History of Aston Villa F.C. (1961–present)
The history of
Aston Villa F.C.from 1961 to the current season covers the fluctuating fortunes of the club during the 1960s and 1970s, the European Cup victory in 1982 and the present day's Premiership club.
The late 1960s was a turbulent time for the club and pressure from fans led to a change of ownership and management. [Ward, Adam, p.100, "...cut little ice with the fans, who pointed the finger of blame unerringly in the direction of the directors' box."] The problems started when the club was relegated from the first tier of English football for the third time, under manager Dick Taylor in 1967. Within two years, pressure from supporters had led to the resignation of the
board of directors. The club was then relegated to the Third Division. In the 1971–72 season Aston Villa returned to the Second Division as champions with a record 70 points. In 1973 Ron Saunderswas appointed manager and by 1977 he had led the club back into the First Division and into European competition. [cite web |url=http://www.avfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/FormerManagersDetails/0,,10265~1157009,00.html |title=Former Managers:1970s |publisher=AVFC.co.uk |accessdate=2008-02-06] [Ward, Adam, p.115, "After finishing in the top four and winning the League Cup, Villa were now back in Europe"] The club was back among the elite and it continued to have much success under Saunders and won the league in the 1980–81 season. Saunders' resignation halfway through the 1981–82 season came as a surprise, with the club in the quarter-final of the European Cup. He was replaced by his assistant manager Tony Bartonwho guided them to 1–0 victory over Bayern Munichin the European Cup final in Rotterdam. [cite web |url=http://www.uefa.com/competitions/UCL/history/Season=1981/intro.html |title=1981–82 season European campaigns |publisher=UEFA |accessdate=2007-07-02] However, winning the cup marked a pinnacle and the club fell steadily down the League standings over the next five years and was relegated in 1987. However, the club was promoted the following year and achieved second place in the Football League in 1989.
Villa was one of the founding members of the Premier League in 1992, and finished runners-up to
Manchester Unitedin the inaugural season. The 1990s was a decade of inconsistency; the club had three different managers and league positions were unpredictable, despite winning two League Cups. [League tables relating to Premiership at Soccerbase] They reached the FA CupFinal for the first time since 1957 in 2000, but lost 1–0 to Chelsea in the last game to be played at the old Wembley Stadium.cite web |url=http://www.thefa.com/TheFACup/TheFACup/History/Postings/2006/01/FACup_History.htm |title=FA Cup history |publisher=Football Association (FA) |accessdate=2007-07-02] Once again Villa's league position fluctuated under various managers and in the summer of 2006, David O'Learyleft under acrimonious circumstances. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/irish/5196872.stm |title=David O leary parts ways with Villa |publisher=BBC |accessdate=2007-07-02] Martin O'Neillsoon arrived and received a rapturous reception. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/birmingham/content/articles/2006/08/07/taylor_oneill_villa_feature.shtml |title=Sport - Fresh hope for Villa? |publisher=BBC, Birmingham |accessdate=2008-01-12] After 23 years as chairman and largest shareholder, owning approximately 38% of the club, Doug Ellisdecided to sell his stake to Randy Lerner, the owner of NFLfranchise the Cleveland Browns. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/5356730.stm |title=Lerner set to complete Villa deal |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-09-27|accessdate=2007-02-03] The arrival of a new owner and manager marked the start of sweeping changes throughout the club, including a new crest, a new kit sponsor and new players in the summer of 2007. [cite news|url=http://soccernet.espn.go.com/news/story?id=407236&cc=5739|title=Villa secure new kit deal with Nike|publisher=ESPNsoccernet |date= 2007-02-07|accessdate=2007-02-27] [cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070706164828/http://www.avfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/CrestTest/0,,10265,00.html |title=New Crest |publisher=AVFC |date= 2007-05-02|accessdate=2007-06-26 (Web Archive)]
Winning the League Cup in 1961 was a pinnacle for the club. Although Villa finished seventh in 1961–62, the following season saw the beginning of a decline in form that would see them finish in 15th place in 1963 and fourth from bottom in 1964. The manager
Joe Mercerparted company with the club in July 1964 because of these results and his declining health. [Ward, Adam, p.97, "Mercer began to suffer ill health and in 1964 he left the club."] His replacement, Dick Taylor, managed to avoid relegation in the 1964–65 season as Villa finished 16th after a poor start to the season. [Ward, Adam, pp.96–97] The following year Villa finished 16th once again. Following a 4–2 final day defeat by Everton the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1966–67 season. Manager Dick Taylor was sacked and Tommy Cummingswas appointed in his place. The decline was not solely the responsibility of the manager; the club had an ageing five-man board "who had failed to adapt to the new football reality." [Ward, Adam, p.98] The club had neither developed a scouting network nor an effective coaching structure. The board had also sold two of Villa's best players, Phil Woosnamand Tony Hateley. [Ward, Adam, p.96 "...but more worryingly the club continued to lose its best players; Phil Woosnam... headed for America and Hateley left for Chelsea."] The fans' calls for the board to resign became more and more pronounced when Villa finished 16th in the Second Division in 1968. Events on the pitch came to a head in November 1968, with Villa lying at the bottom of Division Two; the board sacked Cummings. On 21 November 1968 the problems in the boardroom were highlighted when a board member, George Robinson, resigned. Following his resignation the board issued a statement: " [The board] would make available, by their resignation, such seats as new financial arrangements might require."Ward, Adam, p.100] Aston Villa F.C was up for sale. After much speculation, control of the club was bought by Londonfinancier Pat Matthews, who brought in local travel-agent Doug Ellisas chairman of the new board that was convened on 16 December 1968. Two days later Tommy Dochertywas appointed as manager.
Docherty rebuilt confidence in the team and Villa went on to win five consecutive games and retained a place in the Second Division. In the short time that Docherty had been at the club, attendances rose significantly from a low of just over 12,000 against
Charlton Athleticin December. In the summer of 1969 the first share issue since 1896 raised £200,000 for the club, £140,000 of which was spent on new players. [Ward, Adam, p.102] In the following season, however, Villa took ten games to register a win. By Christmas 1969, Villa were at the bottom of the Second Division and Docherty was sacked. His successor, Vic Crowe, was unable to prevent Aston Villa from being relegated to the third tier of English football for the first time in its history in the 1969–70 season. Despite finishing fourth in the Third Division in the 1970–71 season, Villa reached the League Cup final after beating Manchester United in the semi-final. They were defeated in the final by Tottenham Hotspur 2–0. [cite web |url=http://www.the-english-football-archive.com/domestic_competitions/results/league_cup/1971.htm |publisher=The English Football Archive |title=1971 League Cup Final |accessdate=2007-10-01] The 1971–72 season saw the club return to the Second Division as champions with a then divisional record 70 points. [Ward, Adam, p.106] In the autumn of 1972, there was a revolt in the boardroom and four of the five directors voted to oust Doug Ellis from the board. Within 43 days though, Ellis was reinstated as chairman after he received the support of the largest shareholder Pat Matthews, and the supporters at an EGM, who also voted to replace the existing directors. [Ward, Adam, p.107–108] Their first season back in the Second Division in 1972–73 saw Villa narrowly miss out on a second successive promotion when they finished third. However, the following season Villa finished 14th and Ellis sacked Crowe, replacing him with Ron Saunders. [Ward, Adam, p.108]
For the club's centenary season of 1974–75, Saunders brought in only two new players,
Frank Carrodusand Leighton Phillips. At the end of his first season in charge, Villa were back in the First Division after finishing second, and had won the 1975 League Cup final at Wembley Stadium. Villa beat Norwich City 1–0 with Ray Graydonscoring the winning goal. At the beginning of the 1975–76 season Doug Ellis resigned as chairman but remained on the board.cite news |url=http://sport.independent.co.uk/football/premier-league/article323736.ece |title=Deadly's legacy will have lively potential |publisher=The Independent |author=Shaw, Phil |date= 2005-11-01|accessdate=2008-01-28] Ellis left the club in a good position on the field. They were in the First Division and the UEFA Cupfor the first time due to the League Cup win of 1975. The club's first season of European football was short-lived though as they were beaten 5–1 by Antwerp in the first round. In the following season, Villa finished fourth in the League, and reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup. In the 1976–77 season, two years after their last League Cup win, they beat Everton 3–2 in the 1977 Final played over two legs. [Ward, Adam, p.110]
In the 1977–78 season Villa reached the quarter-final of the
UEFA Cupwhere they went out 4–3 on aggregate against Barcelona. In the domestic league, however, they struggled and Saunders started rebuilding the team. As Saunders began restructuring his team in the summer of 1979, there were more changes in the boardroom. Doug Ellis set a resolution to have several directors removed from the board. The resolution was not successful and as a result, Ellis resigned from the board. Meanwhile, Saunders brought in several new players who were to become some of Villa's most prolific players in terms of goals and appearances. [Ward, Adam, p.118] Allan Evans, Ken McNaughtand Kenny Swainwere brought into the defence and Des Bremnerwas brought into the midfield to play alongside Dennis Mortimerand Gordon Cowans. Tony Morleyand Gary Shawwere the new strike partnership. When Peter Withewas signed from Newcastle United in the summer of 1980, Saunders had built a team that was to see much success in the next few years.
The first success was to come in the 1980–81 season when Villa won their first League Championship for 71 years, fighting off competition from Liverpool and Ipswich using only 14 playing staff in the whole season. [cite web |url=http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,1720956,00.html |work=Observer Sport Monthly |title=Aston Villa, 1981 |author=Adams, Tim |date=
2006-03-05|accessdate=2008-01-28] The next season Villa did not start well and they were in mid-table at Christmas although the club was still in the European Cup. In the first round Villa beat Valur7–0 on aggregate. In the second round they scored twice at Dynamo Berlinto achieve a 2–2 draw, which saw them go through due to the away goals rule. These victories were in contrast to their poor performance in the league. By February 1982, the club were lying 19th in the First Division and Saunders resigned. It was later disclosed that the then chairman, Ron Bendall, had offered him a revised, shorter term, contract, which he had refused to accept.Ward, Adam, p.129] Saunders' assistant Tony Bartonwas promoted in his place. When Barton took over, although Villa were in a poor league position, they were in the quarter-final of the European Cup. In the quarter-finals, they beat Dynamo Kievover two legs. Gordon Cowans is quoted as saying, "Once we got past Dynamo Kiev we began thinking we could go all the way." In the semi-final, they played Anderlecht over two legs, with Tony Morley scoring to secure Aston Villa's place in the final.
European Champions and subsequent decline
On 26 May 1982, just three months after being appointed manager, Barton guided Villa to a 1–0 victory over
Bayern Munichin the European Cup final in Rotterdam. As of January 2008, Villa remain one of only four English teams to have won the European Cup, along with Liverpool, Manchester United and Nottingham Forest. They were the underdogs in the final and were expected to lose. [Ward, Adam, p.124]
The final was held in Feyenoord Stadium, Rotterdam, with an attendance of 39,776. Only nine minutes into the game, Villa lost their experienced goalkeeper
Jimmy Rimmerto a shoulder injury. He was replaced by 23-year-old reserve goalkeeper Nigel Spink, who had only played one match for the club in five years since joining from Chelmsford. Spink went on to make one of his best performances for the club [Ward, Adam, p.131, " [Spink] produced the performance of a lifetime just when it was needed most"] against the highly experienced Bayern strikeforce, which included Karl-Heinz Rummenigge. Other key players in this Villa side included Tony Morley, Gordon Cowansand Dennis Mortimer.Ward, Adam, p.133]
The win was not followed with more success and the team performed badly in the following seasons. At the AGM in October 1982, it was revealed that the club were in £1.6 million of debt, mainly due to escalating wages and building costs, including the construction of the North Stand. [Ward, Adam, p.135] At the end of November Ron and Donald Bendall resigned from the board to be replaced by Doug Ellis, who bought Ron Bendall's 42% shareholding.Ward, Adam, p.133] In January 1983, Villa beat Barcelona 3–1 on aggregate to win the
1982 UEFA Super Cup. Barton remained in charge for two seasons after the European Cup triumph, but was sacked at the end of the 1983–84 season despite Villa finishing 10th in the First Division and reaching the semi-finals of the League Cup. Shrewsbury Town manager Graham Turnerwas brought in as his successor. Turner was unable to reverse the decline, and in 1986 Villa narrowly avoided relegation to the Second Division. A lacklustre start to the following season saw Turner sacked halfway through September. Billy McNeillwas hired in his place, but was unable to save Villa from relegation. They were relegated to the Second Division just five years after winning the European Cup. McNeill handed in his notice and moved to Celtic when the season ended. Chairman Ellis persuaded Watford manager Graham Taylor to take over the reins and set about rebuilding the team. [Ward, Adam, p.149]
Taylor, Vengloš and Atkinson
Taylor's first season at Villa ended with automatic promotion as Second Division runners-up, being pipped to the title by Millwall. One player who contributed to that season's success was the recently signed David Platt, a former Manchester United reserve who had signed from Crewe Alexandra for £200,000 just after Taylor's arrival.Ward, pp.149–152] Before he left in 1991 Platt scored 68 goals in his 155 appearances for the club. Villa avoided relegation on the last day of the 1988–89 season as other results favoured them. In the 1989–90 season they emerged as surprise contenders for the title, leading for three weeks in the latter stages of the season before finishing in second place, nine points behind Liverpool. Taylor departed for the England manager's job and was succeeded by Slovak coach
Jozef Vengloš, the first foreign manager in the First Division. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sport/football/134664.stm |title=Celtic appoints new coach |publisher=BBC |date= 1998-07-17|accessdate=2007-12-12]
The 1990–91 season was Vengloš's only season as manager of Aston Villa. Their second-place finish the previous season earned them qualification for the UEFA Cup as one of the first English clubs to enter European competition after ban resulting from the
Heysel Stadium disasterwas lifted.Ward, p.156] They beat first round opponents Banik Ostravaover two legs, and won the first leg of the second round tie against Inter Milan. However, this lead was overturned by Inter Milan in the return leg 3–0, and Villa were eliminated. The defeat started a decline, and by the end of the season they were two places above the relegation zone. Vengloš stepped down and David Platt was sold to Italian side Bari for £5 million. Aston Villa's new manager was Ron Atkinson, who had taken West Bromwich Albion to the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cupand had won the League Cup with Sheffield Wednesday. In his first season in charge, 1991–92, Villa finished in sixth place and thus became one of the founder members of the FA Premier League. [Ward, Adam, p.161]
Villa in the Premiership
In his first 18 months in charge, Atkinson bought
Earl Barrett, Dean Saunders, Andy Townsend, Dalian Atkinson, Kevin Richardson, Ray Houghtonand Shaun Teale. They all helped the club to finish as runners-up to Manchester United in the inaugural Premier Leagueseason of 1992–93. The strike partnership of Saunders and Atkinson established itself as one of the most successful partnerships in the Premiership. [Ward, Adam, p.162] On 27 March 1994 Villa won the League Cup final 3–1, to secure a second successive UEFA Cup campaign, although their Premier Leagueform dipped and they finished 10th. At the end of the 1993–94 season, they played their last game at a terraced Villa Parkbefore it was converted over the summer to an all-seater stadiumto comply with the Taylor Report. [Ward, Adam, pp.165–166] In November 1994, Atkinson was dismissed following a poor start to the season.
Leicester City's manager Brian Little was forbidden to speak to Aston Villa by their board, after rumours began circulating that Ellis wanted to hire him. Although maintaining that he had not spoken to Ellis about the possibility of taking over at Villa, Little resigned from his post at Leicester even though he was contracted to the club until the end of the 1997-98 season. [Ward, Adam, p.170] Three days after his resignation, Ellis hired him as the new Villa manager. Little kept Villa in the Premiership, and then reshaped the squad in the 1995 close-season by selling most of the club's older players and buying in several younger ones. [Ward, Adam, p.171] Villa won the 1996 League Cup with a win over Leeds United, reached the FA Cup semi-finals and finished fourth in the Premiership in the 1995–96 season. [cite web |url=http://www.avfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/TimelineDetail/0,,10265~1097070,00.html |title=Villa timeline:1990s |publisher=Aston Villa F.C. |accessdate=2008-01-10] In February 1998, with Villa standing 15th in the Premiership and speculation rife that he would be sacked, Little resigned, stating that "There were certain things going on behind the scenes which were affecting my own managerial position."Ward, Adam, p.175] Ellis came out with a statement directly challenging that it had anything to do with the management at Villa Park. Instead, he suggested it was due to a "variety of pressures" including abuse directed towards Little and his family by irate fans. [Ward, p. 176] Ellis appointed John Gregory, a former Aston Villa coach, as Little's successor. Gregory revitalised the team and Villa finished seventh in the Premiership and qualified for the UEFA Cup. Usually, only the top six teams qualified for European competition, but due to the progress of other teams in the top seven it was the first time that a seventh placed club had automatically qualified for the UEFA Cup. Despite the £12.6 million sale of
Dwight Yorke, a player who had scored 97 goals in 287 appearances for the club, to Manchester United in August 1998, John Gregory had guided Aston Villa to the top of the Premiership by the middle of the 1998–99 season. Villa reached the FA Cup final in 2000 for the first time since 1957, but lost 1–0 to Chelsea in the last final to be played at the old Wembley Stadium. The 2000–01 season saw Villa finish eighth in the Premiership, although they did eventually qualify for the UEFA Cup by winning the Intertoto Cupin the summer of 2001. In November 2001, Gregory accused Ellis of "living in a time-warp", but was forced to apologise a few days later after provoking an uproar. [Ward, Adam, p.184] Whilst Gregory remained in his job, the relationship between him and Ellis was strained. [Ward, Adam, p.184, "...the relationship between the two had taken an irrevocable turn for the worse."] Gregory resigned on 24 January 2002, with Villa occupying a familiar mid-table position in the league.
In January 2002 chairman Doug Ellis once again appointed Graham Taylor as manager. Villa finished the 2001–02 season in eighth place, which was similar to most of their other Premiership finishes. Taylor quit as manager for the second time after the end of the 2002–03 season. Villa had just finished 16th in the Premiership, losing twice to arch rivals Birmingham City.
David O'Leary, who had taken Leeds United to the semi-finals of the 2000–01 Champions League, was brought in as Taylor's replacement. O'Leary took the team to sixth in the table, with a 2–0 home defeat against Manchester United on the final day meaning that they narrowly missed out on a UEFA Cupplace. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/irish/5196872.stm |title=O'Leary parts company with Villa |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-07-19|accessdate=2008-02-04| quote=O'Leary took charge of Villa in June 2003 and took the Midlands side to sixth in the Premiership in his first season.] In 2005–06 Villa slowly fell down the table and finished in 16th place. The poor placing came despite O'Leary having spent more than £13 million the previous summer on players such as Milan Baros, Kevin Phillips and Wilfred Bouma. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/4154498.stm |title=Baros completes transfer to Villa |publisher=BBC |date= 2005-08-23|accessdate=2008-01-10]
Frustration within the club soon reared its head when, on 14 July 2006, a group of Villa players criticised the chairman's alleged parsimony and lack of ambition in an interview with a local newspaper. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/5181952.stm |title=Villa dismiss player unrest claim |publisher=BBC |date=
2006-07-15|accessdate=2008-01-31] The club immediately dismissed the report as "ridiculous", but it emerged over the following few days that a group of senior players had indeed instigated the move, possibly with O'Leary's backing. [cite news |url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/0,,1823708,00.html |title=O'Leary on the brink as part in revolt revealed |work=The Guardian |author=James, Stuart |date= 2006-07-19|accessdate=2008-01-28] The following week, David O'Leary left the club by mutual consent [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/irish/5196872.stm |title=O'Leary parts company with Villa |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-07-19|accessdate=2008-01-28] after three years as Aston Villa manager and his assistant Roy Aitkenbecame caretaker manager. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/5197898.stm |title=Aitken at helm after O'Leary exit |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-07-20|accessdate=2008-01-31]
At a press conference on 4 August 2006, Doug Ellis introduced
Martin O'Neillas the new manager and O'Neill said: cquote|It's absolutely fantastic to be back and with a club such as this. This is a fantastic challenge. I am well aware of the history of this football club. Trying to restore it to its days of former glory seems a long way away — but why not try? It is nearly 25 years since they won the European Cup but that is the dream.|20px|30px| Martin O'Neill|"4 August 2006". [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/5246190.stm |title=O'Neill named Aston Villa manager |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-08-04|accessdate=2008-02-04] After several years of speculation and failed bids, the 23-year reign of Doug Ellis as chairman came to an end. Ellis, the largest shareholder with approximately 38%, decided to sell his stake. For many years supporters groups had been urging Ellis to resign, though the actions including two "Ellis out" protests, and an "Ellis out" march marked an increase in intensity. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/4772103.stm |title=Villa fans urging Ellis to resign |date= 2006-05-15|accessdate=2008-01-31 |publisher=BBC] [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/1709493.stm |title=Villa fans plan protest |date=2001-12-13 |accessdate=2008-02-20 |publisher=BBC] The decision to leave the club was likely to have been prompted by Ellis' ill-health. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/4078462.stm |title=Ellis recovering after operation |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-06-13|accessdate=2008-01-28] Randy Lerner, the owner of NFLfranchise, the Cleveland Browns, was announced as the preferred bidder. On 25 August it was announced that he had secured 59.69% of the club's shares. By 26 September 2006 Lerner had achieved a 90% shareholding, and could complete his buy-out of the rest of the shares. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aston_villa/5356730.stm |title=Lerner set to complete Villa deal |publisher=BBC |date= 2006-09-27|accessdate=2007-02-03] Lerner appointed several new people to the Board including General Charles C Krulak. Ellis was given an President Emeritus (Life President) role.
Aston Villa started the 2006–07 Premiership campaign well, [cite news |url=http://soccernet.espn.go.com/columns/story?id=450956&root=england&&cc=5739 |title=O'Neill's reputation on the line |publisher=ESPN |last=Raynor |first=Dominic |date=
2007-08-06|accessdate=2008-02-04] with Olof Mellbergscoring the first competitive goal at Arsenal's new Emirates Stadium. The January signings of Carew, Young, and Maloney bolstered the squad. Villa finished in 11th place in the league with 50 points, ending the season with an unbeaten run of nine league games. [cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/eng_prem/6627777.stm |title=Aston Villa 2–2 Bolton |publisher=BBC |author=Fletcher, Paul |date= 2007-05-13|accessdate=2007-06-26] The last home game of the season, a 3–0 victory over Sheffield United, was used to mark the 25th anniversary of Villa winning the European Cup in 1982. Before kick-off, the 1982 winning team paraded the trophy in front of a full stadium. Scarves bearing the words "Proud History—Bright Future" were given out to all home team supporters attending the match. [cite news |url=http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/2007/05/07/aston-villa-3-0-sheffield-united-89520-19057733/ |title=Aston Villa 3–0 Sheffield United |work=The Mirror |date= 2007-05-07|accessdate=2008-01-12]
2007-08 saw Villa progress further, finishing sixth to qualify for the
Intertoto Cupand give them their first chance of UEFA Cupqualification in seven years.
*cite book |last=Hayes |first=Dean |title=The Villa Park Encyclopedia: A-Z of Aston Villa |publisher=Mainstream Publishing (2 October 1997) |isbn=978-1851589593
*cite book |last=Ward |first=Adam |coauthors=Griffin, Jeremy |title=The essential history of Aston Villa |publisher=Headline book publishing |isbn=075531140X
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