A plastic bottle is a container constructed of
plastic, with a neck that is narrower than its body and an opening at the top. The mouth of the bottle is normally sealed with a plastic bottle capcite web |title=Bottle|url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761588476/Bottle.html|accessdate=2008-04-23] . Plastic bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. This article provides a description of common plastic container resinmaterials, their qualities, usages and limitations.
Leonardo Da Vinci invented the first form of natural plastic during the renaissance period. The plastic Da Vinci created was made from both animal and vegetable glues combined with organic fibers. When this combination dried Da Vinci was left with a product that would be described today as a plastic like substance. In 1862, Alexander Parkes was responsible for introducing the first man made plastic at the Great International Exhibition in London. This man made plastic was nicknamed Parkesine. Due to an extremely expensive production cost of raw materials, the product became obsolete.cite web |title=History of Plastic|url=http://www.sks-bottle.com/Plastic_Bottle_History.html|accessdate=2008-10-1]
Plastic bottles were first used commercially in
1947cite web |title=The Plastic Bottle|url=http://www.flow-eze.com/plastic_packaging.html|accessdate=2008-04-23] , but remained relatively expensive until the early 1960's when high-density Polyethylene was introduced cite web |title=The History of soft drink Timeline|url=http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091699.htm|accessdate=2008-04-23] . They quickly became popular with both manufacturers and customers due to their lightweight nature and relatively low production costs compared with glass bottles cite web |title=The history of plastic|url=http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_plastics/doc.asp?CID=1102&DID=4665|accessdate=2008-04-23] . The food industry has almost completely replaced glass in many cases with plastic bottles, but wineand beerare still commonly sold in glass bottles.
Plastic bottles are formed using a variety of techniques. The choice of material varies depending upon application.
High Density Polyethylene:HDPE is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles. This material is economical, impact resistant, and provides a good moisture barrier. HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products including acids and caustics but is not compatible with solvents. It is supplied in FDA approved food grade. HDPE is naturally translucent and flexible. The addition of color will make HDPE opaque although not glossy. HDPE lends itself readily to silk screen decoration. While HDPE provides good protection at below freezing temperatures, it cannot be used with products filled at over 160°F (71.1°C) or products requiring a hermetic (vacuum) seal.
Low Density Polyethylene:LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more translucent. LDPE is used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE. Polyethylene Terephthalate:Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, PETE or polyester) is commonly used for carbonated beverage and water bottles. PET provides very good alcohol and essential oil barrier properties, generally good chemical resistance (although acetones and ketones will attack PET) and a high degree of impact resistance and tensile strength. The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture barrier properties and impact strength. This material does not provide resistance to high temperature applications -- max. temp. 160°F (71.1°C). Polyvinyl Chloride:PVC is naturally clear, has extremely good resistance to oils, and has very low oxygen transmission. It provides an excellent barrier to most gases and its drop impact resistance is also very good. This material is chemically resistant, but it is vulnerable to solvents. PVC is an excellent choice for salad oil, mineral oil, and vinegar. It is also commonly used for shampoos and cosmetic products. PVC exhibits poor resistance to high temperatures and will distort at 160°F (71.1°C), making it incompatible with hot filled products Polypropylene:Polypropylene is used primarily for jars and closures and provides a rigid package with excellent moisture barrier. One major advantage of polypropylene is its stability at high temperatures, up to 200°F. Polypropylene is autoclavable and offers the potential for steam sterilization. The compatibility of PP with high filling temperatures is responsible for its use with hot fill products such as pancake syrup.PP has excellent chemical resistance, but provides poor impact resistance in cold temperatures Polystyrene:Styrene offers excellent clarity and stiffness at an economical cost. It is commonly used with dry products including vitamins, petroleum jellies, and spices. Styrene does not provide good barrier properties, and exhibits poor impact resistance. Fluorine Treated HDPE:Bottles produced with a mixture of fluorine gas and air, or exposed to fluorine gas in a secondary operation, are similar in appearance to HDPE and have exceptional barrier properties to hydrocarbons and aromatic solvents. Fluorine treated hdpe bottles also resist penetration by oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fluorine treated bottles are excellent for use with insecticides, photographic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, household cleaners, waxes, paint thinner and gasoline.
Post Consumer Resin (PCR): PCR is a blend of reclaimed natural HDPE (primarily from milk and water containers) and virgin resin. The recycled material is cleaned, ground and recompounded into uniform pellets along with prime virgin material especially designed to build up environmental stress crack resistance. PCR has no odor but exhibits a slight yellow tint in its natural state. This tint can be hidden by the addition of color. PCR is easily processed and inexpensive. However, it cannot come into direct contact with food or pharmaceutical products. PCR can be produced in a variety of recycled content percentages up to 100%.
K-Resin SBC:K-resin is ideally suited to a wide variety of packaging applications by virtue of its sparkling clarity, high gloss, and impact resistance. K-Resin, a styrene derivative, is easily processed on polyethylene equipment. It is suitable for packaging many products but is specifically incompatible with fats and unsaturated oils or solvents. This material is frequently used for display and point-of-purchase packaging.
The Plastic Bottle Material Code System
Recycling has been aided by the creation of The Plastic Bottle Material Code System, also known as the
Resin identification code. The symbols in this system are designed to be easily readable and distinguishable from other markings on the container. Where this system is in place, these symbols are required to appear on all bottles of size 8 oz. and greater.
The symbols consists of a triangle formed by three "chasing arrows", with a specific number in the center that indicates the material from which the bottle is made. The number/material equivalents are:
The code number is also supplemented by the common letter indication for the various resins under the symbol, to serve as a constant verification of the material sorted. For example, 1 type plastics are made of PETE, 2 and 4 type plastics are made of
Polyethylene, 5 type plastics are made of Polypropylene, and 7 type plastics can be made of a variety of things, such as polycarbonates(some with Bisphenol A), multi-layer structures, etc. Some numbers are not available to the general public in some areas due to local laws and concerns, 3 and 6 type plastics being the most common.
It is possible that these symbols may change over time as they are modified for clarity or supplemented to provide more technically specific information. However, to avoid any confusion among consumers, any changes will be very subtle. Any future symbols will be based on the numbers and letters shown here.
ociety of the Plastics Industry Bottle Neck Specifications
"H" Dimension: The height of the neck finish. Measured from the top of the neck to the point where the diameter "T," extended down, intersects the shoulder.
"S" Dimension: Measured from the top of the finish to the top edge of the first thread. The "S" dimension is the key factor which determines the orientation of the closure to the bottle and the amount of thread engagement between the bottle and cap.
"I" Dimension: The inner diameter of the bottle neck. Specifications require a minimum "I" to allow sufficient clearance for filling tubes. Linerless closures, with a plug or land seal, and dispensing plugs and fitments require a controlled "I" dimension for a proper fit.
"T" Dimension: The outside diameter of the thread. The tolerance range of the "T" dimension will determine the mate between bottle and closure.
"E" Dimension: The outside diameter of the neck. The difference between the "E" and "T" dimensions divided by two determines the thread depth.
Society of the Plastics Industry
* [http://www.ebottles.com/resins.asp Plastic Bottle Materials and their Properties]
* [http://www.ebottles.com/upccode.asp A guide to UPC label use on plastic bottles including printing]
* [http://www.sks-bottle.com SKS Bottle: History of the plastic bottle and ordering info]
* [http://www.napcor.com/pdf/Master.pdf PET Plastic Recycling]
* [http://www.ebottles.co.uk Source for Plastic Bottles in Europe]
* [http://www.bottles.us Plastic Bottles online images with a variety of closures]
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