- Iberian scripts
The Iberian scripts are the
Paleohispanic scriptsthat were used to represent the extinct Iberian language. Most of them are typologically very unusual in that they are semi-syllabic rather than purely alphabetic. The oldest Iberian inscriptions date to the 4th or possibly the 5th century BCE, and the latest from end of the 1st century BCE or possibly the beginning of the 1st century CE.
There are two main graphic as well as geographic variants in the family:
Northeastern Iberian script
** Dual variant (
4th century BCEand 3rd century BCE) (tentative)
** Non-dual variant (
2nd century BCEand 1st century BCE)
Southeastern Iberian script
In the sense that the Iberian scripts are the scripts created for the Iberians to represent the Iberian language, the
Greco-Iberian alphabet, a separate adaptation of the Greek alphabet, was also an Iberian script. It was used mainly in Alicanteand Murcia. Likewise, neither the southwestern script, very similar to southeastern Iberian script but used for the Tartessian language, nor the Celtiberian script, a direct adaptation of the northeastern Iberian scriptused for the Celtiberian language, are technically Iberian scripts.
The northeastern Iberian script is often known simply as the Iberian script, because it is the script of 95% of known Iberian inscriptions. These have been found mainly in the northeastern quadrant of the
Iberian Peninsula, mostly along the coast from Languedoc-Roussillonto Alicante, but with a deep penetration on the Ebrevalley.
The southeastern Iberian script is poorly attested, and there are some gaps in the records: There are no positively identified symbols for /gu/, /do/, and /m/, for example. Unlike the
northeastern Iberian scriptthe decipherment of the southeastern Iberian script is not still closed, because there are a significant group of signs without consensus value. The southeastern inscriptions have been found mainly in the southeastern quadrant of Iberia: Eastern Andalusia, Murcia, Albacete, Alicante, and Valencia.
There is substantial graphic variation in the Iberian glyphs, and over the past several decades many scholars have come to believe that, at least in northeastern Iberian script (and recently also in Celtiberian script) some of this variation is meaningful. It appears that the original simple letters were assigned specifically to the voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, whereas the voiceless consonants /t/ and /k/ were derived from /d/ and /g/ syllables with the addition of a stroke. (This is the so-called "dual signary" model: see the image at right). If correct, this innovation would parallel the creation of the Latin letter G from C by the addition of a stroke.
Greco-Iberian alphabet, the Iberian scripts are typologically unusual, in that they were partially alphabeticand partially syllabic: Continuants (fricative sounds like /s/ and sonorants like /l/, /m/, and vowels) were written with distinct letters, as in Phoenician (or in Greek in the case of the vowels), but the non-continuants (the stops /b/, /d/, /t/, /g/, and /k/) were written with "syllabic" glyphs that represented both consonant and vowel together. That is, in written Iberian, "ga" displayed no resemblance to "ge," and "bi" had no connection to "bo." This possibly unique writing system is called a " semi-syllabary".
The southeastern script was written right to left, as was the
Phoenician alphabet, whereas the northeastern script reversed this to left to right, as in the Greek alphabet.
The relation between the northeastern and southeastern Iberian scripts is not straightforward. It appears that either the glyphs themselves were changed, or that they assumed new values. For example, southern /e/ derives from Phoenician/Greek Ο ("‘ayin"), whereas northern /e/ resembles Phoenician/Greek Ε ("he"), a letter which arguably had the value of /be/ in southern Iberian. However, it is clear that they had a common origin, and the most commonly accepted hypothesis is that the northeastern script derives from the southeastern script. Some researchers conclude that their origin ultimately lies solely with the Phoenician alphabet, while others believe the Greek alphabet also played a role.
Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
Genealogy of scripts derived from Proto-Sinaitic
* Correa, José Antonio (2004): _es. «Los semisilabarios ibéricos: algunas cuestiones», "ELEA" 4, pp. 75-98.
*Correa, José Antonio (1992): _es. «Representación gráfica de la oposición de sonoridad en las oclusivas ibéricas (semisilabario levantino)», "AIΩN" 14, pp. 253-292.
*Ferrer i Jané, Joan (2005): « [http://www.dpz.es/ifc2/libros/ebook2622.pdf Novetats sobre el sistema dual de diferenciació gràfica de les oclusives sordes i sonores] », "Palaeohispanica" 5, pp. 957-982.
* Gómez-Moreno, Manuel (1922): _es. «De Epigrafia ibérica: el plomo de Alcoy», _es. "Revista de filología española" 9, pp. 34-66.
* Hoz, Javier de (1987): _es. «La escritura greco-ibérica», "Veleia" 2-3, pp. 285-298.
* Hoz, Javier de (1985): _es. «El nuevo plomo inscrito de Castell y el problema de las oposiciones de sonoridad en ibérico», "Symbolae Ludouico Mitxelena septuagenario oblatae", pp. 443-453.
* Maluquer de Motes, Joan (1968): _es. "Epigrafía prelatina de la península ibérica", Barcelona.
* Quintanilla, Alberto (1993): _es. «Sobre la notación en la escritura ibérica del modo de articulación de las consonantes oclusivas», "Studia Palaeohispanica et Indogermánica J. Untermann ab Amicis Hispanicis Oblata", pp. 239-250.
* Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2004): _es. "Análisis de Epigrafía Íbera", Vitoria-Gasteiz 2004, ISBN 84-8373-678-0.
* Rodríguez Ramos, Jesús (2002): _es. «La escritura ibérica meridional», "Zephyrus" 55, pp. 231-245.
* Untermann, Jürgen : Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum, Wiesbaden. (1975): I Die Münzlegenden. (1980): "II Die iberischen Inschriften aus Sudfrankreicht". (1990): _es. "III Die iberischen Inschriften aus Spanien". (1997): _es. "IV Die tartessischen, keltiberischen und lusitanischen Inschriften".
* Velaza, Javier (2004): _es. «La escritura en la península ibérica antigua», "La escritura y el libro en la antigüedad", Madrid, pp. 95-114.
* Velaza, Javier (1996): _es. "Epigrafía y lengua ibéricas", Barcelona.
* [http://www.ieiop.com/pub/diptico_palaeohisp_2007_7ef6ed8c.pdf Los primeros sistemas de escritura en la Península Ibérica (Course program)]
* [http://ancientscripts.com/iberian.html Ancient Scripts - Iberia]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib2_en.htm Levantine Iberian Script]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib4_en.htm Meridional Iberian Script]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib4_en.htm Greek Iberian Script]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib5_en.htm Celtiberian Script]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib6_en.htm Tartessian / South-Lusitanian Script]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib10_en.htm "On the Story of the Decipherment of Iberian Writing" by Jesús Rodríguez Ramos]
* [http://omniglot.com/writing/iberian.htm Omniglot entry on Iberian]
* [http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BCE)]
* [http://www.webpersonal.net/jrr/ib19_en.htm Links to images of inscriptions]
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