Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1
External IDs OMIM176385 MGI97479 HomoloGene31097 GeneCards: PAPPA Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PAPPA 201981 at tn.png
PBB GE PAPPA 201982 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5069 18491
Ensembl ENSG00000182752 ENSMUSG00000028370
UniProt Q13219 Q8R4K8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002581.3 NM_021362.1
RefSeq (protein) NP_002572.2 NP_067337.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
118.92 – 119.16 Mb
Chr 4:
64.79 – 65.02 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1, also known as PAPPA, is a protein used in screening tests for Down syndrome.[1][2]

This gene encodes a secreted metalloproteinase which cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). It is thought to be involved in local proliferative processes such as wound healing and bone remodeling. Low plasma level of this protein has been suggested as a biochemical marker for pregnancies with aneuploid fetuses (fetuses with an abnormal number of chromosomes).[2] For example, low PAPPA may be seen in prenatal screening for Down syndrome.[1]



Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A has been shown to interact with Major basic protein.[3][4][5]


  1. ^ a b Breathnach FM, Malone FD (2007). "Screening for aneuploidy in first and second trimesters: is there an optimal paradigm?". Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 19 (2): 176–82. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3280895e00. PMID 17353686. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PAPPA pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1". 
  3. ^ Overgaard, M T; Haaning J, Boldt H B, Olsen I M, Laursen L S, Christiansen M, Gleich G J, Sottrup-Jensen L, Conover C A, Oxvig C (Oct. 2000). "Expression of recombinant human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and identification of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein as its physiological inhibitor". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (40): 31128–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001384200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10913121. 
  4. ^ Overgaard, Michael T; Sorensen Esben S, Stachowiak Damian, Boldt Henning B, Kristensen Lene, Sottrup-Jensen Lars, Oxvig Claus (Jan. 2003). "Complex of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the proform of eosinophil major basic protein. Disulfide structure and carbohydrate attachment". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (4): 2106–17. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208777200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12421832. 
  5. ^ Oxvig, C; Sand O, Kristensen T, Gleich G J, Sottrup-Jensen L (Jun. 1993). "Circulating human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is disulfide-bridged to the proform of eosinophil major basic protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 268 (17): 12243–6. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7685339. 

Further reading

  • Sinosich MJ, Zakher A (1992). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A interaction with heparin: a critical appraisal.". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 32 (2): 72–7. doi:10.1159/000292998. PMID 1721035. 
  • Bischof P, Tseng L (1986). "In vitro release of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) by human endometrial cells.". American journal of reproductive immunology and microbiology : AJRIM 10 (4): 139–42. PMID 2422961. 
  • Bolton AE, Pinto-Furtado LG, Andrew CE, Chapman MG (1986). "Measurement of the pregnancy-associated proteins, placental protein 14 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in human seminal plasma.". Clinical reproduction and fertility 4 (3): 233–40. PMID 2427179. 
  • Sinosich MJ, Saunders DM (1987). "Potential role of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in human reproduction.". J. Reprod. Immunol. 10 (1): 55–65. doi:10.1016/0165-0378(87)90050-7. PMID 2438405. 
  • Tornehave D, Chemnitz J, Teisner B, et al. (1985). "Immunohistochemical demonstration of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in the syncytiotrophoblast of the normal placenta at different gestational ages.". Placenta 5 (5): 427–31. doi:10.1016/S0143-4004(84)80023-5. PMID 6084247. 
  • McIntyre JA, Hsi B, Faulk WP, et al. (1982). "Immunological studies of the human placenta: functional and morphological analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A).". Immunology 44 (3): 577–83. PMC 1554973. PMID 6172371. 
  • Bischof P, Geinoz A, Herrmann WL, Sizonenko PC (1984). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) specifically inhibits the third component of human complement (C3).". Placenta 5 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1016/S0143-4004(84)80044-2. PMID 6203109. 
  • Schindler AM, Bischof P (1984). "Histochemical localization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in fetal, infant, and adult organs and comparison between antisera.". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 18 (2): 88–94. doi:10.1159/000299055. PMID 6207082. 
  • Kristensen T, Oxvig C, Sand O, et al. (1994). "Amino acid sequence of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A derived from cloned cDNA.". Biochemistry 33 (6): 1592–8. doi:10.1021/bi00172a040. PMID 7508748. 
  • Durham SK, Kiefer MC, Riggs BL, Conover CA (1994). "Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 by a specific insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 proteinase in normal human osteoblast-like cells: implications in bone cell physiology.". J. Bone Miner. Res. 9 (1): 111–7. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650090115. PMID 7512304. 
  • Bonno M, Oxvig C, Kephart GM, et al. (1994). "Localization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and colocalization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A messenger ribonucleic acid and eosinophil granule major basic protein messenger ribonucleic acid in placenta.". Lab. Invest. 71 (4): 560–6. PMID 7526035. 
  • Oxvig C, Haaning J, Kristensen L, et al. (1995). "Identification of angiotensinogen and complement C3dg as novel proteins binding the proform of eosinophil major basic protein in human pregnancy serum and plasma.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (23): 13645–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.23.13645. PMID 7539791. 
  • Zorin NA, Zhabin SG, Semenkov NN (1995). "Interaction of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A with serine proteinases.". Clin. Chim. Acta 239 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(95)06098-X. PMID 7586586. 
  • Silahtaroglu AN, Tümer Z, Kristensen T, et al. (1993). "Assignment of the human gene for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) to 9q33.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to mitotic and meiotic chromosomes.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 62 (4): 214–6. doi:10.1159/000133479. PMID 7679961. 
  • Oxvig C, Sand O, Kristensen T, et al. (1993). "Circulating human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is disulfide-bridged to the proform of eosinophil major basic protein.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (17): 12243–6. PMID 7685339. 
  • Haaning J, Oxvig C, Overgaard MT, et al. (1996). "Complete cDNA sequence of the preproform of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Evidence for expression in the brain and induction by cAMP.". Eur. J. Biochem. 237 (1): 159–63. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0159n.x. PMID 8620868. 
  • Lawrence JB, Oxvig C, Overgaard MT, et al. (1999). "The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent IGF binding protein-4 protease secreted by human fibroblasts is pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (6): 3149–53. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.6.3149. PMC 15910. PMID 10077652. 
  • Overgaard MT, Oxvig C, Christiansen M, et al. (1999). "Messenger ribonucleic acid levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the proform of eosinophil major basic protein: expression in human reproductive and nonreproductive tissues.". Biol. Reprod. 61 (4): 1083–9. doi:10.1095/biolreprod61.4.1083. PMID 10491647. 
  • Overgaard MT, Haaning J, Boldt HB, et al. (2000). "Expression of recombinant human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and identification of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein as its physiological inhibitor.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (40): 31128–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001384200. PMID 10913121. 
  • Hourvitz A, Widger AE, Filho FL, et al. (2001). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in human ovaries is restricted to healthy follicles and corpora lutea.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85 (12): 4916–20. doi:10.1210/jc.85.12.4916. PMID 11134163. 

External links

  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M43.004

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A — PAPP A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) ist ein im Rahmen des Double Test beim First Trimester Screening quantitativ im mütterlichen Serum bestimmtes Protein, welches durch Abweichungen von der Norm Hinweise auf eine Fehlbildung beim Feten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • pregnancy — /preg neuhn see/, n., pl. pregnancies. the state, condition, or quality of being pregnant. [1520 30; PREGN(ANT) + ANCY] * * * Process of human gestation that takes place in the female s body as a fetus develops, from fertilization to birth (see… …   Universalium

  • protein — proteinaceous /proh tee nay sheuhs, tee i nay /, proteinic, proteinous, adj. /proh teen, tee in/, n. 1. Biochem. any of numerous, highly varied organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and necessary in the… …   Universalium

  • Protein targeting — This article deals with protein targeting in eukaryotes except where noted. Protein targeting or protein sorting is the mechanism by which a cell transports proteins to the appropriate positions in the cell or outside of it. Sorting targets can… …   Wikipedia

  • Protein S deficiency — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = DiseasesDB = 10814 ICD10 = ICD9 = ICD9|289.81 ICDO = OMIM = 176880 MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 1924 MeshID = D018455 Protein S deficiency is a disorder associated with increased… …   Wikipedia

  • Major basic protein — Proteoglycan 2, bone marrow (natural killer cell activator, eosinophil granule major basic protein) Available structures PDB …   Wikipedia

  • Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy — are the normal adaptations that a woman undergoes during pregnancy to better accommodate the embryo or fetus. They are physiological changes, that is, they are entirely normal, and include cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal and… …   Wikipedia

  • Hypercoagulability in pregnancy — Classification and external resources ICD 10 O22.9, O99.1 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • Anticoagulation in pregnancy — is an issue that occurs in women who are at risk for clot formation and subsequently become pregnant. While the general consensus among physicians is that the safety of the mother supersedes the safety of the developing fetus, changes in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Glossary of terms associated with diabetes — This page lists and explains terms connected with diabetes. NOTOC A *Acanthosis nigricans A brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin, usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.