Adrafinil

Adrafinil
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-2-benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Unscheduled (US)
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 80%
Metabolism 75% Hepatic
Half-life 1 hour
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS number 63547-13-7
ATC code N06BX17
PubChem CID 3033226
ChemSpider 2297976 YesY
UNII BI81Z4542G YesY
KEGG D07348 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL93077 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C15H15NO3S 
Mol. mass 289.351 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
 YesY(what is this?)  (verify)

Adrafinil (CRL-40028, Olmifon) is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. It is also used off-label by individuals wishing to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who need to stay awake and alert for long periods of time.

Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in nearly identical pharmacological effects. Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach.

Adrafinil does not currently have FDA approval and is thus unregulated in the United States, although it is used in France and elsewhere in Europe. The drug is marketed under the brand name Olmifon as a racemate with a stereogenic centre at the sulfur atom.

Contents

History

Adrafinil was discovered in the late 1970s by scientists working with the French pharmaceutical company Group Lafon. First offered in France in 1986 as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy, Lafon later developed modafinil, the primary metabolite of adrafinil. Modafinil possesses greater selective alpha-1 adrenergic activity than adrafinil without the side effects of stomach pain, skin irritations, feelings of tension[citation needed], and increases in liver enzyme levels.

It is important to monitor the liver of an individual using adrafinil. It can cause liver damage in some instances.

Legal status

Adrafinil and its close relative modafinil were added to the list of substances prohibited for athletic competition according to World Anti-Doping Agency in 2004.[1]

In the United States, adrafinil is currently unregulated. It has not been approved for any clinical uses by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Unlike modafinil, adrafinil is not classified as a controlled substance and does not fall under DEA jurisdiction; in particular, it is not illegal to possess without a prescription and can be imported privately by citizens.

See also

References

External links


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