Netscape Portable Runtime
name = Netscape Portable Runtime
programming language = C
Mozilla Foundation/ Mozilla Corporation
latest release version = 4.7.1
latest release date = release date|2008|05|15
operating system =
genre = Software Library
license = MPL/
website = http://www.mozilla.org/projects/nspr
The Netscape Portable Runtime, or NSPR, is a
platform abstraction librarythat makes all operating systems it supports appear the same to Mozilla. NSPR provides platform independencefor non-GUI operating systemfacilities. These facilities include threads, thread synchronization, normal fileand network I/O, interval timingand calendar time, basic memory management( mallocand free) and shared library linking. A good portion of the library's purpose, and perhaps the primary purpose in the Gromit environment, is to provide the underpinnings of the Java VM, more or less mapping the sys layerthat Sun defines for the portingof the Java VM to various platforms. NSPR does go beyond that requirement in some areas and since it is also the platform independent layer for most of the servers produced by Netscape.It is expected and preferred that existing code be restructured and perhaps even rewritten in order to use the NSPR API. It is not a goal to provide a platform for the porting into Netscape of externally developed code. Facts|date=September 2007
The current generation of NSPR is known as NSPR20. The first generation of NSPR was originally conceived just to satisfy the requirements of porting Java to various host environments. NSPR20, an effort started in 1996, builds on that original idea, though very little is left of the original code. (The "20" in "NSPR20" does not mean "version 2.0" but rather "second generation".) Many of the concepts have been reformed, expanded, and matured. Today NSPR may still be appropriate as the platform dependent layer under Java, but its primary application is supporting clients written entirely in C or C++.
How It Works
NSPR's goal is to provide uniform service over a wide range of operating system environments. It strives to not export the lowest common denominator, but to exploit the best features of each operating system on which it runs, and still provide a uniform service across a wide range of host offerings.
Threads are the major feature of NSPR. The industry's offering of threads is quite sundry. NSPR, while far from perfect, does provide a single API to which clients may program and expect reasonably consistent behavior. The operating systems provide everything from no concept of threading at all up to and including sophisticated, scalable and efficient implementations. NSPR makes as much use of what the systems offer as it can. It is a goal of NSPR that NSPR impose as little overhead as possible in accessing those appropriate system features.
Thread synchronization is loosely based on monitors as described by C.A.R. Hoare in "Monitors: An operating system structuring concept", Communications of the ACM, 17(10), October 1974 and then formalized by Xerox'
Mesa programming language("Mesa Language Manual", J.G. Mitchell et al, Xerox PARC, CSL-79-3 (Apr 1979)). This mechanism provides the basic mutual exclusion ( mutex) and thread notification facilities (condition variables) implemented by NSPR. Additionally, NSPR provides synchronization methods more suited for use by Java. The Java-like facilities include monitor reentrancy, implicit and tightly bound notification capabilities with the ability to associate the synchronization objects dynamically.
I/Ois a slightly augmented BSDsockets model that allows arbitrary layering. It is was originally intended to export synchronous I/O methods only, relying on threads to provide the concurrency needed for complex applications. That method of operation is preferred though it is possible to configure the network I/O channels as non-blocking in the traditional sense.
Part of NSPR deals with manipulation of network addresses. NSPR defines a network address object that is Internet Protocol (IP) centric. While the object is not declared as opaque, the API provides methods that allow and encourage clients to treat the addresses as polymorphic items. The goal in this area is to provide a migration path between
IPv4and IPv6. To that end it is possible to perform translations of ASCIIstrings (DNS names) into NSPR's network address structures, with no regard to whether the addressing technology is IPv4 or IPv6.
Timing facilities are available in two forms: interval timing and calendar functions.
Interval timers are based on a free running, 32-bit, platform dependent resolution timer. Such timers are normally used to specify timeouts on I/O, waiting on condition variables and other rudimentary thread scheduling. Since these timers have finite namespace and are free running, they can wrap at any time. NSPR does not provide an
epoch, but expects clients to deal with that issue. The granularity of the timers is guaranteed to be between 10 microseconds and 1 millisecond. This allows a minimal timer period in of approximately 12 hours. But in order to deal with the wrap-around issue, only half that namespace may be utilized. Therefore, the minimal usable interval available from the timers is slightly less than six hours.
Calendar times are 64-bit signed numbers with units of microseconds. The epoch for calendar times is midnight, January 1, 1970,
Greenwich Mean Time. Negative times extend to times before 1970, and positive numbers forward. Use of 64 bits allows a representation of times approximately in the range of -30000 to the year 30000. There is a structural representation (i.e., exploded view), routines to acquire the current time from the host system, and convert them to and from the 64-bit and structural representation. Additionally there are routines to convert to and from most well-known forms of ASCII into the 64-bit NSPR representation.
NSPR provides API to perform the basic
malloc, calloc, reallocand free functions. Depending on the platform, the functions may be implemented almost entirely in the NSPR runtime or simply shims that call immediately into the host operating system's offerings.
Support for linking (shared library loading and unloading) is part of NSPR's feature set. In most cases this is simply a smoothing over of the facilities offered by the various platform providers.
Apache Portable Runtime
Adaptive Communication Environment
* [http://www.mozilla.org/projects/nspr/ Official website]
* [http://ftp.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/nspr/ NSPR source code]
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