- William Farrar Smith
Smith, known to his friends as "Baldy", was born at
St. Albans, Vermont, graduated from the United States Military Academyin 1845, and was assigned to the topographical engineers. He was twice assistant professor of mathematicsat West Point (1846–48 and 1855–56).
First Battle of Bull Run, Smith served on the staff of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell. On August 13, 1861, he became brigadier general of volunteers after helping organize the First Vermont Brigade. He was brevetted lieutenant colonel in the regular army for his gallantry at the Battle of White Oak Swampin the Seven Days Battles. On July 4, 1862, he received promotion to the rank of major general of volunteers. Smith led his division with conspicuous valor at Antietam, and was again brevetted in the regular army. When his corps commander, Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin, was reassigned to a superior command, Smith was placed at the head of the VI Corps of the Army of the Potomac, which he led at the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg.
The recriminations that followed Fredericksburg led to a famous general order in which army commander Maj. Gen.
Ambrose Burnsideproposed to dismiss several of the senior officers of the army. President Abraham Lincolnprevented this order from taking effect and relieved Burnside of his command instead. Smith was one of the affected officers, but it is to his credit that he did not leave the Army. However, his indiscretion in communicating to Lincoln directly about Burnside's shortcomings, compounded by the fact that General Smith was a close friend of out-of-favor Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, resulted in his losing both his corps command and his rank; the Senate failed to confirm his nomination to major general, which expired on March 4, 1863. So, returned to the rank of brigadier general, he commanded a division-sized force of militiawithin the Department of the Susquehannain Pennsylvaniaduring the critical days of the Gettysburg Campaign, repelling Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuartat a skirmish in Carlisle. Smith's green troops then participated in the unsuccessful pursuit of Gen. Robert E. Leeback to the Potomac River. He followed this in division command in West Virginia.
October 3, 1863, Smith was assigned to duty as chief engineer of the Army of the Cumberland(and a couple of weeks later, the Military Division of the Mississippi). As such he conducted the engineer operations and launched the Battle of Wauhatchie, which opened the "Cracker Line" to provide supplies and reinforcements to the besieged troops in Chattanooga. Of this action the House Committee on Military Affairs reported in 1865 that "as a subordinate, General WF Smith had saved the Army of the Cumberland from capture, and afterwards directed it to victory." Smith was now again nominated for the rank of major general of volunteers, and Ulysses S. Grant, who was much impressed with Smith's work, insisted strongly that the nomination should be confirmed, which was accordingly done by the Senate on March 9, 1864. Grant, according to his own statement "was not long in finding out that the objections to Smith's promotion were well grounded," but he never stated the grounds of his complaint, and Smith, in the "Battles and Leaders" series, maintained that they were purely of a personal character.
Overland Campaignof 1864, Smith was assigned by Grant to command the XVIII Corps in Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler's Army of the James, which he led in the Battle of Cold Harborand the first operations against Petersburg. Smith's corps and a division of black troops (under Edward W. Hinks) were ordered to take the city. Remembering the debacle at Cold Harbor, Smith performed exhaustive reconnaissance. Determining that the section of the defensive line was manned primarily by artillery, he ordered an attack. However, the attack was delayed and in the meantime he became apprehensive about a rumor circulating that Lee was about to arrive. He lost his nerve, perhaps because of the formidable character of the Confederate works or perhaps because of a recurring bout with malaria, but his hesitation may have lost him the opportunity to shorten the war by nearly a year. On July 19, 1864, he was relieved from command of the XVIII Corps and he spent the remainder of the war on "special duty."
Smith resigned from the volunteer service in 1865, and from the U.S. Army in 1867. From 1864 to 1873 he was president of the International Telegraph Company, and from 1875 to 1881 served on the board of police commissioners of
New York, becoming its president in 1877. After 1881 he was engaged in civil engineering work in Pennsylvania. He died at Philadelphiain 1903 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His "Autobiography of Major General William F. Smith, 1861 – 1864" was published posthumously in 1990.
*List of American Civil War generals
* Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., "Civil War High Commands", Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
* Warner, Ezra J., "Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders", Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
* [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/wfsmith.htm Biography at Arlington National Cemetery]
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