Vice President of Indonesia

The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ("Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia") is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia.

The History of the Office

The Indonesian Vice Presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 constitution by the Researching Body for the Preparation of the Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI). The office was first filled on 18th August 1945 when Mohammad Hatta was elected by acclamation [ [http://www.mail-archive.com/rantaunet@googlegroups.com/msg02583.html [EMAIL PROTECTED Dr. Muhammad Hatta ] ] . The election was conducted by the Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) because the body responsible for the Vice Presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), had not been formed yet. In the early days of the Republic, the office of Vice President showed how important it can be. On 16th October 1945, Hatta announced a Vice Presidential decree which turned the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) equal status with that of the President [ [http://www.transparansi.or.id/kajian/kajian10/bab_I.html Usulan MTI tentang Amandemen UUD 1945 ] ] . As a result of this decree, the KNIP was able to separate the role of Head of State and Head of Government on 11th November 1945. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto Parliamentary Democracy.

During the Indonesian National Revolution, both Hatta and Sukarno were captured by the Dutch in Yogyakarta on 18th December 1948. Together with Sukarno, Hatta gave mandate for Syarifuddin Prawiranegara to form an emergency Government [ [http://www.mail-archive.com/urangawak@yahoogroups.com/msg01229.html [Urangawak Peran PDRI Akhirnya Diakui ] ] . This was done and the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) was formed in Sumatra with Prawiranegara as Chairman. Prawiranegara handed back his mandate to Sukarno and consequently, to Hatta on 13th July 1949 [http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0208/16/opini/meng27.htm] .

Now officially an independent nation, Indonesia adopted the Provisional Constitution, a document which defined the President's role as a ceremonial Head of State whose role was to appoint a Prime Minister on the advice of formateurs [http://www.sjdih.depkeu.go.id/fulltext/1950/UUDSTAHUN~1950UUDS.HTM] . Although the Vice Presidency continued to exist, the form of Government was now officially a Parliamentary Democracy and there was not a significant role for the Vice President to play. On 1st December 1956, partly because of his differences with Sukarno, Hatta resigned from the Vice Presidency [ [http://www.mail-archive.com/palanta@minang.rantaunet.org/msg19878.html [EMAIL PROTECTED Mengenang Mundurnya Bung Hatta ] ] .

For the next 17 years, the Vice Presidency remain vacant. In December 1965, there were calls for a Vice President to be named to assist President Sukarno during the times of uncertainty [cite book |last= Hughes |first= John |title= The End of Sukarno: A Coup That Misfired: A Purge That Ran Wild |origyear= 1967 |edition= 3rd |year= 2002 |publisher= Archipelago Press |location= Singapore |language= English |id=ISBN 981-4068-65-9 |pages= p. 215 ] . The idea did not gain momentum and the Vice Presidency continued to remain vacant as the Presidency passed over from Sukarno to General Suharto.

In March 1973, the Vice Presidency vacancy was filled by Hamengkubuwono IX when he was elected by the MPR. After Hamengkubuwono IX and throughout the New Order, the Vice Presidency were successively held by Adam Malik, Umar Wirahadikusumah, Sudharmono, Try Sutrisno, and BJ Habibie. During his time as President, Suharto would reduce the Vice Presidency to a sinecure. A Vice President was reduced to making sure that Government policy was being implemented and attending ceremonies [ [http://www.library.ohiou.edu/indopubs/2001/01/20/0011.html [INDONESIA-NEWS KMP - Asal-Usul dengan Bondan Winar ] ] . The Vice President did not even take on Presidential duties when Suharto was either out of the country or ill [ [http://www.hamline.edu/apakabar/basisdata/1998/01/04/0001.html [INDONESIA-L TI - Wapres Hanya Ban ] ] . The office would derogatorily be known as "Ban Serep" (Spare Tire). Despite being a largely figurehead role, the Vice Presidency twice became a source of controversy with Sudharmono having to face various obstacles en route to being Vice President in 1988 and Try being preemptively nominated in 1993.

With Suharto's fall in May 1998 and Habibie's accession to the Presidency, the Vice Presidency once again became vacant. In October 1999, Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected as Vice President and the office began to gain significance. Megawati was delegated genuine tasks to do [http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/jan2000/ind-j10.shtml Fighting in the Malukus heightens tensions across Indonesia and within the Wahid cabinet ] ] and in 2000, the she even became responsible for the day-to-day running of the Government .

During the 2001 MPR Annual Session, it was finally decided that from 2004 onwards, the Vice President, together with the President, will directly be elected by the people [ [http://www.voanews.com/indonesian/archive/2001-11/a-2001-11-06-1-1.cfm MPR Dan Pemilihan Presiden Langsung - 2001-11-06 ] ] . The substantial role that the Vice Presidency is now going to have was evident in the way in which the 2004 Presidential Candidates chose their running mates. At the end, Jusuf Kalla became Indonesia's first directly elected Vice President.

The Vice Presidency

The Requirements to Run for Office

The 1945 Constitution: The Vice Presidential candidate has to be of Indonesian origins.

The Provisional Constitution: The Vice Presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen aged at least 30 years old. He cannot be someone who is deemed to be undesirable or has had his right to take part in elections stripped. He is also required to not be involved with any private corporations.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The Vice Presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen since his/her birth, who has not willingly become a citizen in another nation, has not betrayed the nation, and is physically and mentally capable of performing the duties. Amended Constitution also states that further criteria will be determined by laws. The Vice President is also required to be nominated by a Political Party or a coalition of Political Parties.

2nd Resolution of 1973 MPR: The Vice Presidential candidate has to make a statement in writing which declares that he is able to work together with the President.

Election, Oath/Promise/Statement of Office, Term of Office, Constitutional Requirement

The 1945 Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice President is elected by the MPR with the largest amount of votes. The Vice President-elect is also required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming Vice President. The term of office is Five years and after that the Vice President can be re-elected again.

The Provisional Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice President is elected according to rules specified by laws. The Vice President-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise or a statement of office before officially becoming Vice President. The Vice President is constitutionally required to live where the seat of Government is.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice President is elected directly by the people on a ticket. Further election rules are determined by laws passed by the DPR. The Vice President-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming Vice President. The term of office is Five years and after that the Vice President can be re-elected for only one more term.

Oath of Office of the Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia : "I swear by Allah to fulfill the duties of President (Vice President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Pledge of Office of the Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia : "I solemnly pledge to fulfill the duties of President (Vice President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Powers

None specified by all constitutions. The convention has been for the President to delegate a task for the Vice President to do.

Line of Succession and Impeachment

The 1945 Constitution: The Vice President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason.

The Provisional Constitution: The Vice President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The Vice President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason. If the Vice President dies, the government will be taken over together by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Internal Affairs and Minister of Defense. Then the MPR will elect a new president from the two candidates nominated by the political parties whose candidates are the winner and the runner-up in the past presidential election. If the Vice Presidency becomes vacant with the President still holding office, the President nominates two candidates and the MPR has to elect a new Vice President out of the candidates within 60 days. Under the amended constitution, the Vice President can now be impeached and removed from office. If the Vice President is viewed to be unfit to perform his duties and has committed crimes such as corruption and betraying the Nation, the DPR can appeal to the Supreme Court to try the Vice President. Furthermore, the DPR can ask the Constitutional Court to look into the matter, during which it has 90 days to make a decision. With the decision made, the DPR can motion for the MPR to convene. The Vice President would then be given one last chance to defend himself before the MPR makes the decision whether or not the Vice President should be impeached.

Post-Vice Presidency

Law 7 of 1978 [http://kambing.vlsm.org/bebas/v01/RI/uu/1978/uu-1978-007.txt] stipulates that former Vice Presidents are entitled to a pension. Former Presidents are also entitled to a house with electricity, water, and telephone bills covered by the Government. In addition to that Former Vice Presidents will have free healthcare for his family and a car with chauffeur.

List of Vice Presidents

* Dr. Mohammad Hatta (18 August 19451 December 1956)
* Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (27 March 196823 March 1978)
* Adam Malik (23 March 197812 March 1983)
* Umar Wirahadikusumah (12 March 198311 March 1988)
* Sudharmono (11 March 198817 March 1993)
* Try Sutrisno ( 17 March 199314 March 1998)
* Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (14 March 199819 March 1998)
* Megawati Sukarnoputri (26 October 199923 July 2001)
* Hamzah Haz (23 July 200120 October 2004)
* Jusuf Kalla (20 October 2004 – Present)

External links

* [http://indonesia.ahrchk.net/news/mainfile.php/Constitution/22 1945 Constitution] {id}
* [http://www.sjdih.depkeu.go.id/fulltext/1950/UUDSTAHUN~1950UUDS.HTM Provisional Constitution] {id}
* [http://indonesia.ahrchk.net/news/mainfile.php/Constitution/34 Amended 1945 Constitution] {id}

Notes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • President of Indonesia — Infobox Political post post = President body = the Republic of Indonesia insignia = Flag of Indonesia.svg insigniasize = 100px insigniacaption = Flag of Indonesia incumbent = Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono incumbentsince = 20 October 2004 appointer =… …   Wikipedia

  • Vice-président d'Indonésie — Le Vice président d Indonésie (Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) est une position gouvernementale créée entre 1945. Liste des vice présidents d Indonésie Nom Dates Parti 1 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • List of Vice Presidents of Indonesia — This is a list of Vice Presidents of Indonesia. The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia ) is the second most powerful person in the Republic of Indonesia and first in the line of succession.The vice… …   Wikipedia

  • President of the Republic of China — Standard of the President of the Republic of China …   Wikipedia

  • President of India — President of the Republic of India (भारत के राष्ट्रपति) Presidential Standard …   Wikipedia

  • President of Argentina — President of the Argentine Nation Presidente de la Nación Argentina Presidential Standard …   Wikipedia

  • President of Vietnam — Emblem of Vietnam …   Wikipedia

  • President of Mexico — President of the United Mexican States …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… …   Universalium

  • Indonesia — Indonésie Republik Indonesia (id) République d Indonésie (fr) …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.