- Polonia Restituta
Infobox Military Award
name=Order of Polonia Restituta
caption=Current version of the Commander's Cross Polonia Restituta
Republic of Poland
for=Extraordinary and distinguished service
February 4, 1921
Order Virtuti Militari
Order of the Military Cross
The Order of Polonia Restituta ( _pl. Order Odrodzenia Polski, _en. Order of Poland Reborn) is one of
Poland's highest Orders. The Order can be conferred for outstanding achievements in the fields of education, science, sport, culture, art, economics, defense of the country, social work, civil service, or for furthering good relations between countries. It was established on February 4, 1921and can be awarded to both civilians and soldiers, as well as to foreigners.
The Order of Polonia Restituta is commonly believed to be the successor to the "Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr" (known simply as the
Order of Saint Stanislaus) established by the last King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth- Stanisław August Poniatowski, to honor supporters of the Polish Crown. It was established on May 7, 1765, its number fixed at a total of 100, and required the Knights a payment of fees that were donated to benefit the poor as well as adherence to various rules of chivalry. Due to the rising influence of the Russian Empireon Central European affairs the rules of awarding of the Order were broken. After the Partitions of Polandthe Order was resurrected in the Duchy of Warsaw, bestowing upon its recipients the title of hereditary nobility and requiring donations to a Warsawhospital. After the November Uprisingthe Order was entirely taken over by the Russian Empire.
When Poland regained its independence in 1918 the government abolished this Order due to the severe abuses of its rules by the Russians who often awarded their version to those responsible for the destruction of Poland and Polish culture. Instead the Order of Polonia Restituta was established in order to once again reward the noble values that the original stood for. The Order was established on
February 4, 1921and the first Grand Master of the Order - Marshal Józef Piłsudskiawarded the first Orders on July 13, 1921. The Order also became Poland's main honor for foreigners and was awarded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
World War IIboth the Polish government-in-exileand the People's Republic of Polandwere awarding the Order though the versions differed slightly. Despite communist control the Order's prestige remained safe and it was even given to many people who were hardly model communists. The Order was saved from abuse as it was simply passed over in favor of more traditional communist awards. During this time the Order of Merit of Polandbecame the favored, less prestigious, award for foreigners. On December 22, 1990the Polish government-in-exile returned the rights to its version of the Order to the new Polish state. Invalid awards have been revoked and today the remaining communist versions of the Order hold the same status as any other issues.
The Order has five classes:
The "badge" of the order is a gold
Maltese crossenamelled in white. The obverse central disc bears a white eagle on red background (the Coat of Arms of Poland) surrounded by a blue ring bearing the words "Polonia Restituta". The reverse central disc bears the year 1918 (for the People's Republic of Polandversion, 1944). It is worn on a ribbon, red with a white stripe near the edges, as a sash on the right shoulder for Grand Cross, around the neck for Commander with Star and Commander, on the left chest with rosette for Officer, and on the left chest without rosette for Knight.
The "star" of the order is an eight-pointed silver star with straight rays. The central disc is in white enamel, bearing the monogram "RP" (Republic of Poland) (for the
People's Republic of Poland, "PRL") and surrounded by a blue ring bearing the words "Polonia Restituta".
Among civilian awards the order is second only to the rarely awarded
Order of the White Eagle. Historically the Order entitled its recipient to a state pension. As such nominees for the award are evaluated by a special committee responsible for upholding the honor of the order. The Chapter of Polonia Restituta is composed of a Grand Master and eight members appointed by him who serve five year terms. Upon becoming elected the President of Polandis automatically awarded the order and becomes the Grand Master of the Order Chapter. The names of new recipients are published in the Monitor Polski, a publication required to provide announcements of legal decisions to the public.
Władysław Anders(1892-1970), Polish general and member of Polish government-in-exile in London
Andrzej Butkiewicz(1955-2008), Polish political activist & co-founder of the Student Solidarity Committee
Gerard Ciołek(1909-1966), Polish architect and historian of parks and gardens
Wilm Hosenfeld, German army officer who saved Poles, including Władysław Szpilman, from death
Janusz Korczak(1878-1942), Polish children's author, pediatrician, and martyr in the Holocaust
Douglas MacArthur, American military commander
Jadwiga Piłsudska, Polish aviator, daughter of Józef Piłsudski
Stanislav Poplavsky, general in the Soviet and Polish armies
Edward Rydz-Śmigły(1886-1941), Polish politician, army officer, painter and poet
Władysław Szpilman, Polish pianist & composer
Witold Pilecki, a soldier of the Second Polish Republic and founder of the Secret Polish Army
* [http://www.geocities.com/polishnobles Further Reading on the history of the Order: Order of Polonia Restituta by
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Polonia Restituta — Orden Polonia Restituta der Komtur Klasse Der Orden Polonia Restituta (poln.: Order Odrodzenia Polski, dt.: Orden der Wiedergeburt Polens) ist nach dem Orden vom Weißen Adler die zweithöchste zivile Auszeichnung der 3. Polnischen Republik und war … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Polonia Restituta — … Википедия
Orden Polonia Restituta — der Komtur Klasse Der Orden Polonia Restituta (poln.: Order Odrodzenia Polski, dt.: Orden der Wiedergeburt Polens) ist nach dem Orden vom Weißen Adler die zweithöchste zivile Auszeichnung der Dritten Polnischen Republik und war die zweithöchste… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Order of Polonia Restituta — Current version of the Commander s Cross Polonia Restituta Awarded by Republic of Poland Type … Wikipedia
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Ordre Polonia Restituta — Version actuelle de la croix de Commandeur L Ordre Polonia Restituta (en polonais Order Odrodzenia Polski, en français Ordre de la Renaissance de la Pologne) est l une des plus hautes décorations polonaises. Cette décoration peut être conférée… … Wikipédia en Français
List of recipients of the Order of Polonia Restituta — The List of recipients of the Order of Polonia Restituta includes notable recipients of the Order of Polonia Restituta sorted by their profession. Where possible it also lists their country of origin and order grade. People highly distinguished… … Wikipedia
Polonia (Begriffsklärung) — Polonia bezeichnet den lateinischen Namen für Polen die polnische Diaspora, siehe Polonia den lateinischen Namen für die Landschaft Kleinpolen, siehe Polonia Minor den nationalen Schönheitswettbewerb in Polen, siehe Miss Polonia die zweithöchste… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Награды Польши — … Википедия