name = "Steindachneridion"
Oligocene- Recentcite journal|url=http://www.ufrgs.br/ni/vol3num4%5CNI_v3n4p607-623lowr.pdf|title=Revision of genus "Steindachneridion" (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae)|journal=Neotropical Ichthyology|first=Julio Cesar|last=Garavello|volume=3|issue=4|pages=607–623|year=2005|format=
phylum = Chordata
ordo = Siluriformes
genus = "Steindachneridion"
genus_authority = Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919
subdivision_ranks = Species
* "S. amblyurum"
(Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888)
* "S. doceanum"
(Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889)
* "S. iherengi" †
* "S. melanodermatum"
* "S. scriptum"
(Miranda Ribeiro, 1918)
* "S. silvasantosi" †
Figueiredo & Costa-Carvalho, 1999
* "S. parahybae"
* "S. punctatum"
(Miranda Ribeiro, 1918)
synonyms = "Steindachneria"
Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888
The first species of the genus, "S. parahybae", was described in 1877 by
Franz Steindachnerunder the name "Platystoma parahybae". Later, Carl H. Eigenmannand Rosa Smith Eigenmanndescribed "Steindachneridia", named for Steindachner, for this species and for "S. amblyurum" (designated as the type species) in 1888. The next year, Eigenmann and Eigenmann described "S. doceanum". In 1918, Miranda Ribeiro described "S. scriptum" and "S. scriptum punctatum"; later, "S. punctatum" was studied and considered to be a species of its own. However, because "Steindachneria" was already being used, these fish were transferred to "Steindachneridion" in 1919. The most recent species, "S. melanodermatum", was described by Garavello in 2005. This genus currently includes six extant species.
There are two
fossilspecies of "Steindachneridion". The first fossil species to be described, "S. iherengi", was first described to "Arius", but subsequently moved to "Steindachneridion"; though originally considered to be of Pleistoceneage, it has later been argued that it is actually of Oligoceneage. The second fossil species to be described was "S. silvasantosi" in 1999.
The phylogenetic placement of "Steindachneridion" and its relationship to other Pimelodid genera is unresolved. These fish have been classified with "
Sorubim"-like fish such as " Brachyplatystoma" and " Pseudoplatystoma". They have also been classified as being more closely related to " Phractocephalus" and " Leiarius".
Distribution and habitat
"Steindachneridion" species originate from
South Americaand are restricted to eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, plus the upper Paraná and Uruguay Riverbasin. "S. amblyurus" originates from the Jequitinhonha Riverbasin.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=amblyurus|year=2007|month=May] "S. doceanum" originates from the Doce Riverbasin.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=doceanum|year=2007|month=May] "S. melanodermatum" originates from Iguaçu River in Brazil.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=melanodermatum|year=2007|month=May] "S. parahybae" originates from Paraíba do Suland Jequitinhonha River basins.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=parahybae|year=2007|month=May] "S. punctatum" originates from the upper Paraná River and the Uruguay River basins.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=punctatum|year=2007|month=May] "S. scriptum" originates from the Uruguay River.FishBase species|genus=Steindachneridion|species=scripta|year=2007|month=May]
The large species of "Steindachneridion" always occur in swift-flowing, clear water rivers running over large stony beds. These fish are naturally scarce in their habitats.
Appearance and anatomy
"Steindachneridion" species are large sized fishes, reaching 100
centimetres (40 in) TL or more. "S. doceanum" reaches 42 cm (17 in) SL. "S. melanodermatum" reaches a length of about 53.2 cm (21 in) SL. "S. punctatum" reaches about 70 cm (28 in) SL.
These fish have relatively small eyes and head. They have long maxillary barbels that extend to the base of the
dorsal finor the adipose fin. The adipose finis relatively long and straight, and its base is longer than the base of the anal fin. Pectoral and dorsal fin spines are short. Most of these species have light grayish or brownish ground color pattern combined with dark brown, vermiculated dark stripes or spots; however, "S. doceanum" has reticulations over its body instead of spots, and "S. melanodermatum" is unique in the genus for its dark brown ground color. "S. amblyurum" differs from other members of this species by having a rounded caudal fininstead of a caudal fin that is notched.
Relationship to humans
"Steindachneridion" species suffer intense anthropogenic pressure, through modification to their habitat and due to
overfishing; consequently, some of them are highly endangered and practically extinct in various parts of their original areas of distribution. Due to their economic importance as a food source, some aquaculturestations are currently developing programs for captive propagation of "Steindachneridion" species. Fish produced by these programs would be used in fish farms as well to restore natural stocks in degraded habitats.cite journal|title=First chromosome data on "Steindachneridion scripta" (Pisces, Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from Brazilian rivers: Giemsa, CBG, G-, and RE banding|url=http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2005/vol4-4/pdf/gmr0144.pdf|first=Ana Claudia|last=Swarça|coauthors=Fenochhio, Alberto Sergio; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Dias, Ana Lúcia|journal=Genet. Mol. Res.|volume=4|issue=4|pages=734–741|year=2005|format=
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Franz Steindachner — (November 11, 1834 December 10, 1919) was an Austrian zoologist.Being interested in natural history, Steindachner took up the study of fossil fishes on the recommendation of his friend Eduard Suess. In 1860 he was appointed to the position of… … Wikipedia