Manvantara

Manvantara or Manuvantara [1], or age of a Manu [2], the Hindu progenitor of mankind, is an astronomical period of time measurement. Manvantara is a Sanskrit sandhi, a combination of words manu and antara, manu-antara or manvantara, literally meaning the duration of a Manu, or his life span [3].

Each Manvantara is created and ruled by a specific Manu, who in turn is created by Brahma, the Creator himself. Manu creates the world, and all its species during that period of time, each Manvantara lasts the lifetime of a Manu, upon whose death, Brahma creates another Manu to continue the cycle of Creation or Shristi, Vishnu on his part takes a new Avatar, and also a new Indra and Saptarishis are appointed.

Eventually it takes 14 Manus and their respective Manvantaras to create a Kalpa, Aeon, or a ‘Day of Brahma’, according to the Hindu Time Cycles and also the Vedic timeline. Thereafter, at the end of each Kalpa, there is a period - same as Kalpa - of dissolution or Pralaya [4], wherein the world (earth and all life forms, but not the entire universe itself) is destroyed and lies in a state of rest, which is called the, ‘Night of Brahma’.

After that the creator, Brahma starts his cycle of creation all over again, in an endless cycle of creation followed by Destruction for which Shiva, Hindu God of destruction, and also renewal, is invoked towards the end of each such cycle [5].

Contents

Duration of a Manvantara

The actual duration of a Manavantara, according to the Vishnu Purana is seventy one times the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years, adding up to 852,000 divine years, or 306,720,000 human years [6] Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book I: Chapter III. p. 26-28. Hear the division of time which they measure, Seven Rishis, certain (secondary) divinities, Indra, Manu, and the kings his sons, are created and perish at one period 5; and the interval, called a Manwantara, is equal to seventy-one times the number of years contained in the four Yugas, with some additional years: this is the duration of the Manu, the (attendant) divinities, and the rest, which is equal to 852.000 divine years, or to 306.720.000 years of mortals, independent of the additional period. Fourteen times this period constitutes a Bráhma day, that is, a day of Brahmá; the term (Bráhma) being the derivative form. The Brahma life span is 100 Brahma varshas. The following table will illustrate clearly the link to our years and Brahma years.

Sub-divisions

1 human year (in Hindu_calendar) = 1 Deva Ahoratra for God (1 day and 1 night)

360 Deva Ahoratras = 1 Deva Vatsara

12,000 Deva Vatsara = 1 Chaturyuga

(12,000 Deva Vatsaras are defined as, 4800 Deva Vatsaras of Krita yuga, 3600 Deva Vatsaras of Treta Yuga, 2400 Deva Vatsaras of Dvapara Yuga and 1200 Deva Vatsaras of Kali Yuga which is 12000 * 360 = 4,320,000 human years)

71 Chaturyugas = 1 Manvantaram (1 life span of Manu)

14 Manvantaras = 1 kalpa (1 day of Brahma)

2 Kalpas = 1 day + 1 Brahma Ahoratra

360 days of Brahma = 1 Brahma varsha

100 Brahma varsha = 1 life span of Brahma. [7]

Comparison to the Age of the Universe from Modern Astronomy

Modern scientific astronomy estimates the Age of the Universe as around 13 Billion years (13 * 109 years). Conversion of 1 day of Brahma in to human years yields 8.58816 * 109 years (derived as 2 kalpas * 14 Manvantaras * 71 Chaturyugas * 12,000 Deva vatsaras * 360 human years).

Manus of the Śveta Vārāha Kalpa

Manvantara № Name of Manu for manvantara: Manvantara-avatara name:
01 Svayambhuva Manu Yajna
02 Svarocisha Manu Vibhu
03 Uttama Manu Satyasena
04 Tamasa Manu Hari
05 Raivata Manu Vaikuntha
06 Cakshusha Manu Ajita
07 Vaivasvata Manu (current) Vamana
08 Savarni Manu Sarvabhauma
09 Daksha-savarni Manu Rishabha
10 Brahma-savarni Manu Vishvaksena
11 Dharma-savarni Manu Dharmasetu
12 Rudra-savarni Manu Sudhama
13 Deva-savarni Manu Yogesvara
14 Indra-savarni Manu Brihadbhanu


First Manvantara - the interval of Swayambhu Manu

Saptarshis (सप्तर्षि): Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha [2][8]. svayambhuve -- in the Svayambhuva-manvantara; yajna -- the avatara named Yajna: In the Svayambhuva-manvantara, the Avatar is named Yajna.

Second Manvantara - the interval of Swarochisha Manu

Urja, Stambha, Prańa, Dattoli, Rishabha, Nischara, and Arvarívat. In the Svarocisha-manvantara, avatara is named Vibhu.

Third Manvantara - the interval of Auttami Manu

Sons of Vashishtha: Kaukundihi, Kurundi, Dalaya, Śankha, Praváhita, Mita, and Sammita. In the Auttama-manvantara, He (avatara) is named Satyasena.

Fourth Manvantara - the interval of Tamasa Manu

Jyotirdhama, Prithu, Kavya, Chaitra, Agni, Vanaka, and Pivara. In the Tamasa-manvantara, He (Vishnu) is named Hari.

Fifth Manvantara - the interval of Raivata Manu

Hirannyaroma, Vedasrí, Urddhabahu, Vedabahu, Sudhaman, Parjanya, and Mahámuni. In the Raivata-manvantara, the avatara is named Vaikuntha.

Sixth Manvantara - the interval of Chakshusha Manu

Sumedhas, Virajas, Havishmat, Uttama, Madhu, Abhináman, and Sahishnnu. In the Cakshusha-manvantara, avatara is named Ajita.

The present, seventh Manvantara - the interval of Vaivasvata Manu

Kashyapa, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja [8]. In the Vaivasvata-manvantara, He (Avatara) is named Vamana

Eighth (Future) - Savarni Manu

Diptimat, Galava, Rama, Kripa, Drauni, Vyasa, and Rishyasringa. Text came from ....Vishnu Purana: Book III: Chapter II In the Savarnya-manvantara, He (avatara) is named Sarvabhauma.

Ninth - Daksa Savarni Manu

Savana, Dyutimat, Bhavya, Vasu, Medhatithi, Jyotishmán, and Satya. In the Daksha-savarnya-manvantara, He (avatara) is named Rishabha.

Tenth - Brahma Savarni Manu

Havishmán, Sukriti, Satya, Apámmúrtti, Nábhága, Apratimaujas, and Satyaket. In the Brahma-savarnya-manvantara, the avatara is named Vishvaksena

Eleventh - Dharma Savarni Manu

Niśchara, Agnitejas, Vapushmán, Vishńu, Áruni, Havishmán, and Anagha. In the Dharma-savarnya, He (avatara) is named Dharmasetu.

Twelfth - Rudra Savarni Manu

Tapaswí, Sutapas, Tapomúrtti, Taporati, Tapodhriti, Tapodyuti, and Tapodhan. In the Rudra-savarnya He (avatara) is named Sudhama.

Thirteenth - Raucya or Deva Savarni Manu

Nirmoha, Tatwadersín, Nishprakampa, Nirutsuka, Dhritimat, Avyaya, and Sutapas. In the Deva-savarnya, He (avatara) is named Yogesvara.

Fourteenth - Indra Savarni Manu

Agnibáhu, Śuchi, Śukra, Magadhá, Gridhra, Yukta, and Ajita. In the Indra-savarnya-manvantara, the avatara is named Brihadbhanu.

See also

  • Manu
  • Metrics of time in Hinduism
  • Kalpa
  • Yuga
  • List of numbers in Hindu scriptures

References

  1. ^ Manuantara The Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky, Vol. 1, p. 368, THE DAYS AND NIGHTS OF BRAHMA, THIS is the name given to the Periods called MANVANTARA (Manuantara, or between the Manus) and PRALAYA (Dissolution); one referring to the active periods of the Universe, the other to its times of relative and complete rest -- according to whether they occur at the end of a "Day," or an "Age" (a life) of Brahma. These periods, which follow each other in regular succession, are also called Kalpas, small and great, the minor and the Maha Kalpa; though, properly speaking, the Maha Kalpa is never a "day," but a whole life or age of Brahma, for it is said in the Brahma Vaivarta: "Chronologers compute a Kalpa by the Life of Brahma; minor Kalpas, as Samvarta and the rest, are numerous." In sober truth they are infinite; as they have never had a commencement, i.e., there never was a first Kalpa, nor will there ever be a last one, in Eternity.
  2. ^ a b Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. p. 259, The first Manu was Swáyambhuva, then came Swárochisha, then Auttami, then Támasa, then Raivata, then Chákshusha: these six Manus have passed away. The Manu who presides over the seventh Manwantara, which is the present period, is Vaivaswata, the son of the sun...
  3. ^ Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.13.14-16
  4. ^ Pralaya The Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky, Vol. 2, p. 307 THE SEVEN AND FOURTEEN MANUS.
  5. ^ Manvantara The Laws of Manu, (Manu Smriti), Sacred Books of the East Vol. 25, translated by Georg Bühler, 1886, Chapter I, 79. The before-mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy-one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara). The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.
  6. ^ Measure of time
  7. ^ Puranic Encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani
  8. ^ a b Inhabitants of the Worlds Mahanirvana Tantra, translated by Arthur Avalon, (Sir John Woodroffe), 1913, Introduction and Preface. The Rishi are seers who know, and by their knowledge are the makers of shastra and "see" all mantras. The word comes from the root rish Rishati-prapnoti sarvvang mantrang jnanena pashyati sangsaraparangva, etc. The seven great Rishi or saptarshi of the first manvantara are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In other manvantara there are other saptarshi. In the present manvantara the seven are Kashyapa, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja. To the Rishi the Vedas were revealed. Vyasa taught the Rigveda so revealed to Paila, the Yajurveda to Vaishampayana, the Samaveda to Jaimini, Atharvaveda to Samantu, and Itihasa and Purana to Suta. The three chief classes of Rishi are the Brahmarshi, born of the mind of Brahma, the Devarshi of lower rank, and Kings who became Rishis through their knowledge and austerities, such as Janaka, Ritaparna, etc. The Shrutarshi are makers of Shastras, as Sushruta. The Kandarshi are of the Karmakanda, such as Jaimini.

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