United States Court of International Trade
The United States Court of International Trade is an Article III court, with full powers in law and equity. The Customs Court Act of 1980 replaced the old United States Customs Court with the United States Court of International Trade. The Court has nine sitting Judges, as well as Senior Judges. The Court sits in New York City, although it is authorized to sit elsewhere, including in foreign nations.
The Court possesses limited subject matter jurisdiction, meaning that it may hear only cases involving particular international trade and customs law questions. For example, the Court hears disputes such as those involving protests filed with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, decisions regarding Trade Adjustment Assistance by the United States Department of Labor or United States Department of Agriculture, customs broker licensing, and disputes relating to determinations made by the United States International Trade Commission and the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration regarding antidumping and countervailing duties.
There is one notable exception to the Court's jurisdiction. In cases involving antidumping and countervailing duties imposed on Canadian or Mexican merchandise, an interested party can request that the case be heard before a special ad hoc binational panel organized under Chapter 19 of the 1988 Canadian-U.S. Free Trade Agreement.
Most cases are heard by a single judge. If a case challenges the constitutionality of a U.S. law or has important implications regarding the administration or interpretation of the customs laws, then it may be heard by a three-judge panel. Many Judges of the Court of International Trade also regularly sit by designation on three-judge panels of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Although the Court maintains its own rules of procedure, they are patterned for the most part on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The court has held that decisions interpreting the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure are "instructive" in interpreting its own rules.
Appeals from the Court of International Trade are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which normally sits in Washington, D.C. Further appeals from the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit are heard by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The James L. Watson Court of International Trade Building, located on Foley Square in lower Manhattan in New York City, houses the court. It is also known as 1 Federal Plaza and is adjacent to the Jacob K. Javits Federal Building.
The building is named for James L. Watson, a judge of the United States Customs Court. The legislation naming the building for Watson was authored by U.S. Representative Charles Rangel of New York.
Judges and Senior Judges (current as of June 2011)
There will be another vacancy on the court when Evan Wallach takes his commission to be a Circuit Judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, to which position he was confirmed by the Senate on November 8, 2011.
Judge Began active
Appointed by Jane A. Restani 1983 - - Ronald Reagan Gregory W. Carman 1983 - - Ronald Reagan Donald C. Pogue 1995 - - Bill Clinton Evan Wallach 1995 - - Bill Clinton Delissa A. Ridgway 1998 - - Bill Clinton Richard K. Eaton 1999 - - Bill Clinton Timothy C. Stanceu 2003 - - George W. Bush Leo M. Gordon 2006 - - George W. Bush (vacant since 2011-06-02 - formerly Barzilay) (n/a) (n/a) (n/a) (n/a) Thomas J. Aquilino, Jr. 1985 2004 - Ronald Reagan Nicholas Tsoucalas 1986 1996 - Ronald Reagan R. Kenton Musgrave 1987 1997 - Ronald Reagan Richard W. Goldberg 1991 2001 - George H.W. Bush Judith M. Barzilay 1998 2011 - Bill Clinton
Judge Began active
Appointed by James Lopez Watson 1966 1991 2001 (death) Lyndon Johnson Edward Dominic Re 1968 1991 - Lyndon Johnson Bernard Newman 1968 1983 1999 (death) Lyndon Johnson Dominick L. DiCarlo 1984 1996 2009 (death) Ronald Reagan Paul Peter Rao 1948 ? ? Harry Truman Scovel Richardson 1957 ? ? Dwight Eisenhower Frederick Landis, Jr. 1965 ? ? Lyndon Johnson Herbert Naaman Maletz 1967 ? ? Lyndon Johnson Samuel Murray Rosenstein 1968 ? ? Lyndon Johnson Nils Andreas Boe 1971 ? ? Richard Nixon
U.S. Customs Court Judges
Judge Began active
Appointed by Charles H. Ham 1890 1902 Benjamin Harrison James A. Jewell 1890 1903 Benjamin Harrison George H. Sharpe 1890 1900 Benjamin Harrison Thaddeus S. Sharretts 1890 1913 Benjamin Harrison Ferdinand N. Shurtleff 1890 1899 Benjamin Harrison Henderson M. Somerville 1890 1915 Benjamin Harrison Joseph Lewis Stackpole 1890 1891 Benjamin Harrison George C. Tichenor 1890 1902 Benjamin Harrison Joseph Biddle Wilkinson, Jr. 1890 1900 Benjamin Harrison Wilbur Fisk Lunt 1891 1907 Benjamin Harrison William Barberie Howell 1899 1927 William McKinley Israel Fredrick Fischer 1899 1940 William McKinley Marion De Vries 1900 1910 William McKinley Byron Sylvester Waite 1902 1930 Theodore Roosevelt Eugene Gano Hay 1903 1924 Theodore Roosevelt Charles Paul McClelland 1903 1939 Theodore Roosevelt Roy Chamberlain 1908 1913 Theodore Roosevelt Samuel Bronson Cooper 1910 1918 William H. Taft George Stewart Brown 1913 1941 Woodrow Wilson Jerry Bartholomew Sullivan 1913 1948 Woodrow Wilson William Charles Adamson 1917 1928 Woodrow Wilson George Emery Weller 1919 1932 Woodrow Wilson George M. Young 1924 1932 Calvin Coolidge Genevieve Rose Cline 1928 1959 Calvin Coolidge William Josiah Tilson 1928 1949 Calvin Coolidge Walter Howard Evans 1931 1959 Herbert Hoover David Hayes Kincheloe 1931 1950 Herbert Hoover Fredrick William Dallinger 1932 1955 Herbert Hoover William John Keefe 1933 1955 Franklin D. Roosevelt Webster Oliver 1940 1969 Franklin D. Roosevelt Thomas Joseph Walker 1940 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt William Purrington Cole 1942 1952 Franklin D. Roosevelt William Alexander Ekwall 1942 1956 Franklin D. Roosevelt Charles Drummond Lawrence 1943 1975 Franklin D. Roosevelt Morgan Ford 1949 1980 Harry Truman Jed Joseph Johnson 1947 1963 Harry Truman Irving Charles Mollison 1945 1962 Harry Truman Paul Peter Rao 1948 1980 Harry Truman David John Wilson 1954 1976 Dwight Eisenhower Mary Donlon Alger 1955 1977 Dwight Eisenhower Scovel Richardson 1957 1980 Dwight Eisenhower Philip Nichols, Jr. 1964 1966 Lyndon Johnson Frederick Landis, Jr. 1965 1980 Lyndon Johnson James Lopez Watson 1966 1980 Lyndon Johnson Lindley Garrison Beckworth, Sr. 1967 1968 Lyndon Johnson Herbert Naaman Maletz 1967 1980 Lyndon Johnson Bernard Newman 1968 1980 Lyndon Johnson Edward D. Re 1968 1980 Lyndon Johnson Samuel Murray Rosenstein 1968 1980 Lyndon Johnson Nils Andreas Boe 1971 1980 Richard Nixon
- ^ Press release from the office of Rep. Charles Rangel
- ^ Current chief judge
- ^ Past chief judge.
- ^ appointed Chief Judge by Jimmy Carter in 1977
- ^ chief judge from 1991 to 1996
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Reassigned to the Court of International Trade when the Customs Court was dissolved, receiving his commission on November 1, 1980.
- United States Court of International Trade, official site
- History of the court from the Federal Judicial Center
Law of the United States Constitutional law Courts of the
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