Cinder cone


Cinder cone
Schematic representation of the internal structure of a typical cinder cone.

A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent.[1] The rock fragments, often called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly.[1] Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of metres tall.[1] Cinder cones are made of pyroclastic material.

Cinders from a Pleistocene cinder cone, San Bernardino Valley, southeastern Arizona.

Many cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. Lava flows are usually erupted by cinder cones, either through a breach on one side of the crater or from a vent located on a flank.[1] If the crater is fully breached, the remaining walls form an amphitheatre or horseshoe shape around the vent. Lava rarely issues from the top (except as a fountain) because the loose, uncemented cinders are too weak to support the pressure exerted by molten rock as it rises toward the surface through the central vent.[1]

Cinder cones are commonly found on the flanks of shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes, and calderas.[1] For example, geologists have identified nearly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, a shield volcano located on the island of Hawaii.[1] These cones are also referred to as 'scoria cones' and 'cinder and spatter cones.'[1]

Perhaps the most famous cinder cone, Paricutin, grew out of a corn field in Mexico in 1943 from a new vent.[1] Eruptions continued for 9 years, built the cone to a height of 424 metres, and produced lava flows that covered 25 km².[1]

The Earth's most historically active cinder cone is Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.[1] It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano.[1] Since it was born in 1850, it has erupted more than 20 times, most recently in 1992 and 1995.[1]

See also

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cinder Cone —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Cône volcanique. Cinder Cone Photo aérienne en fausses couleurs …   Wikipédia en Français

  • cinder cone — ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY GLOSSARY A volcanic cone built entirely of loose fragmented material (pyroclastics). GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS A small, generally conical shaped volcano formed by accumulation of ejected cinders and other volcanic… …   Glossary of volcanic terms

  • cinder cone — Geol. a small, conical volcano built of ash and cinders. [1840 50] * * * or ash cone Deposit around a volcanic vent, formed by rock fragments or cinders that accumulate and gradually build a conical hill with a bowl shaped crater at the top.… …   Universalium

  • cinder cone — noun a cone formed round a volcanic vent by fragments of lava from eruptions …   English new terms dictionary

  • cinder cone — noun Date: 1849 a conical hill formed by the accumulation of volcanic debris around a vent …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • cinder cone — noun A conical deposit of rock fragments around a volcano …   Wiktionary

  • cinder cone —    A conical hill formed by the accumulation of cinders and other pyroclastics, normally of basaltic or andesitic composition. Slopes generally exceed 20 percent.    GG …   Glossary of landform and geologic terms

  • cinder cone — noun : a conical hill formed by the accumulation of volcanic debris around a vent …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cinder Cone (British Columbia) — Cinder Cone Elevation 1,910 m (6,266 ft) …   Wikipedia

  • Cinder Cone and the Fantastic Lava Beds — Cinder Cone  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Cône volcanique. Cinder Cone Photo aérienne en fausses couleurs …   Wikipédia en Français


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