- In the USA "riot gun" may also mean a riot shotgun.
- 1 Ammunition
- 2 Types of less-lethal launchers
- 3 Legal issues
- 4 Lethality
- 5 Types
- 6 References
- 7 External links
A riot gun or less-lethal launcher is a type of firearm that is used to fire "non-lethal" ammunition for the purpose of suppressing riots. Less-lethal launchers may be special purpose firearms designed for riot control use, or standard firearms, usually shotguns and grenade launchers, adapted to riot control use with appropriate ammunition. Many of them are 37 mm or 40 mm caliber (about 1.5 inches).
Less-lethal launchers can fire various sorts of ammunition:
- Impact projectile. These rely on kinetic energy, e.g. rubber bullets.
- Teargas cartridge, chemical riot control agent.
- Pepper spray, chemical riot control agent.
- Stun ammo
- Smoke round
- Shotgun shell.
- Explosive. Largely for military use.
- Incendiary. Largely for military use.
- GLIMPS (Grenade-Launched Imaging Modular Projectile System). This is a 40 mm caliber projectile which contains a small camera which transmits TV images of what it sees.
To avoid breaking the projectile up, less-lethal cartridges are often propelled by black powder, which when fired may make an eruption of sparks and smoke which is spectacularly large to those accustomed to modern cartridges propelled by more modern propellants: see images at  .
Chemical agent ammunition
Chemical agents may be dispersed in two ways:
This method is the simplest: the chemical agent is in the form of a loose powder, which is expelled by the propellant of the cartridge. These rounds are used at short range, and have effect from the muzzle to a range of about 30 meters (30 yards). This method is best used by operators wearing gas masks, as the chemical agent can easily be blown towards the operator.
These are also called gas grenades, and are used at longer ranges. They are analogous to rifle grenades, providing increased accuracy and range over hand-thrown gas grenades. Gas grenades may be used by operators without gas masks, as the agent is only dispersed in the area of impact, as far away as 150 yards (140 m). The agent in gas grenades is dispersed as a gas or an aerosol spray.
These are specialized gas grenades designed to penetrate light barriers, such as windows, hollow core doors, and interior walls, and disperse chemical agents on the far side.
Impact rounds come in a variety of shapes, sizes and compositions for varying roles. Impact rounds are made out of materials of much lower density than the lead normally used in bullets, are larger, and are fired at lower velocities. Rounds are designed with low mass, moderate velocity, and large surface area to prevent the rounds from penetrating the skin significantly or causing severe injury, so they merely provide a painful blow to the target: but instances have been reported where rubber or plastic bullets have caused significant injuries to the body or eyes, and in some cases caused death.
One broad classification of impact rounds is direct fire and indirect fire rounds. Direct fire rounds can be fired directly at the target, ideally targeted low on the target, away from vital organs that are more prone to damage from the impact. Indirect or skip fire rounds are intended to be fired into the ground in front of the target, where they dissipate some energy, and then rebound into the target.
Baton rounds, often called rubber or plastic bullets, are cylinders made of rubber, plastic, wood, or foam, and are the full bore diameter of the launcher. Baton rounds may fire one long baton, or several shorter batons. Harder or denser baton rounds are intended for skip fire, while softer or less dense batons are intended for direct fire. Baton rounds are the subject of significant controversy, due to extensive use by British and Israeli forces, resulting in a number of deaths.
Beanbag rounds consist of a tough fabric bag filled with birdshot. The bag is flexible enough to flatten on impact, covering a large surface area, and they are used for direct fire. Beanbag rounds may be wide and flat, designed for close range use, or elliptical in shape, with a fabric tail to provide drag stabilization, for longer range use. (See also flexible baton round, a trademark for a type of beanbag round.)
These, also called stinger rounds, consist of a number of rubber balls ranging from around 0.32 to 0.60 inch (8 to 15 mm) in diameter, and are used for direct fire. The small diameter means that each ball contains far less energy than a baton round, but it also limits the range. Rubber slugs, used in 12 gauge firearms, consist of a fin stabilized full bore diameter rubber projectile. These are used for long range, accurate direct fire shots on individual targets.
Pepper-spray projectiles, commonly called pepperballs, are direct-fire paintball-like capsules filled with a pepper spray solution of capsaicin. They provide a longer range, more user-friendly way to disperse pepper spray. Many sorts can be fired from paintball markers. Other sorts are designed to be fired from specially-designed pepperball guns whose muzzle velocity is greater than a paintball marker: if the velocity is not high enough the projectile will not break. As with paintball impacts, the capsule's impact is mildly painful and by itself can discourage rioters, but the pepper spray incapacitates and discourages more rioters than the capsule's impact.
Types of less-lethal launchers
Purpose-built launchers are commonly large bore guns, formerly 25 to 27 mm, modern versions are 37 to 40 mm. Dual purpose guns are usually 12 gauge (18.5 mm) riot shotguns, firing special less-lethal shotgun shells.
Single-shot large bore launchers, such as the Milkor Stopper 37/38 mm riot gun, M79 Grenade launcher and ARWEN ACE, are generally break open designs. The barrels are relatively short, resulting in a carbine sized gun, and may have a shoulder stock and/or a forward handgrip to provide greater control. Pistol launchers do exist, but they are generally only used for short range, muzzle dispersing chemical agents.
Multishot large-bore launchers, such as ARWEN 37, are usually in the form of a revolver holding five or six rounds in the cylinder. Unlike normal revolvers, the cylinder of a revolving riot gun is too massive to be turned easily by the trigger pull, and is usually turned by a pre-tensioned spring or by a pump action.
Shotguns used for riot control are nearly always in 12 gauge, as that is the gauge in which nearly all riot control rounds are made. Generally riot shotguns are used, such as some models of the Remington 870 and Mossberg 500. Due to the reduced power of riot control rounds, there is insufficient energy to cycle the actions of gas operated and recoil operated firearms, so riot shotguns are manually operated, usually pump action. The advantage of using a riot shotgun for riot control is that the shotgun is a dual use firearm, and can switch quickly to and from the riot control role by changing the ammunition. The downside is that it can fire lethal projectiles, and so extra care must be taken in its use to prevent the wrong ammunition from being used.
A recent addition to the class of riot guns is the pepper ball gun, an example of which is the FN 303. This is essentially a paintball marker, either purpose built for riot control, or modified from a commercial paintball marker. The pepper ball guns use special pepper spray ammunition based on paintball technology, consisting of a gelatin capsule filled with the riot control agent. The guns use compressed gas and provide semiautomatic fire, and the pepperballs act just like paintballs, fracturing on impact and splattering the chemical agent on impact. These can be used for direct fire, to break the balls on the target, or indirect fire, breaking near the target and spraying the agent into the target's vicinity.
Police have been known to use paintball guns loaded with paint projectiles, to mark particular rioters so that police can easily identify and arrest them later.
Some weapons discharge teargas as a solution in water: see Category:Teargas solution squirters.
Large-bore launchers are classified as firearms in most countries. Shotguns intended for riot use are semi-automatic shotguns subject to relevant regulations. Riot control ammunition may be restricted in various jurisdictions, to a lesser or greater degree than normal shotgun shells.
In the U.S. large-bore launchers are subject to BATFE regulations. Since firearms over .50 caliber (12.7 mm) with rifled barrels are considered destructive devices under the National Firearms Act, only smoothbore riot guns may be sold to civilians; a common form found on the civilian market are M203 grenade launcher replicas, which can be used to fire 37 mm practice rounds. The 40 mm guns are usually rifled, and may fire 40 mm grenades; explosive grenades rely on the spin both for stabilization and for arming the fuze.
Riot guns have been documented to be lethal in some cases. The death of American baseball fan Victoria Snelgrove is one such incident.
Name Caliber Capacity Notes ARWEN 37 37 mm 5 Drum magazine ARWEN 37S "Shorty" CQB 37 mm 5 Short barrel, no stock ARWEN ACE 1 single shot, telescoping stock CM-55 gas gun 37 mm 1  Cobray 37 mm launcher 37 mm 1  price $150–$200, aluminum barrel, retractable stock Defense Technology 37 mm Launcher 37 mm model dependant single-shot and multi-shot versions, DPMS M-37 flare launcher 37 mm 1  price $200–$400 Federal Labs 37 mm rotary gas gun 37 mm 6  price $1700–$2000, rotary drum magazine, top-folding stock FN 303 18 mm 15 Drum magazine Heckler & Koch launcher 37 mm 1  retractable stock M203 grenade launcher 40 mm 1 underslung attachment for rifles M79 grenade launcher 40 mm 1 break-action MGL-MK1 40 mm multi-launcher 40 mm 6  rotary drum magazine Milkor Stopper 37/38 mm riot gun 37/38 mm 1 break-action MK40 40 mm under barrel launcher 40 mm 1  fits under rifle barrel Ramo RT 37 37 mm 1  MK40 40 mm under barrel launcher 40 mm 1  1-shot, fits under rifle barrel Russian single shot launcher RGM-40 "Kastet" 40 mm 1  1-shot Sage Control Ordnance SL1 37 mm 1  Sage Control Ordnance SL6 37 mm 6 rotary magazine, TW73 1 breech loading
- ^ Belfast Telegraph: RUC cover-up over baton round death of mum, court told
- ^ FM 3-22.31, 40-MM GRENADE LAUNCHER, M203[dead link] section 2-1.
- ^ ARWEN 37 Specification sheeet Police Ordnance
- ^ ARWEN 37S Specification sheet Police Ordance
- ^ ARWEN ACE specification sheet Police Ordnance
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/m5gas.asp
- ^ "37mm.com: Review: CMP Gun Parts 37mm Launchers". 37mm.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080630101928/http://37mm.com/reviews/CMPLaunchers.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/cobray.asp
- ^ http://www.defense-technology.com/launchers.aspx
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/m37arupper.asp[dead link]
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/federalarmsrotary.asp
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/hklauncher.asp[dead link]
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/mgl-mk1.asp
- ^ a b http://37mm.com/launchers/mk40.asp
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/ramo.asp
- ^ http://37mm.com/launchers/rgm40.asp
- ^ a b Sage Control Ordnance - launchers
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Look at other dictionaries:
riot gun — n: a small arm used to disperse rioters rather than to inflict serious injury or death; esp: a short barreled shotgun Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996 … Law dictionary
riot gun — ☆ riot gun n. a small firearm, esp. a short barreled repeating shotgun, used to disperse rioters … English World dictionary
Riot-gun — Arme de police La police utilise un certain nombre d armement spécifique ou emprunté aux forces armées. Parmi ceux ci figurent des : Revolvers Pistolets Sommaire 1 Des modèles spécifiques 1.1 La Carabine de police 1.2 Le fusil de police ou… … Wikipédia en Français
riot gun — noun a firearm designed to disperse rioters rather than to inflict serious injury or death • Hypernyms: ↑firearm, ↑piece, ↑small arm * * * noun : a small arm used to disperse rioters rather than to inflict serious injury or death; especially : a… … Useful english dictionary
riot gun — ri′ot gun n. a gun, esp. a shotgun with a short barrel, for quelling riots rather than inflicting serious injury • Etymology: 1925–30 … From formal English to slang
riot gun — a gun, esp. a shotgun with a short barrel, for quelling riots rather than inflicting serious injury. [1925 30] * * * … Universalium
riot gun — noun Date: 1916 a small arm used to disperse rioters rather than to inflict serious injury or death; especially a short barreled shotgun … New Collegiate Dictionary
Milkor Stopper 37/38 mm riot gun — Milkor Stopper and electric shock baton in use 4 views o … Wikipedia
Riot shotgun — This article refers to shotguns designed for use by law enforcement agencies and private civilians. For related variants intended for military use, see combat shotgun. A riot shotgun is a shotgun designed or modified for use as a primarily… … Wikipedia
gun — I n. 1) to aim; fire; point a gun at smb. 2) to turn a gun on smb. 3) to draw a gun 4) to hold a gun on smb.; to hold a gun to smb. s head 5) to load; unload a gun 6) to man a gun 7) (artillery) to lay ( adjust ) a gun 8) to carry, pack (AE,… … Combinatory dictionary