Azaria Chamberlain disappearance
Azaria and her mother.
Born 11 June 1980
Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia
Died 17 August 1980
Ayers Rock, Northern Territory, Australia
Known for Disappeared on family camping trip
Azaria Chantel Loren Chamberlain (born 11 June 1980 in Mount Isa, Queensland) was a nine-week-old Australian baby girl, who disappeared on the night of 17 August 1980 on a camping trip to Uluru (also called Ayers Rock) with her family. Her body was never found. Her parents, Lindy and Michael Chamberlain, reported that she had been taken from their tent by a dingo. An initial inquest, highly critical of the police investigation, supported this assertion. The findings of the inquest were broadcast live on television—a first in Australia. Subsequently, after a further investigation and second inquest, Azaria's mother, Lindy Chamberlain, was tried for murder. Lindy was convicted of murder on 29 October 1982 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Azaria's father, Michael Chamberlain, was convicted as an accessory after the fact and given a suspended sentence.
The media focus for the trial was extraordinarily intense and sensational. The Chamberlains made several unsuccessful appeals, including the final High Court appeal. After all legal options had been exhausted, the chance discovery of a piece of Azaria's clothing in an area full of dingo lairs led to Lindy Chamberlain's release from prison, on "compassionate grounds". She was later exonerated of all charges. While the case is officially unsolved, the report of a dingo attack is generally accepted. Recent deadly dingo attacks in other areas of Australia have strengthened the case for the dingo theory.
The story has been made into a TV movie, a feature film, a TV miniseries, a play by Brooke Pierce, a concept album by Australian band The Paradise Motel and an opera by Moya Henderson. There have also been numerous books written about the case.
The initial coronial inquest into the disappearance was opened on 15 December 1980 before magistrate Denis Barritt. On 20 February 1981, in the first live telecast of Australian court proceedings, Denis Barritt reported that the likely cause was a dingo attack. In addition to this finding, Mr. Barritt also concluded that subsequent to the attack, "the body of Azaria was taken from the possession of the dingo, and disposed of by an unknown method, by a person or persons, name unknown".
The Northern Territory Police and prosecutors were dissatisfied with this finding. Investigations continued, leading to a second inquest which was held in September 1981. Based on ultraviolet photographs of Azaria's jumpsuit, Dr. James Cameron of the London Hospital Medical College alleged that "there was an incised wound around the neck of the jumpsuit – in other words, a cut throat", and that there was an imprint of the hand of a small adult on the jumpsuit, visible in the photographs.
Following this and other findings, the Chamberlains were charged with Azaria's murder.
Case against Lindy Chamberlain
The Crown alleged that Lindy Chamberlain had cut Azaria's throat in the front seat of the family car, hiding the baby's body in a large camera case. She then, according to the proposed reconstruction of the crime, rejoined the group of campers around a campfire and fed one of her sons a can of baked beans, before going to the tent and raising the cry that a dingo had taken the baby. It was alleged that at a later time, while other people from the campsite were searching, she disposed of the body.
The key evidence supporting this allegation was the jumpsuit, as well as a highly contentious forensic report claiming to have found evidence of fetal haemoglobin in stains on the front seat of the Chamberlains' 1977 Torana hatchback. Fetal haemoglobin is present in infants six months and younger, and Azaria Chamberlain was nine weeks old at the time of her disappearance.
Lindy was questioned about the garments that the baby was wearing. She claimed that the baby was wearing a jacket over the jumpsuit, but the jacket was not present when the garments were found. She was questioned about the fact that the baby's singlet, which was inside the jumpsuit, was inside out. She insisted that she never put a singlet on her babies inside out and that she was most particular about this. The statement conflicted with the state of the garments when they were collected as evidence. The garments had been arranged by the investigating officer for a photograph.
In her defence, eyewitness evidence was presented of dingoes having been seen in the area on the evening of 17 August 1980. All witnesses claimed to believe the Chamberlains' story. One witness, a nurse, also reported having heard a baby's cry after the time when the prosecution alleged Azaria had been murdered. Evidence was also presented that adult blood also passed the test used for fetal haemoglobin, and that other organic compounds can produce similar results on that particular test, including mucus from the nose, and chocolate milkshakes, both of which had been present in the vehicle where the baby was allegedly murdered.
Engineer Les Harris, who had conducted dingo research for over a decade, said that, contrary to Cameron's findings, a dingo's carnassial teeth can shear through material as tough as motor vehicle seat belts. He also cited an example of a captive female dingo removing a bundle of meat from its wrapping paper and leaving the paper intact. His evidence was rejected, however.
Evidence to the effect that a dingo was strong enough to carry a kangaroo was also ignored. Also ignored was the removal of a three-year-old girl by a dingo from the back seat of a tourist's motor vehicle at the camping area just weeks before, an event witnessed by the parents.
An Aboriginal man gave evidence that his wife had tracked the dingo and found places where it had put the baby down, leaving the imprint of the baby's clothing in the soil. This evidence was discounted, because the man spoke on behalf of his wife, but in the first person, according to Aboriginal custom.
The defence's case was rejected by the jury. Lindy Chamberlain was convicted of murder on 29 October 1982 and sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labour. Michael Chamberlain was found guilty as an accessory to the murder, and was given an 18-month suspended sentence.
An appeal was made to the High Court in November 1983. Asked to quash the convictions on the ground that the verdicts were unsafe and unsatisfactory, in February 1984 the Court refused the appeal by majority.
Release and acquittal
The final resolution of the case was triggered by a chance discovery. In early 1986, English tourist David Brett fell to his death from Ayers Rock during an evening climb. Because of the vast size of the rock and the scrubby nature of the surrounding terrain, it was eight days before Brett's remains were discovered, lying below the bluff where he had lost his footing, in an area full of dingo lairs. As police searched the area, looking for missing bones that might have been carried off by dingoes, they discovered a small item of clothing. It was quickly identified as the crucial missing piece of evidence from the Chamberlain case—Azaria's missing matinée jacket.
The NT Chief Minister ordered Lindy's immediate release, and the case was reopened. On 15 September 1988, the NT Court of Criminal Appeals unanimously overturned all convictions against Lindy and Michael Chamberlain. The exoneration was based on a rejection of the two key points of the prosecution's case—particularly the alleged fetal hemoglobin evidence—and of bias and invalid assumptions made during the initial trial.
The questionable nature of the forensic evidence in the Chamberlain trial, and the weight given to it, raised concerns about such procedures and about expert testimony in criminal cases. The prosecution had successfully argued that the pivotal haemoglobin tests indicated the presence of fetal hemoglobin in the Chamberlains' car, and that it was a significant factor in the original conviction. But it was later shown that these tests were highly unreliable, and that similar tests conducted on a 'sound deadener' sprayed on during the manufacture of the car had yielded virtually identical results.
Two years after they were exonerated, the Chamberlains were awarded A$1.3 million in compensation for wrongful imprisonment, a sum that covered only approximately one quarter of their legal expenses.
The findings of a third coroner's inquest were released on 13 December 1995. The coroner found that
Azaria Chantel Loren Chamberlain died at Ayers Rock on 17 August 1980. As to the cause of her death and the manner in which she died the evidence adduced does not enable me to say. I therefore return an open finding and record the cause and manner of death as unknown.
Media involvement and bias
The Chamberlain trial was the most publicised in Australian history. Given that most of the evidence presented in the case against Lindy Chamberlain was later rejected, the case is now used as an example of how media and bias can adversely affect a trial.
Public and media opinion during the trial was polarised, with "fanciful rumours and sickening jokes" and many cartoons. In particular, antagonism was directed towards Lindy Chamberlain for reportedly not behaving as a "stereotypical" grieving mother. Much was made of the facts that the Chamberlains were Seventh-day Adventists (including false allegations that the church was in fact a cult that killed babies as part of bizarre religious ceremonies), that the family took a newborn baby to a remote desert location, and that Mrs. Chamberlain showed little emotion during the proceedings.
One anonymous tip was received from a man, falsely claiming to be Azaria's doctor in Mount Isa, that the name Azaria meant "sacrifice in the wilderness" (it actually means "blessed of God") ("Azazel" is the name of a wilderness demon to whom a goat was "sent out" in the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur). Others claimed that Lindy Chamberlain was a witch.
The press appeared to seize upon any point that could be sensationalised. For example, it was reported that Lindy dressed her baby in black dress. This provoked negative opinion, despite the fact that in the early 1980s, black and navy cotton girls' dresses were in fashion, often trimmed with brightly coloured ribbon, or printed with brightly coloured sprigs of flowers.
In July 2004, Frank Cole, a Melbourne pensioner, claimed that he had shot a dingo in 1980 and found a baby in its mouth. After interviewing Mr. Cole on the matter, police decided not to reopen the case. He claimed to have the ribbons from the jacket which Azaria had been wearing when she disappeared as proof of his involvement. However, Lindy claimed the jacket had no ribbons on it. Cole's credibility was further damaged when it was revealed he had made further unsubstantiated claims about another case.
The Chamberlains' claim that a dingo had taken Azaria was originally greeted with skepticism by many. Several factors led to this, including a lack of knowledge about dingoes and their behaviour, and the fact that these animals generally live in remote areas and are therefore rarely seen by most Australians. Possibly because of the historical human partiality for domesticated dogs, dingoes were not regarded as a dangerous species.
Since the Chamberlain case, proven cases of attacks on humans by dingoes have brought about a dramatic change in public opinion. It is now widely accepted that, as the first inquest concluded, Azaria probably was killed by a dingo, and that her body could easily have been removed and eaten by a dingo, leaving little or no trace.
Crucial to the change in public opinion was a string of dingo attacks during the late 1990s on Fraser Island off the Queensland coast, the last refuge in Australia for isolated pure-breed wild dingoes. In the wake of these attacks, it emerged that there had been at least 400 documented dingo attacks on Fraser Island alone. Most were against children, but at least two were on adults.
In April 1998, in a scenario strikingly similar to the story told by Lindy Chamberlain, a 13-month old girl was grabbed by a dingo and dragged from a picnic blanket at the Waddy Point camping area. In this case, the child was dropped when her father intervened.
In 2008, the Holden Torana that was tested for Azaria's blood in the original court case was used in the wedding of Aidan Chamberlain, Azaria's brother, who was six when his sister disappeared. Aidan's bride arrived at the ceremony in the car. Aidan's father Michael Chamberlain said he was proud the couple had chosen to use the car that was the centrepiece of the case.
The cause of Azaria's disappearance has not been officially determined. The last official inquest listed the cause of her death as "undetermined". A body has never been found, only various items of bloodstained clothing. The Chamberlains, who were originally convicted, have been officially exonerated by the Court and eventually received some financial compensation. It is estimated that their legal fees exceeded five million Australian Dollars. A fourth inquest is expected to open in 2011.
In August 2005, a 25-year old woman named Erin Horsburgh claimed that she was Azaria Chamberlain, but her claims were rejected by the authorities and the ABC's Media Watch program, who stated that none of the reports linking Horsburgh to the Chamberlain case had any substance.
The Chamberlains divorced in 1991 and Lindy Chamberlain has since remarried. She and her new husband lived for a time in the United States but have since returned to Australia.
The National Museum of Australia has in its collection over 250 items in relation to the disappearance of Azaria Chamberlain, which Lindy Chamberlain-Creighton has helped document in relation to her ordeal. Items include courtroom sketches by artists Jo Darbyshire and Veronica O'Leary, camping equipment, a piece of the dashboard from the Chamberlain family's car, outfits worn by Lindy, the number from her prison door, and the black dress worn by Azaria, which was the cause of so many rumours. The National Library of Australia has a small collection of items relating to Azaria, such as the birth detail record for Azaria Chamberlain and her hospital identification bracelet, as well as a manuscript collection that includes some 20,000 documents, including some of the Chamberlain family's correspondence as well as a large number of letters from the general public.
The story has been written into many different books and accounts.
John Bryson's book Evil Angels was published in 1985. In 1987, Australian film director Fred Schepisi adapted the book into a feature of the same name (retitled A Cry in the Dark outside of Australia and New Zealand). It starred Meryl Streep as Lindy and Sam Neill as Michael Chamberlain. There was some criticism at the time of the casting of an American as Lindy, however most critics were impressed with Streep's performance and ability to master an Australian accent, and Lindy commended the accuracy of the movie and Streep's portrayal. It gave Streep her eighth Academy Award nomination. The story had already been told in an earlier Australian TV docu-drama, Who Killed Baby Azaria? (1983), with Elaine Hudson as Lindy and John Hamblin as Michael, and has since been dramatised as a TV miniseries, Through My Eyes (2004), with Miranda Otto and Craig McLachlan as the Chamberlains. This miniseries was based on Lindy's book of the same name.
In 1990, the Rank Strangers' recording of their song "Uluru", which supported the Chamberlains and called for compensation to be paid to them, finished in the final five of the Australian Country Music Awards in Tamworth, New South Wales. In 2002 Lindy, an opera by Moya Henderson, was produced by Opera Australia at the Sydney Opera House.
The incident has been referred to several times in notable television programs, including:
- Seinfeld in a 1991 episode entitled "The Stranded";
- Frasier in a 1994 episode entitled "Flour Child";
- The Simpsons in a 1995 episode entitled "Bart vs. Australia";
- Family Guy in a 2006 episode entitled "Mother Tucker"; and
- Psych in a 2008 episode named "The Old and the Restless".
The incident was also referred to in the 1994 film, The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert, in which the young boy, Benji, acts out Lindy Chamberlain in a game of charades, as well as the 2008 feature film comedy, Tropic Thunder. Oz's band in Buffy the Vampire Slayer was named Dingoes Ate My Baby.
Australian neoclassical noir band The Paradise Motel's album, Australian Ghost Story, is a concept album based on the disappearance and subsequent case. It was released on 11 June 2010, the 30th anniversary of Azaria's birth.
Richard Davey wrote the play A Cry From The Heart in 1986 - a dramatization of the police interview of Sally Lowe who had been in with the Chamberlains on the night that Azaria disappeared.
- ^ a b "Lindy". Opera Australia. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212002621/http://www.opera-australia.org.au/opera/oaweb.nsf/lookups/5AE17CEABA2741FDCA256A6D0012FB83. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
- ^ Wendy Lewis (2007). See Australia and Die. New Holland. ISBN 9781741105834.
- ^ a b Brian Johnstone (30 October 1982). "All the makings of a classic whodunnit". The Age. http://150.theage.com.au/view_bestofarticle.asp?straction=update&inttype=1&intid=884. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- ^ a b Linder, Douglas O. (2005). "The Trial of Lindy and Michael Chamberlain ("The Dingo Trial"): A Trial Commentary". Famous Trials. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/chamberlain/chamberlainaccount.html. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- ^ Chamberlain Case (High Court Project)
- ^ Azaria's Blood - Evaluating Forensic Evidence and the Azaria Chamberlain Case
- ^ A SYNOPSIS OF THE IDENTITY OF THE SPRAY MATERIAL ON THE DASH SUPPORT BRACKET IN THE CAR OF MR & MS M L CHAMBERLAIN by L N Smith
- ^ Report of Les Harris, Expert on Dingo Behavior, on the Propensity of Dingoes to Attack Humans
- ^ Re Alice Lynne Chamberlain and Michael Leigh Chamberlain v RE II (29 April 1983)
- ^ Chamberlain v RE II High Court Verdict (22 February 1984)
- ^ REFERENCE UNDER s.433A OF THE CRIMINAL CODE BY THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL FOR THE NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA OF CONVICTIONS OF ALICE LYNNE CHAMBERLAIN AND MICHAEL LEIGH CHAMBERLAIN No. CA2 of 1988 Courts and Judges - Criminal Law - Statute (1988) NTSC 64 (15 September 1988)
- ^ Lowndes, John (13 December 1995). "Analysis & Findings of the Third Coroner's Inquest (Finding of Coroner John Lowndes following the third coroner's inquest into the death of Azaria Chamberlain)". Famous Trials: The Lindy & Michael Chamberlain ("Dingo") Trial 1982. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/chamberlain/lowndesreport.html. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- ^ "Lindy Chamberlain". National Library of Australia. http://nationaltreasures.nla.gov.au/index/Treasures/item/nla.int-ex13-s9. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- ^ "Prisoners of a nation's prejudices". Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-06-17. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/prisoners-of-a-nations-prejudices/2005/06/16/1118869038377.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- ^ Linder, Douglas (2005). "The Chamberlain ("Dingo") Trial as Seen by Cartoonists - Note The cartoons reproduced on this page appear in Norman H. Young's Innocence Regained: The Fight to Free Lindy Chamberlain (Federation Press 1989)". Famous Trials: The Lindy & Michael Chamberlain ("Dingo") Trial 1982. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/chamberlain/chamberlaincartoons.html. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- ^ a b "Rock Opera". Sydney Morning Herald. 2002-10-12. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/10/11/1034222592161.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- ^ A Cry in the Night / Fiona Steel (2005)
- ^ Creswell, Toby; Samantha Trenoweth (2006). 1001 Australians You Should Know. Australia: Pluto Press Australia. p. 290. ISBN 1864033614. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=QqtinbjO0oEC&pg=PA290&lpg=PA290&dq=chamberlain+sacrifice+in+the+wilderness+blessed+of+god.
- ^ Leviticus 16:8
- ^ a b "The dress that got tongues wagging and split a nation". Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-09-07. http://www.smh.com.au/news/arts/the-dress-that-got-tongues-wagging-and-split-a-nation/2005/09/06/1125772520045.html. Retrieved 2008-03-26.
- ^ "Azaria Chamberlain's dress". The stories behind the objects for objects appearing in the exhibition Captivating and Curious. National Museum of Australia. 2005. http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/past_exhibitions/captivating_and_curious/the_stories_behind_the_objects/azaria_chamberlains_dress/. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ^ AAP (2004-10-06). "Close Azaria case for good now: Lindy". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/10/06/1096949553799.html. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- ^ AAP (2004-09-06). "Frank Cole makes claims about another murder mystery". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/09/06/1094322711909.html?. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- ^ "Fraser Island dingo attack won't affect tourism". Sydney Morning Herald. 2007-04-19. http://www.smh.com.au/news/travel/fraser-island-dingo-attack-wont-affect-tourism/2007/04/19/1176696962750.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- ^ "Azaria Chamberlain blood car used in brother's wedding". The Daily Telegraph. 2008-02-18. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,23229463-5001021,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- ^ Bonnie Malkin "Australia to open fourth inquest into disappearance of Azaria Chamberlain" (The Telegraph, 11 October 2010)
- ^ A dingo ate their ethics, Media Watch (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 26 September 2005. Retrieved 11 April 2006.
- ^ Chamberlain court drawings, "National Museum of Australia". Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- ^ Lindy Chamberlain-Creighton speaks with Senior Curator Sophie Jensen, National Museum of Australia, 14 October 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
- ^ National Treasures, National Library of Australia. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
- ^ Enker, Debi (2004-11-23). "Trial by fury". TV & Radio (Sydney Morning Herald). http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/11/22/1100972318463.html. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- Negotiating the Meaning of a Scientific Experiment During a Murder Trial and Some Limits to Legal Deconstruction for the Public Understanding of Law and Science by Gary Edmund
- A QUESTION OF INNOCENCE: FACILITATING DNA-BASED EXONERATIONS IN AUSTRALIA by Lynne Weathered
- ABC Mediawatch story on Erin Horsburgh (retrieved 11 April 2006)
- Ace lie / Tony Paynter (1984, ISBN 0-949852-15-5)
- Azaria / Richard Shears (1982, ISBN 0-17-006146-9)
- Azaria: the trial of the century / Steve Brien (1984, ISBN 0-7255-1409-4)
- Azaria! What the jury were not told / Phil Ward (1984, ISBN 0-9591133-0-4)
- Azaria, Wednesday's child / James Simmonds (1982, ISBN 0-9592699-0-8)
- The Azaria Chamberlain case: reflections on Australian identity / by Paul Reynolds (1989, ISBN 1-85507-002-2)
- The Azaria evidence: fact or fiction? / Veronica M. Flanigan (1984)
- The Azaria mystery: a reason to kill / George W. Rollo (198?)
- Azaria newsletter / Chamberlain Information Service
- The Chamberlain case, was justice done? / Robert Lewis (1990, ISBN 0-646-03087-6)
- Le chien du desert rouge / John Bryson (1997, ISBN 2-7427-1271-2)
- The crown versus Chamberlain, 1980-1987 / Ken Crispin (1987, ISBN 0-86760-088-8)
- Dingo innocent: the Azaria Chamberlain mystery / Buck Richardson (2002, ISBN 0-9577290-0-6)
- Evil angels / John Bryson (2000, ISBN 0-7336-1328-4)
- Justice in jeopardy: twelve witnesses speak out / edited by Guy Boyd (1984, ISBN 0-9591142-0-3)
- The making of a modern myth: the Chamberlain case and the Australian media (M.A. thesis) / Belinda Wilson
- New forensic evidence in support of an inquiry into the convictions of M. and L. Chamberlain / Chamberlain Innocence Committee (1985)
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