German warship Scharnhorst (1936)
:"For the German armoured cruiser, commissioned in 1907, see
SMS Scharnhorst""Scharnhorst" was a famous World War II capital ship, the lead of her class, referred to as either a light battleshipor a battlecruiser[The battlecruiser classification came from the Royal Navy, the German Kriegsmarine classification was "Schlachtschiff" ( battleship)] of the German Kriegsmarine. This 31,500 tonne ship was named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorstand to commemorate the World War I armoured cruiserSMS "Scharnhorst" that was sunk in the Battle at the Falkland Islands in December 1914. "Scharnhorst" often sailed into battle accompanied by her sister-ship, "Gneisenau". She was sunk after being engaged by Allied forces at the Battle of North Capein December 1943.
The sisters - "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau"
The ship was built at
Wilhelmshaven, Germany, launched on 3 October 1936, and commissioned on 7 January 1939. The first commander was Otto Ciliax(until 23 September 1939). After initial service, she was modified in mid-1939, with a new mainmastlocated further aft and her straight bow replaced by an "Atlantic bow" to improve her seaworthiness. However, her relatively low freeboard ensured that she was always "wet" when at heavy seas. The gunnery report after the engagement with HMS "Renown" reports serious flooding in the "A" turret that severely reduced its effectiveness. Her armour was equal to that of a battleshipand if it had not been for her relatively small-calibre guns she would have been classified as a battleship by the British. The German navy always classified "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" as "Schlachtschiffe" (battleships). These two ships, considered handsome and fast (with a top speed of 31.5 knots), were invariably mentioned at the same time, often fondly being referred to as "the ugly sisters"Fact|date=August 2008 because they prowled together and wrought havoc on British shipping.
"Scharnhorst"'s nine 28 cm (11 inch; in fact 283 mm - 11.1 inch), main guns, though possessing long range and quite good armour-penetration power because of their high muzzle velocity, were no match for the larger calibre guns of most of the battleships of her day, particularly with the flooding and technical problems that were experienced. The choice of armament was a result of their hasty commissioning.
If a later proposal to upgrade the main armament to six 38 cm (15-inch) guns in three twin turrets had been implemented, "Scharnhorst" would have been a very formidable opponent, faster than any British capital ship and nearly as well armoured. But due to priorities and constraints imposed by World War II and later the war situation, she retained her 28 cm (11 inch) guns throughout her career. Both "Scharnhorst" and her sister were designed for an extended range to allow for
"Scharnhorst"'s first wartime operation was a
sortieinto the Iceland-Faroes passage, which lasted six days from 21-27 November 1939, with "Gneisenau" in which she sank the British Armed Merchant CruiserHMS "Rawalpindi", although her victim fought a tough defensive battle. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnnorthernpatrolattack.html The Attack on the Northern Patrol ] ] The "Rawalpindi's" Captain, Edward Coverley Kennedy (father of naval Historian Ludovic Kennedy[ [http://www.internet-promotions.co.uk/archives/caithness/rawalpindi.htm Against All odds - HMS Rawalpindi] ] ), had been notified at around 15:30 hrs that a large warship had been sighted. Kennedy identified it as the "Deutschland". Sighting another large ship, Kennedy thought it was a British Heavy Cruiser, and hoped it would be Rawalpindi's saving grace. He therefore ignored the warning shots fired by "Scharnhorst". Unfortunately the ship sighted was "Gneisenau", and Kennedy found himself surrounded. The ensuing battle lasted just 15 minutes. "Scharnhorst" eventually sank the ship, killing 238 of the crew, including Kennedy. The German squadron stopped to rescue 38 survivors from the freezing seas. The German commanders on both "Gneisenau" and "Scharnhorst" commented on the bravery of the Captain and his crew. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnnorthernpatrolattack.html Rawalpindi vs Gneisenau and Scharnhorst] ] Operation Weserübung
In the spring of 1940, "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" covered the invasion of
Norway. They engaged the British battlecruiser HMS Renown on 9 April 1940, with inconclusive results.
As a sideline to
Operation Juno, "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" sank the British aircraft carrier HMS "Glorious" and her escorting destroyers "Acasta" and "Ardent" on 8 Juneat around 64 degrees N off Norway. "Scharnhorst's" salvos hit "Glorious" at 16:32, before her torpedo-bombers could be launched. ["Glorious" had been sailing home in a largely unprepared state] "Scharnhorst's" second salvo, at 16:38, struck "Glorious" at the extreme range of 24,000m (26,300yd), one of the longest range hits ever recorded. A "Gneisenau" salvo subsequently hit the bridge.The destroyers had started to lay smoke to protect "Glorious" and themselves. "Ardent" and "Acasta" made continual attempts to launch torpedoes at the German ships. At about 17:39, "Scharnhorst" was hit by one of four torpedoes launched by "Acasta". [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/gallery/gallscharnjuno.html Operation Juno] ] Fifty sailors were killed, 2500 tons of water flooded into her and her aft turret was put out of action. "Ardent" was sunk at around 17:20 having made seven attacks with torpedoes.
Admiral Wilhelm Marschall, aboard his flagship "Gneisenau" ordered "Scharnhorst" to cease fire and wasting ammunition on "Glorious". At this point "Gneisenau" was 4,000 metres closer to "Glorious" than "Scharnhorst". [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnjuno.html Operation Juno] ] "Glorious" sank shortly after 18:30. "Scharnhorst" in company with "Gneisenau" made for Trondheim for repairs, due to their exposed position they were not able to stop to rescue survivors of any of the ships. On the
13 June Fleet Air Arm Blackburn Skuabombers from "Ark Royal" attacked "Scharnhorst" in harbour; only a single bomb struck her.
It was not until
23 Junethat she was able to reach Kieland a dry dock. She remained there under repair for most of the rest of 1940. In late December 1940, "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" attempted to pass through the British blockade into the north Atlantic shipping lanes, but turned back when "Gneisenau" was damaged by heavy seas.
As a result of the action, between 1, 474 and 1, 530 British sailors were killed. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnjuno.html Operation Juno] ]
22 Januaryuntil 22 March 1941, "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" successfully "broke out" into the Atlantic shipping lanes, the first and only time the ship was to do so. Under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens, on 3 Februarythey broke through the Denmark Straitand the next day reached southern Greenland. Convoy HX-106was attacked on 8 February, but the attack was broken off when the Royal Navybattleship HMS "Ramillies" was sighted. Twelve days later, on 22 February, four Allied merchant ships were sighted and sunk east of Newfoundland. By operating in a region of the Atlantic where British air cover was weak to non-existent, the German ships managed to elude the Royal Navy and between the 7th and 9th of March they attacked convoy SL-67, only breaking off the attack when the battleship HMS "Malaya" was sighted.An unescorted convoy of empty and returning tankers was attacked south-east of Newfoundland on 15 March, and the next day another mixed convoy was detected and attacked with the sinking of 13 ships, four by the "Scharnhorst". This was the last engagement before the battlecruisers entered the French port of Brest on 22 March. The "Scharnhorst" sank eight ships with total tonnage of 49,300 out of the squadron's total of 22 ships with a combined tonnage of 115,600 [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnberlin.html Scharnhorst General Information] from [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk www.scharnhorst-class.dk] ] .The Operation lasted exactly two months, and the journey of convert|17800|nmi|km in 59 days was a record for German capital ships. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnberlin.html Operation Berlin] ]
The next few months would see
RAF Bomber Commandattack the ship while berthed. The most successful raid was carried out on 24 July 1941in which "Scharnhorst" was struck by armour-piercing bombs that caused some flooding, along with an 8° list to starboard. The damage took four months to repair. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnbrest.html Air Raids against Scharnhorst at Brest, France in 1941.] ]
The Channel Dash
Whilst in Brest, the German ships were the target of repeated, but poorly organised and somewhat hasty air attacks. In July 1941 the "Scharnhorst" sailed to the port of
La Rochelleto the south of Brest. Having been alerted to the sailing via aerial reconnaissanceand the French Resistance, the Allies were concerned that the "Scharnhorst" was about to commence raiding. They therefore mounted a raid of 15 Handley Page Halifaxbombers from RAF Stanton Harcourt. The resulting bomb damage was serious enough to cause a large amount of flooding. This forced the "Scharnhorst" to return once more to Brest for repairs. The resulting damage from this and other raids, together with the troubles with the defective boiler superheater tubes, kept "Scharnhorst" non-operational into late 1941, when it was decided to send the two battlecruisers and the heavy cruiser "Prinz Eugen" back to Germany. Since it was too risky to attempt this via the North Atlantic, on 11 February– 13 February 1942, the three ships, escorted by dozens of minesweepers and other small craft, made a daring dash — the "Channel Dash" — through the English Channel, called Operation Cerberus, to reach Germany. [cite book|last=Churchill|first=Winston S. |title=The Second World War: The Hinge of Fate|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Company|date=1950|volume=4|pages=81] Caught off guard and under heavy German radar jamming, the British were unable to stop the ships with air and surface attacks, though both "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" suffered mine damage; "Scharnhorst" hitting two mines off Flushing and Amelandand "Gneisenau" one mine off Terschelling. Operation Zitronella
Repair work and grounding kept "Scharnhorst" out of action until March 1943, when she went to northern Norway to join the battleship "Tirpitz" and other German ships threatening the Arctic convoys' route to the
Soviet Union. Training exercises over the next several months climaxed in a bombardment of Spitsbergenon 8 September 1943, together with the "Tirpitz". Operation Ostfront, and Nemesis
On Christmas day 1943, "Scharnhorst" and several
destroyers, under the command of Konteradmiral (Rear Admiral) Erich Bey, put to sea with the purpose of attacking the Russia-bound Arctic convoys JW 55B and RA 55A north of Norway. Unfortunately for the Germans, their orders had been decoded by the British codebreakersand the Admiraltywere able to direct their forces to intercept. The next day, in heavy weather and unable to locate the convoy, Bey detached the destroyers and sent them south, leaving "Scharnhorst" alone. Less than two hours later, the ship encountered the convoy's escort force of the cruisers HMS "Belfast", "Norfolk", and "Sheffield". "Belfast" had picked up "Scharnhorst" at 08:40 and convert|35000|yd|m|-3 using her Type 273 radar and by 09:41, "Sheffield" had made visual contact. Under cover of snow, the British cruisers opened fire. "Belfast" attempted to illuminate "Scharnhorst" with starshell, but was unsuccessful. "Norfolk", however, opened fire using her radar to spot the fall of shot and scored two hits. One of these demolished "Scharnhorst"'s main radar aerial, disabling the set and leaving her unable to return accurate fire in low visibility. "Norfolk" suffered minor damage.
In order to try to get around the cruisers to the convoy, Bey ordered "Scharnhorst" to take a southeast course away from the cruisers. In the late afternoon, the convoy's covering force, including the British battleship HMS "Duke of York", made contact and opened fire. Despite suffering the loss of its hangar and a turret, "Scharnhorst" temporarily increased its distance from its pursuers. The "Duke of York" caught up again and fired again - the second salvo wrecked the "A" turret, detonating the charges in "A" magazine which led to the same in "B" magazine. Partial flooding of the magazines quenched the explosions. No Royal Navy ship received any serious damage, though the flagship was frequently straddled, and one of her masts was smashed by an convert|11|in|mm|sing=on shell. At 18:00 "Scharnhorst's" main battery went silent; at 18:20 another round from "Duke of York" destroyed a boiler room, reducing "Scharnhorst's" speed to about convert|22|kn|km/h|0 and leaving her open to attacks from the destroyers. "Duke of York" fired her 77th salvo at 19:28. [ [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnostfront.html Battle of the North Cape] ]
Battered and crippled as she was, her secondary armament was still firing wildly as the cruiser "HMS Jamaica" and the destroyers "Musketeer", "Matchless", "Opportune", and "Virago" closed and launched torpedoes at 19:32. [Jacobson 2003, p. 6.] The last three torpedoes, fired by "Jamaica" at 19:37 from under two miles (3 km) range, was the final crippling blow.
A total of 55 torpedoes and 2,195 shells had been fired at "Scharnhorst". [Jacobsen 2003, p. 5.]
"Oberbootsmannsmaat" (Petty Officer) Wilhelm Gödde described the scene:
On the deck, all was calm and orderly. There was hardly any shouting. I saw the way the First Petty Officer helped hundreds of men over the rails. The Captain (
Fritz Hintze) checked our life-jackets. Once again before he and the Admiral (Erich Bey) took leave of each other with a handshake. They said to us, "If any of you get out of this alive, say hello to the folks back home, and tell them we did our duty to the last." [Jacobsen 2003, p. 6.]
"Matrosenobergefreiter" (Sailor) Helmut Backhaus describes the moment of sinking:
I stopped and turned in the water to get my bearings. It was then that I saw the keel and propellers. She had capsized and was going down stern first. [Jacobsen 2003, p. 6.]
"Scharnhorst" sank at 19:45 hours on
26 December 1943with her propellers still turning. Of a total complement of 1,968 men, only 36 survivors - none an officer - were rescued from the frigid seas; 30 by "HMS Scorpion" and 6 by "Matchless".
HNoMS "Stord" (
Royal Norwegian Navy) and HMS "Scorpion" fired their torpedoes from an easterly direction. "Stord" fired her eight torpedoes as she was about convert|1500|yd|m|-2 from "Scharnhorst", while also firing with her guns and scoring hits.Fact|date=May 2008
After the battle, Admiral Fraser sent the following message to the Admiralty: "... Please convey to the C-in-C Norwegian Navy. "Stord" played a very daring role in the fight and I am very proud of her...". In an interview in "The Evening News" on
5 February 1944the commanding officer of HMS "Duke of York" said: "... the Norwegian destroyer "Stord" carried out the most daring attack of the whole action...".
Later that evening, Admiral Bruce Fraser briefed his officers on board "Duke of York": "Gentlemen, the battle against "Scharnhorst" has ended in victory for us. I hope that if any of you are ever called upon to lead a ship into action against an opponent many times superior, you will command your ship as gallantly as "Scharnhorst" was commanded today".
Discovery of the Wreck
3 October 2000, the submerged wreck of "Scharnhorst" was located at about coord|72|16|N|28|41|E|, approximately 70 nautical miles (130 km) north-northeast of North Cape at a depth of nearly 300 m and photographed by the Royal Norwegian Navy. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/scharnhorst_04.shtml Discovery of Scharnhorst Wreck in 2000] ]
Otto Ciliax- 7 January 1939- 23 September 1939
Kurt Caesar Hoffmann- 23 September 1939- 31 March 1942
*KzS / KAdm
Friedrich Hüffmeier- 31 March 1942- 13 October 1943(Promoted to KADM 1 October 1943.)
Fritz Hintze- 13 October 1943- 26 December 1943(KIA)
* Jacobsen, Alf R. "Scharnhorst". The History Press Ltd. 2003. ISBN 978-0-75093-404-6
* Breyer, Siegfried. "Battleships and Battlecruisers 1905-1970". (Doubleday and Company; Garden City, New York, 1973) (originally published in German as "Schlachtschiffe und Schlachtkreuzer 1905-1970", J.F. Lehmanns, Verlag, Munchen, 1970). Contains various line drawings of the ship as designed and as built.
* Busch, Fritz-Otto. "The Sinking of the Scharnhorst: The German Account". Cerberus Publishing Ltd. 2005. ISBN 978-1-84145-038-4
* Busch, Fritz-Otto. "The Sinking of the" Scharnhorst. (Robert Hale, London, 1956) ISBN 0-86007-130-8. The story of the Battle of North Cape and the final battle as told by a "Scharnhorst" survivor.
* Claasen, A. R. A., "Hitler's Northern War: The Luftwaffe's Ill-Fated Campaign, 1940-1945". Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001. pp 228-234. ISBN 0-7006-1050-2
* Garzke, William H., Jr. and Robert O. Dulin, Jr., "Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II". (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1985). Includes the design and operational histories, information on the guns, and other design and statistical information about the ship.
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-fornv/germany/gersh-s/scharn2.htmNaval Historical Center, Department of the U.S. Navy public domain publication] .
* [http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server.php?show=nav.3862 Royal Navy: The Second World War 1939-1945]
* [http://www.kbismarck.com/scharnhorst.html "Scharnhorst" Chronology and External Diagrams at KBismarck.com]
* [http://www.scharnhorst-class.dk/scharnhorst/history/scharnberlin.html Operation "Berlin"]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/germany/battleships/scharnhorst/scharnhorst_page_1.htm Maritimequest Scharnhorst Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.military.cz/ww2_ships/Germany/BB/Scharnhorst/scharnhorst.avi Video]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/killerwurm/tags/scharnhorst/ Collection of private photos]
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