- Fula people
Infobox Ethnic group
poptime=10 to 13 million (2005) [Ndukwe 16 (1996) gives a figure of 10 million; Gordon, "Adamawa Fulfulde", says 13 million speakers of all forms of Fulfulde.]
Guinea, Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone Central African Republic, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Ghana, Chad, Mauritania, Sudanand Ivory Coast.
The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an
Anglicisationof the word in their language, "Fulunicode|ɓe" [The letter " ɓ" is an implosive b sound. In the orthography for languages of Guinea (pre-1985), it was written bh, so one would have written "Fulbhe" instead of "Fulunicode|ɓe". Some people still use this spelling convention.] ) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africaand Sudanese North Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudanin the east. Fulas are not a majority in every country they live, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (largest single group).
One person, many names
There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages to refer to the "Fulunicode|ɓe". Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from
Manding languagesis also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fulani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term "Pël", which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term "Fulunicode|ɓe", which is a plural noun (singular, "Pullo") has been adapted to English as Fulbe, which some people use. In Portuguese it's Fula or Futafula.
A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucouleur) in the central
Senegal Rivervalley. These people are often referred to together with "FulIPA|ɓe" of the region as "Haalpulaar'en" (Pulaar-speakers).
Fula society in some parts of West Africa features the "caste" divisions typical of the region. In
Mali, for instance, those who are not ethnically Fula have been referred to as "yimIPA|ɓe pulaaku" (people of the Fula culture).Fact|date=October 2007
The WoIPA|ɗaaIPA|ɓe, also known as the Bororo, are a subgroup of the Fula people.
The Fulani are traditionally a
nomadic, pastoralist, trading people, herding cattle, goats and sheepacross the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations.
Origins and spread
While some have speculated over the origin of Fulani people, current linguistic and genetic evidence seems to suggest an indigenous West African origin among the Peul. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3659/is_200602/ai_n17186281/pg_4 mtDNA of Fulani Nomads and Their Genetic Relationships to Neighboring Sedentary Populations] ] The vast majority of genetic lineages associated with them reflect those most commonly seen in other west Africans. Their language is also of west African origin, most closely related to that of the Wolof and
Sererethnic groups. [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90740] . Historical and archaeological records indicate that Peul-speakers have resided in western Africa since at least the 5th century A.D. as well. Interestingly, rock paintings in the Tassili-n-Ajjersuggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the fourth millennium B.C. Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people. [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fula_2/hd_fula_2.htm The Fulani/Fulbe People | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art ] ]
Rise to political dominance
Beginning as early as the 17th and 18th centuries, but mainly in the 19th century,
Fulas and others took control of various states in West Africa.
These included the
Fulani Empirefounded by Usman dan Fodio(which itself included smaller states), Fouta Djallon, Massinaand others.
Culture & Language
The language of Fulas is called Pulaar or Fulfulde depending on the region, or variants thereof. It is also the language of the
Tukulor. All Senegalese who speak the language natively are known as the "Halpulaar" or "Haalpulaar'en", which stands for "speakers of Pulaar" ("hal" is the root of the Pulaar verb "haalugol", meaning "to speak"). In some areas, e.g. in northern Cameroon, Fulfulde is a local lingua franca.
With the exception of
Guinea, Fulas are minorities in every country they live in (most countries of West Africa). So some also speak other languages, for example:
*Portuguese and Kriol in
Hausaand French in Niger
*French and English in
Wolofand French in Senegal
Sangoand French in Central African Republic
*Bambara and French in
Hausaand Ghanaian languages in Ghana
*English and some indigenous languages in
Sierra Leone, particularly Krio, that lingua franca.
Hausa, other Nigerian languages and English in Nigeria
The traditional dress of the Fula in most places consists of long colorful flowing robes, modestly embroidered or otherwise decorated. Also characteristic Fula tradition is that of women using Henna around the mouth, resulting in a blackening around the lips. Fula ethics are strictly governed by the notion of "pulaaku". [ [http://www.jamtan.com/jamtan/fulani.cfm?ch
Fula are primarily known to be pastoralists, but are also traders in some areas. Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, moving their herds; they were the only major migrating people of West Africa, though most Fula now live in towns or villages.
The Fula have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instruments including drums, "hoddu" (a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo) and "riti" or "riiti" (a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin), in addition to vocal music. The well known Senegalese Fula popular musician
Baaba Maalsings in Pulaar on his recordings.
Notable Fulani people by country
Umaru Yar'Adua, current President of Nigeria.
Shehu Shagari, Former Nigeria President
Muhammadu Buhari, former Nigerian Head of State
Atiku Abubakar, former Vice President of Nigeria
Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, Nigerian politician and the brother of current Nigerian president Umaru Yar'Adua
Nuhu Ribadu, respected, former Head of Nigerian Anti-corruption agency
Prof Jibril Aminu, Former minister of Education and Petroluem and a Senator in the Nigerian Parliament
Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Nigerian founding father and first prime minister
Amadu Wurie, early Sierra Leonean educationist and politician
Amadu Jalloh, Sierra Leonean politician
Alimamy Rassin, Sierra Leonean chief during colonial period
Minkailu Bah, Sierra Leone's minister of Education, Youth and Sports
Sulaiman Tejan-Jalloh, Sierra Leone ambassador to the United Kingdom
Abubakarr Jalloh, Sierra Leone Minister of Mineral Resources
Alimamy Jalloh, Sierra Leonean football star
Mahmadu Alphajor Bah, Sierra Leonean football star
Rashid Wurie, former Sierra Leonean international football star
*Buubakar dit Bocar Biro The Last Almaami of Fuuta Jallon
Cheikh Ibrahima Sambegou(Karamoko Alpha mo Timbo] First Almamy of state of Futa Dialon
Almamy SorySecond Almamy of Futa Dialonafter Karamoko Alpha
Cellou Dalein Diallo, Prime Minister of Guinea from 2004-2007
Saifoulaye Diallo, former Guinean foreign minister
Bobo Balde, Guinean football star
Katoucha, former haute couture model and anti-female circumcision activist
Abdoul Salam Sow, former Guinean footballer
Abdallah Bah, Guinean football star
Diallo Telli(or Boubacar Telli Diallo), Former Diplomat, First Sec. Gen. of the OAU
Ibrahima Diallo, Guinean football star
Alpha Yaya Diallo, Guinean musician
Alpha Yaya Diallo, Former Chef of Labé, arrested by french colonialist
Almamy Schuman Bah, Guinean football star
Ibrahima Barry, Co-creator of the Fulfulde Script
Amadou Diallo, young Guinean resident in the Bronxkilled by police in 1999
Adame Ba Konaré, Malian historian and spouse of Alpha Oumar Konaré
Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Malian author
Amadou Toumani Touré, Malian President
Baaba Maal, Senegalese singer
Cheikh Hamidou Kane, Senegalese writer
Ibrahim Ba, French-Senegalese former football player
Mamadou NiangSenegales football player
Issa BâSenegalese football player
Maba Diakhou BaAlmamy of Rip
Moussa BaSenegalese professional kickboxer
Ahmadou BambaBa, Marabout, Spiritual Leader
Akonalso known as Alioune Badara Thiam is a Senegalese-American Hip-Hop Artist
Thomas Sankara, Former President of Burkina Faso
Youssouf Sambo Bâ, Burkinabe politician
Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara, Burkinabe politician
Ahmadou Ahidjo, first President of Cameroon
Issa Hayatou, current President African Football Confederation (CAF)
*Almanach de Bruxelles (now a paying site)
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005): " [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fub Adamawa Fulfulde] ". "Ethnologue: Languages of the World", 15th ed. Dallas: SIL International. Accessed
25 June 2006.
* Ndukwe, Pat I., Ph.D. (1996). "Fulani". New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.
* [http://peregrin.jmu.edu/~delancmd/FulbeBibliography.html Prof. Mark D. DeLancey's Fulbe studies bibiography] , Accessed 25 March 2008.
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Nigeria_native.html WorldStatesmen - Nigerian Traditional states]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Fula language — Fula Fulani Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular Fulaare Spoken in Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gambia, Chad, Sierra Leone, Benin, Guinea Bissau … Wikipedia
Fula — or Fulah noun (plural Fula or Fulas or Fulah or Fulahs) Date: 1799 1. a member of a mainly pastoral African people dispersed over savanna and desert from Senegal to eastern Sudan 2. the language of the Fula people … New Collegiate Dictionary
Fula orthographies — The Fula language is written mainly in a modified Latin alphabet today, but was and still is in some places written in a modified Arabic alphabet called Ajami script .Latin based orthographiesBackgroundThe Latin alphabet was introduced to Fula… … Wikipedia
Fula — Peuls Pour la langue, voir Peul. Peuls … Wikipédia en Français
Fula — [ fu:lə] noun the language of the Fulani people, belonging to the Benue Congo language family and widely used in West Africa as a lingua franca. Origin from Fula pulo Fula person … English new terms dictionary
Fula — noun a) A West African people. b) A language spoken in West Africa … Wiktionary
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