelebrities including Bebe Daniels, Wallace Berry, Rochelle Hudsonand others, and visits by famous aviators including Amelia Earhart, March Field gained prominence. Articles in Los Angelesnewspapers kept March Field in the news and brought to it considerable public attention. The completion of the first phase of permanent buildings in 1934 added to the scenic quality of the base. This was also a period of outstanding achievements in test flights and other contributions to the new science of aviation. Dusty March Field had come a long way in one decade.
Photos of USAAC Aircraft at March Field
World War II
Attack on Pearl Harborin December of 1941 quickly brought March Field back into the business of training aircrews. Throughout World War II, many soon-to-be-famous bombardment groups performed their final training at March before embarking for duty in the Pacific.
During this period, the base doubled in area and at the zenith of the war effort supported approximately 75,000 troops. At the same time, the government procured a similar-sized tract west of the San Diego highway that bordered the base and established Camp Hahn as an anti-aircraft artillery training facility. It supported 85,000 troops at the height of its activity. For a time, March Field remained a bustling place indeed. In 1946, Camp Hahn became a part of March's real estate holding when operations at the base returned to a more normal setting.
On a lighter note, entertainer
Bob Hope's first USO show was held at March on 6 May 1941. Hope had been asked to do this show on location by his radio producer Albert Capstaff, whose brother was stationed there.
Tactical Air Command
After the war, March reverted to its operational role and was assigned to the new
Tactical Air Command(TAC) as part of the postwar reorganization of the Army Air Force. March was allocated to TAC's Twelfth Air Force. The first TAC unit to be assigned was the 1st Fighter Group, being reactivated at March on 3 July 1946, replacing and absorbing the assets of the wartime 412th Fighter Group. At the time of its activation, the group's three squadrons (the 27th, 71st, and 94th Fighter Squadrons) flew Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star, (After 11 June 1948 F-80), America's first operational jet fighter.
Few members of the 1st Fighter Group foresaw these difficulties in the summer of 1946 as they trained with their new jet fighters. The 412th had reported in the summer of 1945 that the P-80 would be well suited for bomber escort, counterair, and ground support. The 1st Fighter Group trained for these and other possible strategic and tactical missions. Pilot inexperience and mechanical difficulties combined to give the P-80 a high accident rate, while parts shortages curtailed operational training. Even so, the 1st Fighter Group maintained a heavy schedule of demonstration flights that served to introduce the fighter to a curious public.
On 15 August 1947, the 1st Fighter Wing was activated as part of AAF Regulation 20-15, "Reorganization of AAF Base Units and Installations," on 27 June 1947. This regulation, which laid out what became known as the "Wing" or "Wing-Base" plan, prescribed a standard organizational setup for all Army Air Force bases worldwide. The plan called for the creation of a wing headquarters that established policy and supervised four functional groups: an operational group, an air base group, a maintenance and supply group, and a medical group. The 1st Fighter Group became the operational group of the new Wing.
On 1 April 1948 the 27th Fighter Squadron learned that it would deploy to
Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas, for tactical training with 2d Armored Division. The squadron was busy preparing for that trip when, on 27 April, group headquarters directed it to loan six of its P-80s, five pilots, and support equipment to the 71st Fighter Squadron, which had in the interval been directed to deploy to Spokane, Washington. The 27th feared that it would be unable to make its Texas deployment, but aircraft, pilots, and equipment borrowed from the 94th filled out the 27th's ranks in time for the flight to Bergstrom on 6 May
From 10-15 May the 27th flew air superiority, reconnaissance, and ground-support missions in conjunction with the 2d Armored. From 16 August through 11 November the 1st Fighter Wing deployed the 27th and 71st Fighter Squadrons to
Eglin AFB, Florida, for a tactical test that involved some 8,500 men and five hundred aircraft. The 1st Fighter Wing flew a variety of ground support and tactical demonstration flights. The 27th and the 71st flew F-80s; the 94th remained at March awaiting the arrival of its first North American F-86A Sabres.
On 25 July 1947, the 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group (later Wing) was activated as part of a service-wide, wing-base test and assigned to March. When the wing was activated, only the 67th Reconnaissance Group was fully operational. The group was equipped with Douglas FA-26 Invaders (RB-26 after 1948) and Lockheed FP-80's (RF-80s after 1948) and was integrated with the 1st Fighter Wing, performing a wide array of day and night photographic missions in southern California. Budget constraints, though, resulted in the wing's inactivation in March 1949.
Continental Air Command
In December 1948 Twelfth Air Force and March AFB were assigned from Tactical Air Command to
Continental Air Command(ConAC), established on l December 1948. ConAC assumed jurisdiction over both TAC and the Air Defense Command(ADC). This move reflected an effort to concentrate all fighter forces deployed within the continental United States to strengthen the air defense of the North American continent.
The creation of ConAC was largely an administrative convenience: the units assigned to ConAC were dual-trained and expected to revert to their primary strategic or tactical roles after the air defense battle was won. The 1st Fighter Wing was subsequently transferred from Twelfth Air Force/TAC to
Fourth Air Force/ ConAC on 20 December 1948.
The first F-86As, assigned to the 94th Fighter Squadron, arrived on 15 February. By the end of June the wing had received seventy-nine of its eighty-three authorized F-86s.
Strategic Air Command
On 1 May 1949, March became a part of the
Strategic Air Commandand the Fifteenth Air Force. On 10 May the 22nd Bombardment Wing was reassigned to March from Smokey Hill AFB, Kansas. The 22d was equipped with Boeing B-29 Superfortresses
The 1st Fighter Wing was subsequently attached to the 22d BW on 1 July as the 22nd Wing's headquarters was initially non-operational and its operational components were detached so it shared a commander with the 1st Fighter Wing. The 22nd Bomb Wing became operational on 1 May 1949 and the 1st Fighter Wing was attached to it with both wings sharing the same commanding officer.
The new F-86A fighter developed numerous teething troubles during its first months of service, but 1st Fighter Group mechanics gradually overcame these difficulties. When the squadrons found themselves able to launch large formations on schedule, they competed to establish various formation records. The purpose of this exercise became clear in early January 1950, when the 1st Fighter Group deployed a sizable contingent of aircraft to participate in the filming of the
RKO Picturesfilm Jet Pilot. The group claimed a final formation record on 4 January when it passed a twenty-four plane formation (consisting of eight aircraft from each squadron) "before the cameras." (Note: The film was not released to theaters until October 1957, by which time the F-86A was obsolete)
The 1st Fighter Group formed its own aerial demonstration team in January 1950. The team, dubbed the "Sabre Dancers," was composed of five members of the 27th Fighter Squadron. The Sabre Dancers made what was probably their most widely viewed flight on 22 April 1950, when they performed before an
Armed Forces Dayaudience at Eglin AFB, Florida, that included President Harry S. Truman, most of his Cabinet, and numerous other political leaders.
On 16 April 1950, the 1st Fighter Wing was redesignated as the 1st Fighter-Interceptor Wing. On 30 June 1950, the 1st Fighter-Interceptor Group was assigned to the 1st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, which was itself assigned to Fifteenth Air Force and SAC.
On 1 July the wing was relieved from assignment to Fifteenth Air Force and SAC and assigned to the
Fourth Air Forceand ConAC. Two days later the wing issued orders establishing advanced parties of its headquarters and component organizations at Victorville (later George) AFB, California. The wing made its permanent change of station move to Victorville on 18 July.
Detached from the wing, the 22d Bombardment Group deployed its B-29s in early July 1950 to
Kadena AB, Okinawa, where it came under control of FEAF Bomber Command (Provisional). On 13 July, the group flew its first mission, against the marshalling yards and oil refinery at Wonsan, North Korea. By 21 October, it had amassed fifty-seven missions against the enemy, attacking bridges, factories, industrial targets, troop concentrations, airfields, marshalling yards, communications centers, and port facilities. During four months of combat, the group flew 335 sorties with only fourteen aborts and dropped over 6,500 tons of bombs. It redeployed to the United States in late October and November 1950.
On 2 January 1951, the 44th Bombardment Wing was activated and assigned to Fifteenth Air Force. It was equipped with refurbished B-29 and TB-29 bombers drawn from mothballed World War II storage at Pyote AFB in
Texasand Davis-Monthan AFBin Arizona. It was reassigned to the 12th Air Division of Fifteenth Air Force on 10 February 1951, and then the 21st Air Division within Fifteenth Air Force on 4 August 1951. The Wing moved to Lake Charles AFB, Louisiana, on 1 August 1951.
On 28 March 1951, the
California Air National Guard106th Bombardment Group was activated to federal service at March and put on active duty. The group was initially equipped with refurbished B-29s and its mission was to train reservists to backfill rotating B-29 combat crews serving in Korea. While the reservists were undergoing training they were paid on the lesser reserve pay scale. The group was redesignated as the 320th Bombardment Wing replacing the 106th in December 1952. At March, the wing conducted global bombardment training and air refueling operations to meet SAC commitments. Trained B-47 cadre for 96th Bombardment Wing, Medium, Dec 1953-Jan 1955. Deployed as a wing to RAF Brize Norton, England, 5 June-4 September 1954, and Andersen AFB, Guam, 5 October 1956-11 January 1957. The 320th was inactivated on 15 December 1960.
Also during the Korean War, the Air Force Reserve 330th Bombardment Group, was ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951 at March. The 330th flew borrowed B-29s from the 106th Bomb Group to train the reservists on the aircraft. The group was inactivated on 16 June and its personnel were sent to bases in Japan and
Okinawaas replacements for active-duty personnel with B-29 groups.
Following the return of the 22d Bombardment Group from Korea, the wing trained for proficiency in global strategic bombardment, and in 1952, the wing took delivery of Boeing KC-97 tankers, adding aerial refueling to its mission. The following year, the wing retired its B-29 fleet and replaced them with the jet powered Boeing B-47 "Stratojet". It was the second wing to receive them. In 1954, 22d Wing aircrews flew the longest non-stop mass flight in history: 5,840 miles from England to
California. The wing deployed to RAF Upper Heyford, England from December 1953 to March 1954. From April to July 1957, it deployed to Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.
In 1960, the 452d Troop Carrier Wing was activated at March. This established the presence of the
Air Force Reserveon the base with their Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars.
The wing was not tactically operational 11 March - 15 September 1963, while the 2nd Bombardment Squadron converted to Boeing B-52B bombers and
KC-135jet tankers replaced the KC-97s. In 1966, the 2d Bomb Squadron converted to the B-52D and gained a commitment to forward deploy to the Pacific and engage in combat during the Vietnam War. In 1966, the wing absorbed the B-52Ds and added the 486th Bombardment Squadron from the 340 Bomb Wing at Bergstrom AFB, Texaswhen Bergstrom converted to a TAC Reconnaissance base. The addition of a second tanker and bomber squadron made the 22d a "Super" wing.
From 10 March to about 1 October 1967 the 22d wing was reduced to a small "rear-echelon" non-tactical organization with all tactical resources and most support resources loaned to SAC organizations involved in combat operations in
Southeast Asiafrom U-Tapao, Thailandand Andersen AFB, Guam] . The wing continued to support SAC operations in the Far Eastand Southeast Asia through 1975, and from 10 April 1972 to 29 October 1973 again the wing had all its bomber resources loaned to other organizations for combat and contingency operations.
It’s KC-135 resources were also on loan from 10 April to September 1972; afterwards a few tankers returned to wing control.
The 22d maintained a strategic bombardment alert posture from, 1973-1982, but in 1978 it added
conventional warfaremissions, including mine-laying and sea reconnaissance/surveillance.
In 1982, the 22d was reequipped and new KC-10A Extenders, making the 22nd the second Air Force unit to use the giant new tankers. Two months later, the wing lost its bomber mission and became the 22nd Air Refueling Wing. The 22nd used the KC-10A's cargo, passenger, and fuel load capacity to provide support during the evacuation of U.S. nationals in
Grenadaas part of Operation Urgent Fury in 1983. In December 1989, the wing's 22nd Air Refueling Squadron inactivated and all its KC-135A Stratotankers, retired or transferred to other SAC bases. This left the KC-10 equipped 6th and 9th ARS's as the wing's only flying squadrons.
The 22 ARW supported
F-117deployments to Saudi Arabiaand contributed aircraft and personnel to logistics efforts in support of the liberation of Kuwaitfrom, 1990-1991.
On 1 June 1992, the 22d ARW was assigned to the new
Air Mobility Command, and from the end of 1992 to 1994, the wing flew humanitarian airlift missions to Somalia. It also provided air refueling in support of deployments to Haitiin 1994.
Photos of Strategic Air Command Aircraft
March AFB was realigned under [Base Realignment and Closure|Base Closure and Realignment [BRAC] III] announced in March 1993, with a realignment date of 31 March 1996. In August 1993, the 445th Military Airlift Wing transferred to March from the closing
Norton AFB, California.
On 3 January 1994, the 22d Air Refueling Wing was reassigned w/p/o/e to
McConnell AFB, Kansas, replacing the deactivating 384th Bomb Wing. The Air Force Reserve 722d Air Refueling Wing stood up at March and absorbed the assets of the reassigned 22d.
As part of the Air Force's realignment and transition, March's two Reserve units, the 445th Military Airlift Wing and the 452d Air Refueling Wing were deactivated and their personnel and equipment joined under the 452nd Air Mobility Wing on 1 April 1994.
On 1 April 1996, March officially became March Air Reserve Base, ending a 78-year active duty military presence.
Western Air Defense Force(Air Defense Command)
California World War II Army Airfields
* Some of this text in an early version of this article was taken from pages on the [http://www.march.afrc.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3660 March Air Reserve Base website] , which as a work of the U.S. Government is presumed to be a
public domain resource. That information was supplemented by:
* Donald, David (2004) "Century Jets: USAF Frontline Fighters of the Cold War". AIRtime ISBN 1880588684
* Endicott, Judy G. (1999) "Active Air Force wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF active flying, space, and missile squadrons as of 1 October 1995". Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. CD-ROM.
* Maurer, Maurer (1983). "Air Force Combat Units of World War II". Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0892010924.
* Martin, Patrick (1994). "Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings". Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0887405134.
* Menard, David W. (1998) "Before Centuries: USAFE Fighters", 1948-1959. Howell Press Inc. ISBN 1574270796
* Mueller, Robert (1989). "Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982". USAF Reference Series, Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6
* Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). "Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977". Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799129.
* Rogers, Brian (2005). "United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978". Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.
* [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher/usafserials.html USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers—1908 to present]
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