Flood Control Act of 1965

The Flood Control Act of 1965, Title II of USPL|89|298, was enacted on October 27, 1965, by the 89th Congress and authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to design and construct numerous flood control projects. [http://www.fws.gov/habitatconservation/Omnibus/R&HA1965.pdf Flood Control Act]

The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1965 was also part of USPL|89|298 (Title III).

Basic Provisions

Sec 201 of the Act authorized the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers (of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) to design and construct any water resource development project, including navigation, flood control, and shore protection if the cost of any single project did not exceed $10 million. Any such project was subject to local cost sharing in the same manner as larger projects.

urveys

Sec 208 of the Act authorized the Corps of Engineers to conduct surveys for flood control and allied purposes, to include drainage and channel improvements.

Impact on New Orleans

Prior to 1965, the state of Louisiana designed and built its flood protection through its levee boards. After Hurricane Betsy, Congress gave control of the flood protection to the US Army Corps of Engineers in the Act which called for a flood protection system to protect south Louisiana from the worst storms characteristic of the region. The Corps chose a 1959 definition as the Standard Project Hurricane (SPH). The local levee boards retained the role of maintenance once the projects were complete. When authorized, this mandate was projected to take 13 years to complete. When Katrina struck in 2005, the project was between 60-90% complete and the projected date of completion was estimated to be 2015. [ [http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d051050t.pdf GAO-05-1050T Army Corps of Engineers: Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Hurricane Protection Project ] ]

Details of the congressional mandate are defined in the Government Accountability Office's [http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d051050t.pdf testimony] before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works on September 28, 2005. The opening paragraph of the twelve page report reads:

"Congress first authorized the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity, Louisiana Hurricane Protection Project in the Flood Control Act of 1965. The project was to construct a series of control structures, concrete floodwalls, and levees to provide hurricane protection to areas around Lake Pontchartrain. The project, when designed, was expected to take about 13 years to complete and cost about $85 million. Although federally authorized, it was a joint federal, state, and local effort." [ [http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d051050t.pdf GAO-05-1050T Army Corps of Engineers: Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Hurricane Protection Project ] ]
"

The initial scope of the project was to provide hurricane protection to areas around the lake in the parishes of Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard, and St. Charles with the federal government paying 70 percent of the costs and the state and local interests paying 30 percent. [ibid]

pecific Projects

Sec 204 of the Act authorized projects in the following locations:
* St John River Basin, Maine
* Housatonic River Basin, Connecticut
* New England - Atlantic Coastal Area
* Long Island Sound
* New York - Atlantic Coastal Area
* Elizabeth River Basin, New Jersey
* Rahway River Basin, New Jersey
* Neuse River Basin, North Carolina
* Middle Atlantic Coastal Area
* Flint River Basin, Georgia
* Central and Southern Florida Basin
* South Atlantic Coastal Area
* Phillippi Creek Basin, Florida
* Lower Mississippi River Basin, adapting the Birds Point - New Madrid project enacted by 45 Stat. 34 at an estimated cost of $189,109,000
* General Projects - Grand Isle, Morgan City, and Lake Ponchartrain, Louisiana (Lake Ponchartrain at a cost of $56,235,000)
* Ouchita River Basin, Louisiana
* Red River Basin, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas
* Gulf of Mexico - various bayous in Texas
* Rio Grande Basin, Texas at a cost of $12,493,000
* Arkansas River Basin, as authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1946 - various creeks and rivers in Colorado, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
* Missouri River Basin - various creeks and rivers in Kansas, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Missouri, and Montana
* Ohio River Basin - various creeks and rivers in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia
* Red River of the North Basin
* Upper Mississippi River Basin - various projects in Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota and South Dakota
* Great Lakes Basin
* Little Colorado River Basin
* Gila River Basin, Arizona
* Eel River, Whitewater River, Santa Ana River, Sacramento River, San Diego River Basins, California
* San Francisco Bay Area
* Columbia River Basin, Oregon and Washington

an Francisco Bay water quality

Sec 216 of the Act authorized the Corps of Engineers to study the water and wastewater quality of various bodies of water in the San Francisco Bay area.

Modification of Other Flood Control Acts

* Flood Control Act of 1944, with respect to roads impacted by Whitney Dam, Texas
* Flood Control Act of 1958, with respect to the Minnesota River
* Flood Control Act of 1960, with respect to funding limitations
* Flood Control Act of 1962, with respect to the Scioto River, Ohio

References

ee also

* [http://www.levees.org Levees.org - Non profit in New Orleans holding the Army Corps accountable for their flood protection nationwide]
*Water Resources Development Act
*Rivers and Harbors Act for related legislation which sometime also implement flood control provisions.


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