Fort Brown


Fort Brown

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name = Fort Brown
nrhp_type = nhl


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caption = Fort Brown from across the Resaca
location = S edge of Brownsville off International Blvd
nearest_city = Brownsville, Texas
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designated=December 19, 1960
added = October 15, 1966
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refnum = 66000811
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Fort Brown was a military post of the United States Army in Texas during the latter half of 19th century and the early part of the 20th century.

Early years

In 1845, the U.S. Army began construction of a new fort (then known as "Fort Texas") on the northern side of the Rio Grande River. The next year, the fort played a role during the opening of the Mexican-American War. During the Siege of Fort Texas, two Americans were killed, including Major Jacob Brown. In honor of the fallen major, General Zachary Taylor renamed the post Fort Brown. In 1849, the city of Brownsville, Texas, was established not far from the fort's grounds.

Civil War

In 1861 Confederate Col. John "Rip" Ford occupied the fort until 1863 when they were finally driven out by Union forces under General Nathaniel P. Banks, who then camped in tents erected at the fort site. This ended in 1864 when Confederate forces under General J. S. Slaughter and Colonel Ford reoccupied the area. They would hold the post until the end of the war.

Postbellum

From 1867–1869, a permanent fort was constructed under the supervision of Capt. William A. Wainwright.

William C. Gorgas

In 1882, Dr. William Crawford Gorgas was assigned to the hospital at Fort Brown during the height of the yellow fever outbreak. Using Fort Brown as his base of operations, Gorgas studied the disease for several years until he was sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American war.


=Brownsville raid=

On August 13 and 14, 1906, unknown persons "raided" Brownsville, indiscriminately shooting bystanders, wounded one man and killing a townsperson named Frank Natus. The townspeople of Brownsville quickly blamed the black soldiers stationed at nearby Fort Brown and, as such, the Army investigated the matter and concluded that the black soldiers were indeed guilty. William H. Taft, then President Theodore Roosevelt's Secretary of War and soon to be President himself, discharged all 168 black soldiers "without honor". Sixty years later, another investigation was held and the black soldiers had their honor restored. However, by then, only 2 of the original 168 men were still alive. Recent theories have come out regarding who shot up Brownsville. The History Channel's program "History's Mysteries" attributed it to Brownsvillians shooting up the town with rifles using the same caliber ammunition as the soldiers and then framing the soldiers. (Three books have since been written devoted wholly to or partially to the Brownsville Raid, "The Brownsville Raid" and "The Senator and the Sharecropper's Son" by John D. Weaver and "Racial Borders: Black Soldiers along the Rio Grande" by James Leiker.)

First airplane to be attacked by hostile fire

On April 20, 1915, U.S. Signal Corps Officers Byron Q. Jones and Thomas Millings flew a Martin T.O. Curtiss over the fort to spot movements of Mexican Revolutionary leader Francisco "Pancho" Villa. The plane reached an altitude of 2,600 ft. and was up for 20 minutes. It did not cross the border into Mexico, although it was fired upon by machine guns and small arms. These frequent patrols lasted for a period of 6 weeks and were used more effectively in 1916.

124th Cavalry

The troopers stationed at Fort Brown from 1929-45 were from the 124th Cavalry Regiment, Texas National Guard, which became the one of the last mounted cavalry regiment in the United States Army. On November 18, 1940, they went into active military training. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the division served with distinction, dismounted, in the China Burma India Theater, where a member of the unit from Fort Brown earned the theater's only Medal of Honor (awarded to Jack Knight, commanding F Troop).

Decommission

In 1945, Fort Brown was decommissioned. It was acquired by the City of Brownsville and Texas Southmost College in 1948.

References

* [http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/FF/qbf7.html Fort Brown] from the Handbook of Texas Online


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