"Adenosine deaminase" (also known as ADA) is an
enzyme(EC number|220.127.116.11) involved in purine metabolism. It is needed for the breakdown of adenosinefrom food and for the turnover of nucleic acids in tissues.
ADA irreversibly deaminates adenosine, converting it to the related
nucleoside inosineby the removal of an aminogroup.
Inosine can then be deribosylated (removed from
ribose) by another enzyme called purine nucleoside phosphorylase(PNP), converting it to hypoxanthine.
Mutations in the gene for adenosine deaminase causing it to not be expressed are one cause of
severe combined immunodeficiency(SCID).cite journal |author=Sanchez JJ, Monaghan G, Børsting C, Norbury G, Morling N, Gaspar HB |title=Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry |journal=Ann. Hum. Genet. |volume=71 |issue=Pt 3 |pages=336–47 |year=2007 |pmid=17181544 |doi=10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00338.x] Mutations causing it to be overexpressed are one cause of hemolytic anemia.cite journal |author=Chottiner EG, Cloft HJ, Tartaglia AP, Mitchell BS |title=Elevated adenosine deaminase activity and hereditary hemolytic anemia. Evidence for abnormal translational control of protein synthesis |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=79 |issue=3 |pages=1001–5 |year=1987 |pmid=3029177 |doi=10.1172/JCI112866]
There is some evidence that a different allelle (ADA2) may lead to
autism.cite journal |author=Persico AM, Militerni R, Bravaccio C, "et al" |title=Adenosine deaminase alleles and autistic disorder: case-control and family-based association studies |journal=Am. J. Med. Genet. |volume=96 |issue=6 |pages=784–90 |year=2000 |pmid=11121182 |doi=10.1002/1096-8628(20001204)96:6<784::AID-AJMG18>3.0.CO;2-7]
There are 2
isoformsof ADA: ADA1 and ADA2.
* ADA1 is found in most body cells, particularly
lymphocytes and macrophages, where it is present not only in the cytosol and nucleus but also as the ecto- form on the cell membrane attached to dipeptidyl peptidase-4(aka, CD26).
* ADA2 was first identified in human spleen.cite journal | author = Schrader WP, Pollara B, Meuwissen HJ | title = Characterization of the residual adenosine deaminating activity in the spleen of a patient with combined immunodeficiency disease and adenosine deaminase deficiency | journal = Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. | volume = 75 | issue = 1 | pages = 446–50 | year = 1978 | month = January | pmid = 24216 | pmc = 411266 | doi = | url = | issn = ] It was subsequently found in other tissues including the macrophage where it co-exists with ADA1. The two isoforms regulate the ratio of adenosine to deoxyadenosine potentiating the killing of parasites.
* is an RNA-specific ADA. [cite journal |author=Keegan LP, Leroy A, Sproul D, O'Connell MA |title=Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): RNA-editing enzymes |journal=Genome Biol. |volume=5 |issue=2 |pages=209 |year=2004 |pmid=14759252 |doi=10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-209 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=395743]
* ADAT (Gene|ADAT1, Gene|ADAT2, Gene|ADAT3) is a
tRNA-specific ADA, changing the tRNA to allow for a wobble base pairing.
ADA2 is the predominant form present in human
blood plasmaand is increased in many diseases, particularly those associated with the immune system: for example rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasisand sarcoidosis. The plasma AD2 isoform is also increased in most cancers.
Total plasma ADA can be measured using
high performance liquid chromatography, enzymatic or colorimetric techniques. Perhaps the simplest system is the measurement of the ammoniareleased from adenosine when broken down to inosine. After incubation of plasma with a buffered solution of adenosine the ammonia is reacted with a Berthelot reagentto form a blue colour which is proportionate to the amount of enzyme activity. To measure ADA2, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA) is added prior to incubation so as to inhibit the enzymatic acivity of ADA1  . It is the absence of ADA1 that causes SCID.
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
ADAR, a human gene encoding a RNA-specific adenosine deaminase
*cite journal | author=da Cunha JG |title= [Adenosine deaminase. A pluridisciplinary enzyme] |journal=Acta médica portuguesa |volume=4 |issue= 6 |pages= 315–23 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1807098 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Franco R, Casadó V, Ciruela F, "et al." |title=Cell surface adenosine deaminase: much more than an ectoenzyme |journal=Prog. Neurobiol. |volume=52 |issue= 4 |pages= 283–94 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9247966 |doi=10.1016/S0301-0082(97)00013-0
*cite journal | author=Valenzuela A, Blanco J, Callebaut C, "et al." |title=HIV-1 envelope gp120 and viral particles block adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 |journal=Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. |volume=421 |issue= |pages= 185–92 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9330696 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Moriwaki Y, Yamamoto T, Higashino K |title=Enzymes involved in purine metabolism--a review of histochemical localization and functional implications |journal=Histol. Histopathol. |volume=14 |issue= 4 |pages= 1321–40 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10506947 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hirschhorn R |title=Identification of two new missense mutations (R156C and S291L) in two ADA- SCID patients unusual for response to therapy with partial exchange transfusions |journal=Hum. Mutat. |volume=1 |issue= 2 |pages= 166–8 |year= 1993 |pmid= 1284479 |doi= 10.1002/humu.1380010214
*cite journal | author=Berkvens TM, van Ormondt H, Gerritsen EJ, "et al." |title=Identical 3250-bp deletion between two AluI repeats in the ADA genes of unrelated ADA-SCID patients |journal=Genomics |volume=7 |issue= 4 |pages= 486–90 |year= 1990 |pmid= 1696926 |doi=10.1016/0888-7543(90)90190-6
*cite journal | author=Aran JM, Colomer D, Matutes E, "et al." |title=Presence of adenosine deaminase on the surface of mononuclear blood cells: immunochemical localization using light and electron microscopy |journal=J. Histochem. Cytochem. |volume=39 |issue= 8 |pages= 1001–8 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1856451 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bielat K, Tritsch GL |title=Ecto-enzyme activity of human erythrocyte adenosine deaminase |journal=Mol. Cell. Biochem. |volume=86 |issue= 2 |pages= 135–42 |year= 1989 |pmid= 2770711 |doi=10.1007/BF00222613
*cite journal | author=Hirschhorn R, Tzall S, Ellenbogen A, Orkin SH |title=Identification of a point mutation resulting in a heat-labile adenosine deaminase (ADA) in two unrelated children with partial ADA deficiency |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=83 |issue= 2 |pages= 497–501 |year= 1989 |pmid= 2783588 |doi=10.1172/JCI113909
*cite journal | author=Murray JL, Perez-Soler R, Bywaters D, Hersh EM |title=Decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) and 5'nucleotidase (5NT) activity in peripheral blood T cells in Hodgkin disease |journal=Am. J. Hematol. |volume=21 |issue= 1 |pages= 57–66 |year= 1986 |pmid= 3010705 |doi=10.1002/ajh.2830210108
*cite journal | author=Wiginton DA, Kaplan DJ, States JC, "et al." |title=Complete sequence and structure of the gene for human adenosine deaminase |journal=Biochemistry |volume=25 |issue= 25 |pages= 8234–44 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3028473 |doi=10.1021/bi00373a017
*cite journal | author=Akeson AL, Wiginton DA, Dusing MR, "et al." |title=Mutant human adenosine deaminase alleles and their expression by transfection into fibroblasts |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=263 |issue= 31 |pages= 16291–6 |year= 1988 |pmid= 3182793 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Glader BE, Backer K |title=Elevated red cell adenosine deaminase activity: a marker of disordered erythropoiesis in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia and other haematologic diseases |journal=Br. J. Haematol. |volume=68 |issue= 2 |pages= 165–8 |year= 1988 |pmid= 3348976 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2141.1988.tb06184.x
*cite journal | author=Petersen MB, Tranebjaerg L, Tommerup N, "et al." |title=New assignment of the adenosine deaminase gene locus to chromosome 20q13 X 11 by study of a patient with interstitial deletion 20q |journal=J. Med. Genet. |volume=24 |issue= 2 |pages= 93–6 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3560174 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Orkin SH, Goff SC, Kelley WN, Daddona PE |title=Transient expression of human adenosine deaminase cDNAs: identification of a nonfunctional clone resulting from a single amino acid substitution |journal=Mol. Cell. Biol. |volume=5 |issue= 4 |pages= 762–7 |year= 1985 |pmid= 3838797 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Valerio D, Duyvesteyn MG, Dekker BM, "et al." |title=Adenosine deaminase: characterization and expression of a gene with a remarkable promoter |journal=EMBO J. |volume=4 |issue= 2 |pages= 437–43 |year= 1985 |pmid= 3839456 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bonthron DT, Markham AF, Ginsburg D, Orkin SH |title=Identification of a point mutation in the adenosine deaminase gene responsible for immunodeficiency |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=76 |issue= 2 |pages= 894–7 |year= 1985 |pmid= 3839802 |doi=10.1172/JCI112050
*cite journal | author=Daddona PE, Shewach DS, Kelley WN, "et al." |title=Human adenosine deaminase. cDNA and complete primary amino acid sequence |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=259 |issue= 19 |pages= 12101–6 |year= 1984 |pmid= 6090454 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Valerio D, Duyvesteyn MG, Meera Khan P, "et al." |title=Isolation of cDNA clones for human adenosine deaminase |journal=Gene |volume=25 |issue= 2-3 |pages= 231–40 |year= 1984 |pmid= 6198240 |doi=10.1016/0378-1119(83)90227-5
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Look at other dictionaries:
adenosine deaminase — n an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine to inosine and whose deficiency causes a form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease as a result of the accumulation of toxic metabolites which inhibit DNA synthesis abbr. ADA * * *… … Medical dictionary
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adenosine deaminase — an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine to inosine and ammonia. Abbr.: ADA * * * … Universalium
adenosine deaminase — noun an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia ADA deficiency can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease the gene encoding ADA was one of the earlier human genes to be … Useful english dictionary
Adenosine deaminase deficiency — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = DiseasesDB = 260 ICD10 = ICD10|D|81|3|d|80 ICD9 = ICD9|279.2 ICDO = OMIM = 102700 MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = eMedicineTopic = MeshID = Adenosine deaminase deficiency, also called ADA deficiency or ADA… … Wikipedia
adenosine deaminase deficiency — a severe immune system disorder caused by a genetic inability to produce adenosine deaminase. Also called ADA deficiency. * * * … Universalium
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adenosine deaminase deficiency — (ADA deficiency) a genetic disorder affecting about one baby in 25,000 and characterized by a defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme that is involved in purine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme results in selective damage to the… … Medical dictionary
adenosine deaminase deficiency — ADA deficiency a genetic disorder affecting about one baby in 25,000 and characterized by a defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme that is involved in purine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme results in selective damage to the… … The new mediacal dictionary
adenosine deaminase deficiency — a severe immune system disorder caused by a genetic inability to produce adenosine deaminase. Also called ADA deficiency … Useful english dictionary