Federation architecture

Federation architecture refers to the architectural style in Australia, predominantly in the Federation period c. 1890 - c. 1915. The period refers to the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, when the Australian colonies collectively became the Commonwealth of Australia.

The Federation period is known internationally as the Edwardian period, named for the reign of King Edward VII (1901 - 1910). Since the Federation of Australia was a significant event during this period, the term 'Edwardian' is seldom used in Australia. Federation architecture has many similarities to Edwardian architecture. Many Federation buildings, both residential and non-residential, are listed on the Register of the National Estate because of their heritage values.


There are twelve Federation styles:

* Federation Academic Classical

* Federation Free Classical

* Federation Filigree

* Federation Anglo-Dutch

* Federation Romanesque

* Federation Gothic

* Federation Carpenter Gothic

* Federation Warehouse

* Federation Queen Anne

* Federation Free Style

* Federation Arts and Crafts

* Federation Bungalow

Residential architecture

Of the twelve Federation styles, there are four that were mainly used in residential architecture. They are Federation Queen Anne style; Federation Filigree style; Federation Arts and Craft style; and Federation Bungalow style.

The Federation Queen Anne style was designed to embrace the outdoor lifestyles of the Australian people. Most homes have front verandas with decorative timber features, tiling on the patio floor and entry paths. The brickwork is usually a deep red or dark brown, often with a mix of the two. The roofs are typically terracotta tiles with decorative gables, motifs, timber features, tall chimneys and fretwork. Decorative leadlight windows are also common, as are circular windows (known as bulls-eye windows). Federation homes also have decorative internal features in the plasterwork, high ceilings and timber features.

Some outstanding examples are West Maling, Penshurst Avenue, Penshurst, New South Wales; Ingleholme, Boomerang Street, Turramurra, New South Wales (former home of architect John Sulman and designed by him); and Caerleon, Ginahgullah Road, Bellevue Hill, New South Wales. The Federation Queen Anne style was the most popular residential style in Australia between 1890 and 1910.

The Federation Filigree style is common in the hotter parts of Australia, especially in the north, since it is designed to create shade while allowing for the free flow of air. It is a common sight in Queensland and is sometimes known as the Queensland style. Some outstanding examples are Belltrees House, Scone, New South Wales; private home, Roderick Street, Ipswich, Queensland; and terrace of homes, east side of High Street, Millers Point, New South Wales.

The Federation Arts and Craft style had its origins in England, where architects were reacting to the impersonal nature of the Industrial Revolution. Crafts and handiwork were emphasised to give architecture the "human touch". These influences were absorbed into Federation Australia, where the resulting buildings were generally small-scale to medium-scale and predominantly residential. Outstanding examples are Glyn, Kooyong road, Toorak, Victoria; The Crossways, Martin Road, Centennial Park, New South Wales; and Erica, Appian Way, Burwood, New South Wales.

The Federation Bungalow style was the Australian response to the bungalow style that was developed in America by people like Gustav Stickley. It can be seen as a transition phase between the Federation Queen Anne style and the California Bungalow style that took on later. Stylistically, it exploited the qualities of the bungalow while frequently retaining the flair and idiosyncrisies of the Queen Anne style, although usually in simplified form. Outstanding examples are Nee Morna, Nepean Highway, Sorrento, Victoria; Blythewood, Beecroft Road, Cheltenham New South Wales; and The Eyrie, Fox Valley Road, Wahroonga, New South Wales.

Non-Residential Architecture

Federation non-residential buildings can be in any of the twelve styles. The following gallery shows some examples of non-residential buildings.

ee also

* Australian architectural styles
* Australian residential architectural styles
* Australian non-residential architectural styles
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Federation_Architecture_of_Australia Gallery of Federation Architecture]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Architecture Gallery of Sydney Architecture]
* Appian Way, Burwood, Sydney


* [http://www.archicentre.com.au/FederationHouse.pdf Archi Centre - The Federation House]
* [http://www.allegria.com.au/houses/Galleries/Series1/s1_002.htm Australian Heritage Architecture]
* "The Federation House - Australia's Own Style." Hugh Fraser and Ray Joyce, Lansdowne, 1993. Published in Australia ISBN 1-86302-126-4
* "A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture", Apperly, Angus and Robertson Publishers, 1994 ISBN 0 207 18562 X
* "The Heritage of Australia", Macmillan Company, 1981 ISBN 0 333 33750 6

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