3 Antiphon


: "This article is about the musical term. See Antiphon (person) the orator of ancient Greece."

An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" + φωνή "voice") is a response, usually sung in Gregorian chant, to a psalm or some other part of a religious service, such as at Vespers or at a Mass. This meaning gave rise to the antiphony style of singing, see call and response.

A piece of music which is performed by two semi-independent choirs interacting with one another, often singing alternate musical phrases, is known as antiphonal. In particular, antiphonal psalmody is the singing or musical playing of psalms by alternating groups of performers. The peculiar mirror structure of the Hebrew psalms renders it probable that the antiphonal method originated in the services of the ancient Israelites. According to the historian Socrates, its introduction into Christian worship was due to Ignatius of Antioch (died 107), who in a vision had seen the angels singing in alternate choirs. In the Latin Church it was not practised until more than two centuries later, when it was introduced by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, who compiled an antiphonary, or collection of works suitable for antiphonal singing (also known as an antiphonal). The antiphonary still in use in the Roman Roman Catholic Church was compiled by Gregory the Great (590). [CathEncy|wstitle=Antiphon]

Antiphony is particularly common in the Anglican musical tradition, where the choir divides into two equal halves on opposite sides of the quire as Decani and Cantoris.

Antiphons are also used as an integral part of the worship in the Greek Orthodox church [CathEncy|wstitle=Antiphon (in the Greek Church)] and the Eastern Catholic churches. [CathEncy|wstitle=Antiphon (in Greek Liturgy)]

The Indian concept "sawal-jawab" ("question" and "answer") can be considered antiphonal. The alteration of individual notes or pitches is hocket.

Antiphon can also be used outside of a strict musical or liturgical context to mean a more general response. When used in this way the word often maintains its religious connotation.

Polychoral Antiphony

When two or more groups of singers sing in alternation the style of music can also be called polychoral. Specifically, this term is usually applied to music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque. Polychoral techniques are a definitive characteristic of the music of the Venetian school, exemplified by the works of Giovanni Gabrieli; this music is often known as the Venetian polychoral style. The Venetian polychoral style was an important innovation of the late Renaissance, and this style, with its variations as it spread across Europe after 1600, helps to define the beginning of the Baroque era. Polychoral music was not limited to Italy in the Renaissance; it was popular in Spain and Germany, and there are examples from the 19th and 20th centuries, from composers as diverse as Hector Berlioz, Igor Stravinsky and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Greater Advent Antiphons

*O sapientia: [http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Liber_Usualis_0340a.mid]
*O Adonai: [http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Liber_Usualis_0340b.mid]


* Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Oxford University Press

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Antiphon — Antiphon, en grec ancien Ἀντιφῶν / Antiphôn (Rhamnos, Attique v. 480–Athènes 410), est l un des dix grands orateurs attiques. Ce sophiste hédoniste s’était spécialisé dans plusieurs domaines de la sophia (la connaissance, le savoir) telle que le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Antiphon — • One or more psalm verses or sentences from Holy Scripture which are sung or recited before and after each psalm and the Magnificat during Matins and Vespers Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Antiphon     Antiphon …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ANTIPHON — quidam scripsit librum περὶ τῶ εν ἀρετῇ πρωτευσάντων, e quo Laertius Diogenes, l. 8. Pythagorae vitam illustrat. Citat eundem, sed περὶ τȏυ βίου τῶ εν ἀρετῇ πρωτευσάντων, Porphyrius, in Vita Pythagorae, et ex illo Cyrillus, l. 10. contra Iulianum …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Antiphon — bezeichnet: Antiphon (Musik), eine bestimmte Form eines Chorals Antiphon (Redner) (480–411 v. Chr.), einen griechischen Redner Antiphon (Sophist) (5. Jhd. v. Chr.), einen griechischen Philosophen und Sophisten. Die Identität mit dem Redner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Antiphon — An ti*phon, n. [LL. antiphona, fr. Gr. ?. See {Anthem}.] 1. A musical response; alternate singing or chanting. See {Antiphony}, and {Antiphone}. [1913 Webster] 2. A verse said before and after the psalms. Shipley. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Antĭphon — Antĭphon, 1) Athener, wollte dem Philippos die athenische Flotte verrathen, deshalb von Demosthenes angeklagt u. 332 o. Chr. hingerichtet; 2) A., aus Rhamnus in Attika, geb. 480 (479) v. Chr., Tragiker, später hochgeachteter Rhetor, war der erste …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Antiphōn — (griech., »Gegenstimme«; franz. Antienne), ursprünglich ein Wechselgesang zwischen zwei Chören, einer der ältesten Bestandteile des altkirchlichen Ritualgesanges. In die griechische Kirche soll den Antiphonengesang der heil. Chrysostomus… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Antiphon — Antiphon, der älteste der zehn »attischen Redner« (s. d.), geb. um 480 v. Chr. in Rhamnus. Ein hervorragendes Mitglied der oligarchischen Partei und besonders bei Einsetzung des Rates der Vierhundert und den Friedensverhandlungen mit Sparta… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Antiphon — Antiphōn (grch.), gottesdienstlicher Wechselgesang zwischen Priester und Gemeinde; im röm. Gottesdienst gegen Solo und Chorgesang zurücktretend; das Antiphonarĭum oder Antiphonāle umfaßt den kirchlichen Gesang überhaupt. In der prot. Kirche hat… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Antiphon [2] — Antĭphon, Verfasser von Gerichtsreden, geb. um 480 v. Chr. zu Rhamnus in Attika, wegen Landesverrats und Beteiligung an der Einführung einer oligarchischen Verfassung 411 zum Tode verurteilt; 15 Reden erhalten, meist erdichtete Fälle behandelnd;… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Antiphon [1] — Antiphon war in alter Zeit die Art des Psalmengesanges, daß die Singenden sich in 2 Chöre theilten, von denen der eine die Verse, der andere aber die Klausel, den Schluß, sang, oder sie fangen abwechselnd den einen und andern Vers; jetzt versteht …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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